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How high performance organisations accelerate leadership development


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A report from i4cp on how the best companies develop their leaders.

Published in: Business, Education

How high performance organisations accelerate leadership development

  1. 1. GlobaHow High-PerformanceOrganizations AccelerateExecutive LeadershipDevelopmentAn i4cp ReportStrategy Leadership Talent Culture Market
  2. 2. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentThe five domains ofhigh-performance organizationsAbout i4cpi4cp focuses on the people practices that make high-performance organizations unique. Years of researchmake it clear that top companies approach their workforces differently. At i4cp, we work with our network oforganizations to: Reveal what high-performance organizationsare doing differently. Identify best and next practices for all levelsof management. Provide the resources to show how workforceimprovements have bottom-line impact.Through our exclusive, vendor-free network – in which peerscollaborate to drive strategic research and share tools andinsights – i4cp provides a unique, practical view of how humancapital practices drive high-performance.Visit to learn more.About this reportThis report addresses executive leadership development and how high-performing organizationsaccelerate executives along the path to leadership. It presents the acceleration practices that HPOsfavor, approaches for overcoming obstacles that hinder such efforts, and quotes from surveyparticipants.About the Market Performance Index (MPI)i4cp’s Market Performance Index, or MPI, is based on self-reported ratings of organizationalperformance in four key areas—market share, revenue growth, profitability and customer satisfaction—as compared to the levels achieved five years previously. The average of the four ratings determinesMPI score.
  3. 3. ContentsExecutive leadership development: Finding speed-ups and avoiding speed bumps................................... 1Accelerating executive leadership development ............................................................................................3High-performance organizations favor a portfolio of acceleration approaches.............................................4Internal resources; external institutions..........................................................................................................6Friends who mentor; colleagues who coach...................................................................................................8Time in the limelight; time in the trenches.................................................................................................. 10Recommendations for accelerating leadership development..................................................................... 12Barriers are substantial, even for high-performance organizations ............................................................ 14Tighten accountability .................................................................................................................................. 16Sharpen succession...................................................................................................................................... 18Loosen the borders....................................................................................................................................... 20Recommendations for Breaking Down Barriers to Acceleration................................................................. 22Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................... 24Authors and contributors .............................................................................................................. 26About the survey.......................................................................................................................... 26References................................................................................................................................. 27©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Use of all results, analysis and findings requires explicit permission from i4cp.
  4. 4. Page 1 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)EXECUTIVE SUMMARYExecutive leadership development:Finding speed-ups and avoiding speed bumpsIt takes time to develop a leader—one who can turn a vision into reality, a market laggard into a top-performer,an employee into an ambassador. It takes even more time to develop a team of leaders whose collaborationand synergy can elevate organizational productivity to new heights. Members of i4cp’s working group, theExecutive Leadership Development Exchange, set out to explore how organizations accelerate leadershipreadiness in executives; this report, and the findings of a corresponding survey are the result of thatexploration.First, we sought to learn how seriously organizations were addressing executive leadership development, whichwe defined as “the process to prepare individuals for executive-level roles of VP or higher, above and beyondthe scope of general leadership development processes.” The Accelerating the Path to Leadership Surveyfound that five of six high-performance organizations (HPOs) with 1,000 or more employees have a leadershipdevelopment process in general, and nearly half (46%) offer both a leadership development process and aseparate executive leadership development process. This dual focus is a practice found to be significantlycorrelated to i4cp’s Market Performance Index (MPI).
  5. 5. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 2 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comThe survey also asked respondents if they believed their organizations’ executive leadership developmentprocesses were effective at producing ready, capable leaders. Just 20% of study respondents from HPOs thathave executive leadership development programs judge their efforts as extremely or very effective, with two-and-a- half times as many (48%) estimating their processes to be moderately to fairly effective. This may reflectan acknowledgement that leadership skills aren’t being acquired quickly enough to create robust successionpipelines.We got to the heart of the matter when we examined the practices used by respondents from HPOs toaccelerate leadership talent development, as well as the factors that hinder their organizations’ leadershipacceleration efforts. We sought out which practices HPOs favor, which differentiate HPOs from LPOs, and whichare correlated to market performance.High-performing organizations offer a balanced approach to developing leadership talent: They access internal resources as well as external institutions to provideleadership development learning content. They call upon trusted individuals for mentoring as well as professionalcolleagues for coaching. They utilize high-visibility assignments as well as hands-on developmentalopportunities.These firms have insight into the barriers that keep leadership acceleration at bay and readily acknowledgewhat they’ve identified: Lack of enforced accountability on the part of leaders, inadequate succession plans,and inflexible organizational structures are some of the key obstacles cited that need to be addressed.Building on i4cp’s first report from this study, Accelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path toLeadership, this report shifts the focus from high-potential employees to a broader view of executive leadershipdevelopment. In addition to the research findings, this report includes observations and insights from studyparticipants. A subsequent report will follow, including interviews with executives detailing stories of their own“journey to leadership” experiences—what worked, what didn’t, and their personal reflections on executivedevelopment.Together, this knowledge provides organizations with data, recommendations and insight on the practices thathigh-performing organizations use to accelerate executive leadership development.
  6. 6. Page 3 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)ACALL FOR ACTIONAccelerating executiveleadership developmentLeadership development has long been in the spotlightas a corporate priority, appearing on i4cp’s list of the top10 critical human capital issues for the past four years,as noted in Building a Change Ready Organization:Critical Human Capital Issues 2013. As the businessworld demands more speed and agility, the need toaccelerate leadership development is garnering moreattention.The sense of urgency is compounded in organizationsthat are expecting large proportions of their workforcesto reach retirement age within a few years. Thiseffectively reduces the number of senior leaders tomentor replacements as well as the population ofmanagers, directors and other executives who mightotherwise have risen to take their places.Therefore, fully preparing rising executives forleadership roles is a task that many firms have realizedneeds immediate attention. This call to action presentsseveral challenges, including determining the bestapproaches for developing executives as well asidentifying and overcoming the obstacles that hold backthe acceleration needed.Those firms that succeed in accelerating executiveleadership development will find their efforts arecorrelated to higher market performance. For example,creating a separate executive leadership developmentprocess to prepare individuals for executive-level rolesof VP or higher (above and beyond the scope of ageneral leadership development process) is a practicethat is significantly correlated to both marketperformance and to executive leadership developmenteffectiveness.Organizational impact ofacceleration of leadershipdevelopment on i4cps fivedomains of high performanceLeadership – ELD acceleration builds a cadre ofleaders at multiple levels, from work teams toentire business units, who demonstrate strongleadership principles and create a robustsuccession pipeline.Strategy – It fortifies the executive team withleaders who can draw from intellectual andexperiential learning to analyze issues, makedecisions, and lead teams toward results.Talent – It provides the leadership needed toidentify, develop and engage critical talent poolsand continue the cycle of leaders developingfuture leaders.Culture – It creates a business environmentthat nurtures the development of leaders,values the potential that each employee bringsto the organization, and attracts/retains talent.Market – It amplifies the company’s reputationfor products/services with a brand that alsosignifies excellence in leadership, creating valuefor stakeholders and customers.Despite the clear and compelling benefits ofdeveloping executive leaders, many companiesstruggle to muster the necessary resources,sustain top-level commitment and implementthe strategies required to build leadershipbench strength. This report highlights thosepractices shown to speed up the developmentof executive leaders and identify ways to avoidor overcome the most common obstacles thatget in the way.
  7. 7. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 4 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comHigh-performanceorganizations favor aportfolio of accelerationapproachesOrganizations that pride themselves on their marketperformance know that business success comes aboutthrough the alignment and synergy of multiple facets ofthe enterprise—spot-on strategies, tight financialcontrols, innovative marketing, well-oiled operations,engaged human capital and more. These high-performance organizations (HPOs) carry that broadapproach into the ways they address executiveleadership development.Approaches HPOs favorThe study asked about the extent to which participants’organizations used 11 practices to accelerateemployees on the path to leadership. In the pages thatfollow, we’ll examine those used by HPOs to the highestextents (very high/high) as well as the practices thatmost differentiated HPOs from LPOs and thosecorrelated to market performance. Internal and external resources – The studyfound that HPOs find value in both in-houseleadership development training as well asexternal academic or leadership developmentprograms. Mentors and coaches – The use of formal orinformal mentors was found to be a bigdifferentiator for HPOs in the study, and the useof coaches—from superiors, peers or externalcoaching professionals—was found to be highlycorrelated to market performance. High-visibility and hands-on learning – Studyparticipants value getting exposure to the boardof directors as well as opportunities to engagein experiential/action learning. Both arepractices that differentiate HPOs from LPOs.Eleven leadershipacceleration practices studied1. Conventional in-house leadershipdevelopment training program2. Coaching (from superiors, peers, externalcoaching professionals)3. External academic or leadershipdevelopment training program4. Informal learning (learning that takesplace without a conventional instructorand outside of structured training)5. Formal or informal mentoring6. Exposure to board of directors (guest atmeetings, face time, etc.)7. In-role development (short-term stretchassignments, practice using newcompetencies in current assignments,etc.)8. Multi-rater feedback to increase self-awareness9. Leadership assessment instrument10. Experiential or “action” learning (games,exercises, simulations, role-play, physicalactivities, case studies, etc.)11. Rotation to another majorSBU/function/geographic location
  8. 8. Page 5 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Two other study findings bear examination:Informal learningIt is worth mentioning that informal learning (learningthat takes place outside of structured, traditionaltraining) is an approach that HPOs value. One-quarter(25%) of HPOs use informal learning to a high/very highextent, making it the #4-ranked leadership developmentacceleration practice in this study.In a study i4cp conducted in conjunction with ASTD,practices found to be correlated with the occurrence ofinformal learning included sharing best practices(successes) and sharing lessons learned(errors/corrections). In fact, Social and InformalLearning: Strategy Into Bottom-Line Results (2009),notes that sharing best practices had the strongestprediction of market performance.Organizations sometimes overlook the importance of informal learning, but the collaboration and relationship-building that occur during informal learning may well be as important as the knowledge-sharing itself. Suchday-to-day learning may occur through planned discussions, quiet observations, processes shared via internalsocial networking platforms, social commentary on who to go to for what, and other types of non-organizedactivities that never-the-less deliver critical information to potential leaders. Informal learning may also be aneffective approach for knowledge transfer between generations or from experienced leaders to rising leaders.A surprising area of neglectOne acceleration strategy often touted as a must-have developmental experience returned a lukewarmresponse in this study. Rotation to another major strategic business unit, function or geographic location wasthe least popular approach used by HPOs, with just 11% of respondents reporting that their organizations usedsuch rotations to a high/very high extent.
  9. 9. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 6 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comIn their own wordsHere’s how one study participant simplified astrategy for leadership development: “Identifyand define competencies needed for leadership.Create specific learning interventions forbuilding knowledge, skills, and abilities in thoseareas. Perform assessments to see how peopleare doing on delivering business results. Identifythe gaps and make the interventions availableas needed.”Internal resources; external institutionsThere is a strong desire within organizations to be able to create and deliver leadership development programsthat are just right for producing executive talent: programs that aren’t too big and expensive or too small andinadequate. The hope is that by creating internal development programs, leaders will reflect the companyculture, the industry knowledge, and the differentiating skills that will bring the organization a competitiveadvantage.The desire to leverage respected external programs offered through academic and/or professionaldevelopment vendors is also a pull. This study found that HPOs value both approaches.HPOs rely most on internal resources to develop executive leadersThe survey found that conventional in-house leadershipdevelopment programs are the go-to approach for thelargest proportion of HPOs. Such in-house training istypically delivered in a classroom setting which providessuch advantages of ease of access for attendees, theopportunity to build relationships with co-workers andconvenient follow-up with instructors. But the proximityto one’s daily work can often interfere with immersion inthe training.In fact, a recent study i4cp completed in conjunctionwith the American Management Association bears outthe popularity of traditional leadership development. In Global Leadership Development 2013: Everybody’sGame, organizations still look to traditional instructor-led classroom training as their number one source fordeveloping leadership skills. It was the top approach cited by more than half of HPOs for addressingexecutives’ skills in such competencies as change management and critical thinking/problem solving.In this study on accelerating executive leadership development, nearly half of HPOs favor conventional in-house leadership development programs to a high/very extent, making it the top developmental approachused by HPOs (and LPOs). While this approach doesn’t show a correlation to market performance,organizations seem to favor the control they have over the content and delivery of home-grown programs.In-house leadership training isthe #1 development approachfavored among HPOsHigh performers46%*Low performers52%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey#1
  10. 10. Page 7 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Academic institutions and external development programs also garner HPOs’ attentionWhile many organizations covet the Ivy-league leadership programs offered by respected business schools ofrenowned academic institutions, cost can be a factor. Firms need to weigh the investment against the reward—not an easy concept with which to grapple. Institutions named by study participants include Harvard, Wharton,Stanford and others. More respondents simply pointed to university programs with MBAs as popular sourcesfor external development. Such academic programs can be valuable resources for developing the broadbusiness foundation that is important for leaders to master, but many executives join firms with such aneducation already under their belts. Executive MBA programs from elite institutions may be more heavily usedfor developing top-level leaders.Other HPOs decide on using off-the-shelf leadership development programs created by professionaldevelopment vendors. Such decisions allow companies to avoid the cost of developing and delivering their owntraining and to reap the benefit of having participants mingle with executives from other companies, industries,and locations, thereby exposing them to new perspectives.In either case, these external academic and leadership development training programs are the third mostpopular approach for accelerating executive development (to a high/very high extent), differentiating HPOsfrom LPOs by 5.6 percentage points.Using outside institutions is the thirdmost popular development approachfor HPOsHigh performers27%*Low performers22%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey20%DIFFERENCE
  11. 11. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 8 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comFriends who mentor; colleagues who coachIndividuals aspiring to leadership roles understand that they’ll need to build on the knowledge and strength ofothers to attain the skills needed to lead effectively. Those others may include mentors and coaches. Whilesome use the terms interchangeably, mentors and coaches serve very different purposes: A mentor is a strategic career advisor who typically focuses on the individual, providing guidance andadvice on the broader area of work life. For example, a mentor may advise an executive on how toexpand his or her network, suggest good sources for foreign language learning or connect the menteewith a contact for a public speaking engagement. A coach is a hands-on advisor on developing specific leadership skills who typically focuses on thetask, providing an individual with approaches for building and practicing skills needed forperformance. For example, a coach may work with an executive on softening his approach toperformance improvement discussions with direct reports or sharpening her negotiating skills withvendors.High-performance organizations ensure that rising leaders have access to both types of support. The use ofmentoring and coaching each proved to be a differentiator between HPOs and LPOs in our study.Mentoring as a strategy to guide rising stars differentiates HPOs from LPOsOf the 11 practices studied for accelerating leadership development, formal/informal mentoring delivered thelargest percentage point differentiation between HPOs and LPOs. HPOs are 1.8 times more likely than LPOs touse mentoring to a high/very high extent.With formal mentoring, the organization may facilitate the pairing of experienced and rising leaders. Thementoring assignments may have a fixed time span—and training in mentoring would likely be provided—sincethe organization, as well as the mentee, expects to benefit from the assignment.In informal mentoring, the relationship may be initiated by either the mentor or the mentee or even by a thirdparty who recognizes the potential in the match-up. Training is unlikely to be a part of an informal mentoringpairing, but some relationships can last a lifetime.Mentoring producedthe highest differentialbetween HPOs and LPOs,nearly 10 percentage pointsHigh performers23%*Low performers13%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey56%DIFFERENCE
  12. 12. Page 9 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)In their own wordsHere’s how one study participant summed upthoughts on the right support: “There is nosubstitute for a rising executive having a moreexperienced leader to look up to and learn from.Having a good developer of leaders as one’smanager would be worth 10 programs.”Coaching by colleagues is the go-to approach of HPOsto develop and hone leadership skillsCoaching (from superiors, peers, external coaching professionals) is the #2-ranked approach used by HPOs foraccelerating employees on the path to leadership. What’s more, the study finds the use of coaching to besignificantly correlated to market performance (.19**). Findings show a differentiation of 8.4 percentagepoints between HPOs and LPOs that use coaching to a high/very high extent.Often coaching is expected to be provided via superiors, although this expectation is less prevalent atexecutive levels. While the use of coaching is clearly valued, respondents also admitted that managers of high-potential employees weren’t all that effective at providing that coaching, as presented in i4cp’s reportAccelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path to Leadership (2013). More than half (51%) ofrespondents said that leaders who are ineffective at coaching and managing their hi-pos are the top hindranceto the success of high-potential development programs, This provides clear evidence that providing leaderswith adequate training on how to coach effectively is critical to both coach and coachee.Peer coaching, with the relationship feeling morecollaborative than with coaching from superiors, can bean effective option with some levels below the rank ofsenior executives. Take care to ensure that peercoaches are taking assignments voluntarily and thatthey are provided with training on coaching techniques.This training should also include how to lead in a virtualenvironment, given the growth of virtual and globalteams.The use of external coaching professionals is another option and, likely, the most relevant to executives. Whenthe “build or buy” question arises, organizations may want to consider engaging professional coaches for risingleaders rather than calling upon current executives. The use of such external coaches provides severaladvantages: they are not ingrained in the politics of the organization, they are certified in the intricacies ofcoaching, and they are accustomed to bringing out the best in a wide variety of personalities, including thosewho resist coaching.Coaching is the practice most highly correlatedto market performanceHigh performers43%*Low performers35%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey21%DIFFERENCE
  13. 13. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 10 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comTime in the limelight; time in the trenchesThere is a time to rise and shine, and there is a time to buckle down and get dirty. To truly accelerate executiveleadership development, organizations must provide executives with opportunities for both. Our study findsthat development blossoms when it’s balanced by a combination of high-visibility assignments and hands-onchallenges.HPOs give rising leaders ample opportunities to shineRising leaders value high-visibility assignments that give them an opportunity to shine in front of importantpeople, such as the board of directors. In fact, exposure to the board of directors (such as by being an invitedguest at a meeting or having face-to-face time) is the acceleration practice that provided the third highestdifferentiation (7.5 percentage points) between HPOs and LPOs using such exposure to a high/very highextent.The chance to provide project results to directors at a formal board meeting gives rising executives anopportunity to polish presentation skills, demonstrate expertise and field questions. It’s also an effective wayfor board members to connect a name with a face. Another way to increase the visibility of rising workplacestars is to connect them with community leaders in philanthropic efforts. This allows up-and-coming executivesto hone their leadership skills by practicing them in a different context.One and a half times as many HPOs as LPOsuse board exposure to accelerateleadership developmentHigh performers21%*Low performers13%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership SurveyHPOs ensure that future leaders have learning opportunities beyond their own jobsThe use of hands-on assignments that leverage experiential/action learning is yet another accelerationapproach that differentiates HPOs from LPOs (by 5.2 percentage points), the fourth-highest differentiatoramong the 11 practices.Such experiential or action learning goes beyond on-the-job learning and includes activities like games,exercises, simulations, role-play, physical activities, case studies and other hands-on methods of developmentthat are designed to build skills and traits needed in senior positions. These various methods of developmentoffer their own advantages in specific settings: Business simulations play an integral role in experiential learning, especially at the senior executivelevel. Disney ABC Television Group, an i4cp member, delivers a 2 ½ day business simulation as one ofthe modules in the 4-part Disney Executive EDGE (Essential Development Growth and Expertise)program. “This simulation is successful because it is as real-to-life-as-possible and challenges47%DIFFERENCE
  14. 14. Page 11 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)In their own wordsHere’s how one study participant summed upthoughts on the ideal development combination:“Coaching, mentoring and action learning incombination are the three best approaches foraccelerating the development of executiveleadership capabilities.”participants in leading large, complex organizations and making critical decisions that driveprofitability,” noted Clare O’Brien, director of learning & development. Disney developed this programthrough rigorous interviews with over 40 senior executives and partnership with a steering committeemade up of the CEO and presidents from each business unit. Physical activities, such as ropes courses, build team camaraderie, confidence, and trust. Companiessuch as 3M Unitek, Farmers Insurance Group, and Mattel have participated in such activities with LosAngeles-based firm Fulcrum Adventures, one firm offering ropes courses as part of its indoor/outdoorteam-building experiences. Case studies allow participants to exercise theirbrains and analyze why specific actions workedor didn’t work. The Boeing Company (an i4cpmember) uses an internally developed onlineapplication to support collaboration andknowledge transfer across the enterprise asindependently contributed content, or asgroups. The Facebook-like application includescontributions from subject matter experts andcommunities of practice. Games and exercises provide a fun way to reinforce important concepts. Firms such as i4cp memberMicrosoft Corporation, Procter & Gamble, Qwest Communications and Hewlett-Packard haveparticipated in such programs with Peak Experiences International, Inc., just one of the companiesproviding experiential learning activities such as a “silo” experience examining group dynamics and a“maze” experience using strategic planning and collaborative decision-making.Offering a variety of hands-on development approaches ensures that participants build skills regardless of theirpreferred learning style.Experiential/action learning is another practice thatdifferentiates HPOs from LPOs by more thanfive percentage pointsHigh performers18%*Low performers13%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey32%DIFFERENCE
  15. 15. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 12 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comRecommendations for accelerating leadership developmentRecommendations Actions BenefitsFully leverage internallearning expertise andexperienced executives whencreating in-house leadershipdevelopment programs. Offer in-house developmentprograms via a variety ofmodalities: traditionalclassrooms, virtual classroomsor online classes. Leverage internal socialnetworking platforms to identifyinternal expertise. Involve senior leaders indesigning content for programsand participating as guests inthe delivery of training. Providing a choice of learningmodalities increases the appealto various generations, leading tobetter engagement and retentionof the content. Facilitates passing on the wisdomof experienced leaders andprovides opportunities for risingleaders to connect with seniorleaders.Encourage mentor/menteerelationships, both formaland informal. For a formal mentoring program,create a database of willingmentors supplemented by videointroductions. For informal mentoring, providementees with training on how tospecify goals, propose atimeframe and go for the“ask.” Even though it’s difficult to isolatequantitative results frommentoring programs, increasedsatisfaction and retention of keytalent are two relevant measures. Mentees who are clear aboutwhat they want to accomplish willfind it easier to connect with theright mentor.Personalize coaching for thespecific development needsof individuals.* Select external coaches basedon relevant business experience,recommendations from trustedsources, an interview andvalidated client results. Match coaches and coachees onpersonality fit as well as thecoach’s expertise/issue fit. Interviews and validated clientresults are the selection criteriamost highly correlated tocoaching success. Avoids the #1 reason coachingassignments are terminated:coach/coachee mismatches.
  16. 16. Page 13 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Recommendations Actions BenefitsFacilitate exposure tocorporate leaders andthought leaders to buildconfidence and networks. Ensure that executives beingdeveloped have opportunities tomanage projects and schedulethose executives to present asynopsis of results to theexecutive team or board ofdirectors. Seek out opportunities for risingleaders to attend high-profilebusiness or community functionsto make new connections. Sharpens presentation skills andQ&A responses as well as helps tocreate or deepen relations withsenior leaders. Builds visibility in the largerbusiness community, enhancingpersonal and professionalreputation.Offer experiential/actionlearning to practice and honenew skills. Develop simulations and role-play exercises based on true-to-life scenarios. Document important businesstransactions or decisions as casestudies to be reviewed andanalyzed. Provides an opportunity to try outand practice valuable andrelevant new skills without risk. Gives rising leaders a glimpse atdecision-making with incompletedata and ambiguouscircumstances.Source: i4cp’s Coaching: What Really Works Playbook
  17. 17. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 14 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comBarriers are substantial,even for high-performanceorganizationsThe portfolio of executive leadership developmentapproaches presented in the first half of this reportprovide high-performance organizations with a wealthof strategies for accelerating leadership development.However, these HPOs are also cognizant of thechallenges they face that hinder such acceleration.Three pockets of hindrances existOur study asked participants about 17 factors that mayinhibit their organizations from accelerating employeeson the path to leadership.Of these 17 hindrances, six rose to the top, with morethan one-third of respondents from HPOs indicatingthese barriers as hindering them to a high/very highextent. These six factors fell into three pockets ofhindrances: Inadequate accountability among leaders –Our study found that leaders aren’t beingadequately held accountable for developingtheir direct reports, a factor with a high negativecorrelation to market performance. What’smore, their coaching skills were perceived asinadequate as well. Weak succession plans – One of the tophindrances to acceleration was having asuccession plan that just didn’t reach downfar enough into the organization. Further,respondents told us that leaders weren’tbeing held accountable for adhering tothose succession plans. Rigid silos – Functional or business silos werefound to have a negative correlation withmarket performance. Even in HPOs, suchorganizational barriers were keeping firms fromleveraging job rotations to their advantage.Seventeen hindrances toaccelerating leadershipdevelopment studied1. Leaders are not held accountable fordeveloping their people2. Succession plan does not reach downfar enough in the organization3. As an organization, we don’t userotations to our advantage to broadenknowledge4. Leaders are not held accountable foradhering to the succession plan5. As an organization, we are not goodenough at coaching6. Functional or other business silos7. Lack of a succession plan8. As an organization, we are not goodenough at mentoring9. No follow-up to training10. Lack of budget11. Training provided is not relevant to needs12. Lack of talent mobility13. No formal mechanism for progressingdiverse candidates to leadership roles14. No formal mechanism for progressingwomen to leadership roles15. Lack of CEO support16. No defined leadership competencies17. Inability to demonstrate ROI
  18. 18. Page 15 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Barriers caused by lack of leadership developmentbudgets and inability to demonstrate ROITwo factors related to spending bear examination, even though less thanone-quarter of respondents from HPOs selected these barriers.First, the lack of budget (for leadership development) produced thehighest negative correlation to market performance (-.26**) as well asthe largest differentiation between HPOs (23%) and LPOs (52%). Thissuggests that effective leaders are a driver of market performance andinvestment in development is a driver of effective leaders. While wecan’t point to causation to say that lack of spending on leadershipdevelopment leads to low market performance, we can point to therelationship between the data and see that LPOs are 77% more likelythan HPOs to say a lack of budget for leadership development is ahindrance to leadership acceleration to a high/very high extent. Thisreflects a lack of commitment and ability to invest in and developexecutive leaders.Second, the inability to demonstrate return-on-investment (ROI forleadership development) is a large differentiator, with 2.5 times moreLPOs (35%) than HPOs (14%) seeing it as a hindrance. This difficulty indemonstrating ROI may well be related to the state of or lack of ameasurement mindset in an organization. Just 26% of respondents fromLPOs use a formal measurement tool to determine the effectiveness ofexecutive leadership development efforts to at least a moderate extent,compared with 45% of HPOs.This research identified three strategies that organizations can use toovercome or avoid entirely the hindrances to executive leadershipdevelopment.
  19. 19. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 16 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comTighten accountabilityThe aforementioned observances on lack of budgets and inability to demonstrate ROI for leadershipdevelopment relate to another failure of commitment, that of lack of accountability. The study found thisaccountability issue rearing its head more than once. Respondents said: Leaders aren’t being adequately held accountable for developing their people. Organizations aren’t ensuring sufficient coaching skills in managers. Leaders aren’t being held accountable for adhering to succession plans—a factor that’s presented more fully in the next section.This perceived lack of leader accountability is a red flag, warning HPOs that superficial treatment ofdevelopment can’t be tolerated. Enrolling rising executives in leadership development programs and havingthem earn a certificate is not the objective. Nor is rolling out a coaching initiative without providing managerswith the proper training to coach their direct reports effectively. Accountability can only come by stating specificexpectations up-front and comparing results to expectations, granting rewards and meting out consequencesas appropriate.Hold leaders accountable for developmentThis transgression of not holding leaders accountable for developing their people is the top hindrance amongrespondents from organizations with 1,000 or more employees, even among the HPOs. Within those HPOs, it istied (with shallow succession plans) as the top hindrance to the acceleration of leadership development.What’s more, it has a significant negative correlation (-.24**) with market performance, the second highestnegative correlation to MPI among the 17 factors studied. This suggests that addressing this barrier couldboost market performance for HPOs and LPOs alike.More than half of HPOs have flagged this loose end as problematic to a high/very high extent. It’s clearly notenough to send individuals off to attend leadership development programs and consider one’s job done. Whilethe participants certainly also hold responsibility for their own development, leaders need to be heldNot holding leaders accountable for developingtheir people is seen as the top hindranceto accelerating employees on the path toleadership and has one of the highestnegative correlations to market performanceHigh performers51%*Low performers61%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey
  20. 20. Page 17 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)In their own wordsHere’s how one study participant summed upthe need for accountability: “Senior leaders[must be] held accountable. A significant portionof their annual bonus [should be] tied toachieving specific objectives towardacceleration.”accountable for ensuring that the expected development has occurred and remedying the situation if it hasnot. Does the problem lie with the student? The program content? The instructor? The leader must carefullyaudit what’s hindering development, then take the appropriate steps to correct it.Develop critical coaching skillsIf coaching rising executives is being handled internally,as opposed to being delivered by external coachingprofessionals, those doing the coaching must beinstructed in all the nuances of coaching. Yet 35% ofrespondents from HPOs say to a high/very high extenttheir organizations just aren’t that effective at coaching.This message came through loud and clear in i4cp’sAccelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path toLeadership report, where more than half (51%) of HPOs said having leaders of hi-pos that were not effective atcoaching/managing them was the #1 hindrance to the success of their hi-po development programs.Regardless of whether an individual is labeled a hi-po or not, each employee from entry-level to executivedeserves to have coaching for skills development and performance improvement conducted by someone withthe skills and temperament to effect behavior change.Even in HPOs, more than one-third say theirfirm’s coaching skills are inadequateHigh performers35%*Low performers39%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey
  21. 21. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 18 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comSharpen successionSuccession planning is listed among the top 10 human capital issues of critical importance in 2013 and hasmaintained prominence on that list the past four years, according to i4cp’s most recent iteration of its annualanalysis, Building a Change Ready Organization: Critical Human Capital Issues 2013. But recognizing theimportance of succession planning and addressing it well are two different issues. While 73% of respondentsto the critical issues study said succession planning was important, just 25% said they were effective at it.i4cp’s research on accelerating leadership development bears out this need for more effective successionstrategies. Respondents noted problems in two key areas: succession plans that didn’t go deep enough andleaders that didn’t adhere to the succession plans made. These strategic misses put the organization at riskfor being unprepared for sudden departures and for eroding trust in leaders among succession candidates.Create deeper succession plansInadequate or superficial succession plans tied (with leaders not being held accountable for the developmentof their people) as the top hindrance to accelerating leadership development for HPOs. Demonstrating just howpervasive this problem is, it is also the #1 hindrance for LPOs to a high/very extent, with an 18.4 percentagepoint differential.While the critical issues study showed about half of HPOs (54%) were taking their succession planninginitiatives two layers below the executive level, just one-third (34%) of LPOs had done so. In fact, HPOsincluded succession planning for executives and non-executives alike among their top 10 issues in 2013.Driving succession plans down further into the organization supports the position that critical roles existthroughout the firm, not just at the executive level. What’s more, it identifies the candidates whosedevelopment needs to be accelerated, the key competencies that need to be strengthened and a timetable forproducing ready-to-serve succession candidates.Shallow succession plans top the list ofleadership acceleration hindrancesHigh performers51%*Low performers70%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership SurveyAdhere to the succession plan createdJust as devastating as not having adequate succession plans is putting such plans in place and then notadhering to them. Even among HPOs, a sizeable proportion of respondents say that not holding leadersaccountable for sticking to the succession plan is a hindrance to leadership acceleration to a high/very highextent. This lack of adherence to the succession plan could be due to pipeline candidates that are not yetadequately prepared for a move, making acceleration of development all the more important.31%DIFFERENCE
  22. 22. Page 19 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)In their own wordsHere’s how one study participant summed upthoughts on succession: “A consistent planneeds to be put in place that will be aligningsuccession and talent development initiatives.For this plan to be effective, the support of alllevels of management is absolutely necessary.”When an executive vacancy is filled with someone otherthan a planned successor (either external or internal), itsets off a chain of negative reactions. First, the plannedsuccessor gets an unpleasant surprise. Next, successioncandidates for the planned successor’s position arestymied for movement. This could continue down as faras the succession plan goes and possibly beyond. Also,the actual successor (who was not on the plan) may faceresentment from colleagues whose sense of fair playhas been disturbed. If the successor is external, that person may have greater than normal difficult gettingestablished and accepted, which is already a sizeable challenge for executives sourced from outside. If thesuccessor is an internal candidate that was not on the succession list, the credibility of the whole successionprocess becomes suspect and trust in the executive team could erode. In other words, breaking withsuccession plans can be a costly faux pas. This issue is a little less prevalent among HPOs, suggesting that theother 56% of HPOs are creating succession pipeline candidates that are ready to be moved when a successionevent occurs and, therefore, are less likely to experience this hindrance.More than four in 10 organizations say that notholding leaders accountable for adhering to thesuccession plan is a hindrance to accelerationHigh performers44%*Low performers48%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey
  23. 23. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 20 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comIn their own wordsHere’s how one study participant summed upthoughts on the right developmentalassignments: “[Use a] strategic staffingapproach that links development and jobassignments that both rotate the individualthrough key positions and develop the portfolioof experiences necessary for executiveleadership.”Loosen the bordersOur study makes one other point crystal clear: the organization needs to think and act as a unit when it comesto talent. Siloed thinking, selfish motives and protective actions won’t elevate organizational performance tothe level it might otherwise reach. Talent belongs to the organization, not to any single business unit orindividual manager.One-third of HPOs admit that functional or business silos are getting in the way of accelerating executiveleadership development. Even more say they’re not using rotations to the organization’s advantage as astrategy for broadening knowledge. These hindrances prevent rising executives from gaining the broadbusiness perspective or global immersion that might ready them for promotion opportunities.Collaborate on increasing opportunities to offer rotationsJob rotations to another function, another business unit or another geographic location can provide risingexecutives with knowledge and experience they would not be able to acquire in their own little corner of theircorporate world. Yet even HPOs (more than 40%) say to a high/very high extent they are not adequatelyleveraging such opportunities.One culprit is an ownership mentality about talent.Managers with exceptional employees want to keepthem, not send them away to learn more or get snatchedup for a promotional opportunity. Another is the “not-my-job” mentality—managers may be wholly focused on theperformance and productivity of their own employeesand aren’t warm to the idea of developing an ongoingrotation of visitors to train and monitor. Both types ofthinking inhibit the creation of job rotation opportunitiesand, with it, the further development of key talent.Not leveraging rotations is the only hindrance that is moreof an issue for HPOs than LPOsHigh performers44%*Low performers39%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership SurveyRid the organization of siloed thinkingThe inability to expand one’s sense of responsibility beyond one’s job has a detrimental effect on corporateperformance. In fact, having too many functional or business silos produced the third highest negativecorrelation (-.22**) to market performance of the 17 hindrances studied.
  24. 24. Page 21 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)The keys to overcoming this thinking involve leveraging systems-thinking, technology and rewards. Usesystems-thinking (enterprise-wide awareness of opportunities) to create assignments that can produce usefuldeliverables that serve the dual purpose of also building new skills or honing current ones. Use technology toconnect executives seeking broader learning opportunities with leaders in other business units or geographiclocations that could provide them. Use appraisal and rewards to acknowledge efforts of managers activelyfacilitating the development of others.Organizations struggling withfunctional/business silossee a negative correlationwith market performanceHigh performers33%*Low performers61%**To a high/very high extentSource: i4cp’s Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey60%DIFFERENCE
  25. 25. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 22 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comRecommendations for breaking down barriers to accelerationRecommendations Actions BenefitsBuild accountability intoleaders’ performanceexpectations andcompensation plans. Include audit processes andspecific success measures inleaders’ accountabilities fortheir staff’s development. Reward leaders who successfullydevelop direct reports; redress orreplace those who have notaccomplished this. Clarifies the quantity, quality andtimeframes of leadershipdevelopment expected in directreports. Reinforces a message to leadersthat development is a keyaccountability and creates aculture where learning is prized.Ensure qualified, experiencedcoaches for executivedevelopment. Internally, use role-plays to buildcoaching skills such as listening,probing and giving feedback. Externally, research sources ofcertified professional coaches toselect those whose style andsubstance match yourorganization. Create a coaching bank ofmanagers with specific expertisethat can be called upon whenneeded, such as negotiationcoaches, performanceimprovement coaches orglobal acumen coaches. Builds coaches’ confidence whichhelps build coachees’ trust in thecoaches. Rising executives benefit fromexpert coaching in how tonegotiate, how to deal withdifficult people, how to present abusiness case and other keyskills. Ensures the ability to provide just-in-time coaching so that thosewho need it get it from someonewith coaching talent and subjectmatter expertise.Design doable successionplans and timetables andstick to them. Involve the executive team andhuman capital professionals increating a succession plan thatdetails which positions requiresuccession candidates, howmany potential successors areto be named for each, and theprocess for selecting anddeveloping potential successors. Create a specific timetable forassessing and developing eachpotential successor as well as a“Plan B” for emergencysuccessions. Allows organizations to begin thelengthy process of preparingpotential successors. Succession transparency in suchplans may boost engagement andretention of potential successors. Ensures sufficient time todetermine developmental needs,provide relevant learningexperiences and bring successorsto a state of readiness.
  26. 26. Page 23 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Recommendations Actions BenefitsMake the scope of rotationstrategies and possibilitiesenterprise-wide Create and promote a process forbusiness unit leaders to identifyshort-term (< one year)developmental rotationassignments and the criteria forapplying for consideration. Pilot the rotation project, getfeedback from assignmentleaders and participants, thenmodify as needed and roll-outsystem-wide. Encourages cross-organizationallearning opportunities. Creates transparency ofopportunities and criteria. Provides means to report andtrack rising leaders’ developmentactivity and progress. Promotes systems-thinking interms of building corporate talent.Eliminate siloed thinking andreward enterprise-thinking. Cultivate organizational-thinkingabout job rotations, encouragingmanagers to create assignmentsthat will produce a deliverablethat adds value. Leveragetechnology to facilitate thematching of assignments withrising executives seekingdevelopment. Create reward systems that offera financial bonus to managerswho actively facilitate thedevelopment of others. Provides a win-win, with managersgaining new departmental resultsthat current staff may not havetime to deliver and risingexecutives gaining valuabledevelopmental experience inanother function, business unit orlocation. Acknowledges the efforts putforth by managers to promoteorganizational bench strength byactively facilitating leadershipdevelopment in rising executives.
  27. 27. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 24 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comAccelerating executiveleadership development adds"budget and years" to "blood,sweat and tears."ConclusionAccelerating executive talent toward leadershipreadiness is no small challenge. It is a process that adds“budget and years” to “blood, sweat and tears.” Butorganizations that master the portfolio of learningexperiences that pave the way for leaders as well as theforesight to avoid common barriers to effectiveleadership development can, indeed, create a pipeline ofready leaders.Using the “Audit, Act, Accelerate” approach outlined in our initial report from this study, Accelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path to Leadership, i4cp offers the following actionable strategies for acceleratingexecutive leadership development:Audit.Objectively assess how well your organization preparesexecutives for key leadership roles.Ask yourself these questions: Has the content of your in-house leadership development programkept pace with the challenges faced by today’s organizations? Does the off-the-shelf leadership development program offered byyour vendor adequately address the specific needs of yourorganization? Do you have the right coaches and leaders grooming your risingexecutives? Are you enabling opportunities for rising leaders to havemeaningful access to senior executives and the board of directors? Is your organization using a variety of hands-on experiences toallow rising executives to learn and practice critical skills?
  28. 28. Page 25 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)Act.Build, upgrade or buy the programs and resources neededto produce the cadre of future leadership talent yourorganization requires. Customize a competency model that reflects what it willtake to bring your organization success in the comingdecades. Create learning opportunities that specifically buildthese future competencies. Acquire vetted external resources for initiativesrequiring expertise that is not readily availablewithin the organization.Accelerate.Create a strategy for executive leadership accelerationthat will ready your organization for succession events. Create a specific succession plan that defines thenumber of prepared successors desired for eachposition and the levels in which such successorswill be named. Establish a development plan and timetable for eachsuccession candidate. Analyze the effectiveness of processes used and modifyas needed to ensure that the acceleration strategy ismoving the organization to a state of perpetual readiness.As a consistent entry on i4cp’s annual list of critical issues, leadership development is a key factor in creating astrong, sustainable, high-performing organization. This audit-act-accelerate model can guide firms in achievingthat status.
  29. 29. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 26 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comAuthors and contributorsDonna Parrey is a senior research analyst for i4cp and the author of this report. Donna is the lead researcherfor the i4cp Executive Leadership Development Exchange. She received her MS in Management from theUniversity of South Florida and has an extensive background in human resources as a business partner,director and generalist prior to joining i4cp. Donna may be reached at DiRomualdo, VP of research, oversaw development of the findings discussed in this report. Lorrie Lykins,managing editor and director of research services, edited this report; Eric Davis, i4cp’s senior editor, providedgraphic design and proofing.Several i4cp staff members provided background research and other support for this report. Thanks to JoeJamrog, who provided research support, and Andrew Dixon, who provides research coordination and managesi4cp’s surveys.i4cp’s Executive Leadership Development ExchangeThis survey is a product of i4cps Executive Leadership Development Exchange group. This group is comprisedof representatives from the following organizations:AT&T Pitney BowesCargill PNC Financial Services GroupConAgra Foods SGSDeloitte Services SunTrustFederal Reserve Board ToyotaPenske Zebra TechnologiesOur gratitude and appreciation go out to the exchange group contributors whose dedication to the study ofexecutive leadership development made this research project possible. Their time and expertise were essentialin the production of the initial survey instrument, in the final analysis of the data and in the source material forthe case studies.About the surveyThe findings in this report are from the Accelerating the Path to Leadership Survey conducted by i4cp andfielded in October/November 2012. Responses from 337 participants were analyzed in 2012/2013, and thedata in this report reflect responses from organizations with 1,000 or more employees.
  30. 30. Page 27 | ProprietaryTime-to-full-productivityHow High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership Development©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp)ReferencesFulcrum Adventures. for Corporate Productivity. (2013). Accelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path toLeadership.www.i4cp.comInstitute for Corporate Productivity. (2012). 2012 Accelerating the Path to Leadership. Interactive Data.www.i4cp.comInstitute for Corporate Productivity. (2013). Building a Change-Ready Organization: Critical Human CapitalIssues 2013. www.i4cp.comInstitute for Corporate Productivity. (2008). Coaching: What Really Works. Playbook. www.i4cp.comInstitute for Corporate Productivity. (2009). Peer Coaching: Pulse Survey Results. www.i4cp.comInstitute for Corporate Productivity. (2009). Social and Informal Learning: Strategy Into Bottom-Line Results.www.i4cp.comPeak Experiences International, Inc.
  31. 31. How High-Performance Organizations Accelerate Executive Leadership DevelopmentProprietary | Page 28 ©2013 Institute for Corporate Productivity (i4cp) www.i4cp.comThe Executive Leadership Development Exchangei4cp is grateful for the contributions of i4cp’s Executive Leadership Development Exchange, a researchworking group of peers representing several of the largest organizations in the world, who helped craft oursurvey on Accelerating the Path to Leadership. This report is the second published from the study.Other recently released reports on human capital issues that are available exclusively to i4cp memberorganizations include:AVAILABLE NOWAccelerating High-Potential Employees on the Path to LeadershipIn this first report from the Accelerating the Path to Leadership study, i4cp addresses the identification anddevelopment of high-potential employees, specifically examining how high-performance organizations(HPOs) approach this development. It presents a five-step framework for accelerating the development ofhigh-potential employees toward leadership readiness.AVAILABLE NOWPurpose-Driven Performance Management in High-Performance OrganizationsIn this report, i4cp addresses performance management processes, practices and technology solutions,specifically examining how high-performance organizations (HPOs) approach performance management(PM). It reveals the five differentiating components of HPOs that lead to the development of a “purpose-driven” performance management systemAVAILABLE NOWHR Analytics: Why Were Not There Yeti4cps HR Analytics: Why Were Not There Yet examines the use of predictive analytics, common obstaclesin using HR data and the ability of organizations to tie HR data to business outcomes. Recommendationsbased on the findings of the report follow an examination of each key data point.AVAILABLE NOWThe Future of HR: The Transition to Performance Advisori4cps The Future of HR: The Transition to Performance Advisor combines in-depth research with insightsfrom international HR leaders to reveal the next steps in HRs strategic evolution.
  32. 32. Peers. Research. Tools. Data.i4cp enables high performance inthe world’s top organizations.Contact us at:1-866-375-i4cp (4427)or at