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I See You, You Can't See Me: On People's Perception About Surveillance In Post Totalitarian Romania

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I See You, You Can't See Me: On People's Perception About Surveillance In Post Totalitarian Romania

  1. 1. Doina Balahur (FEBA) , Adrian Iftene (FCS) LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi “ Al.I.Cuza” University “ Al. I. Cuza”, University of Ia s i, Rom a nia Facult y of Computer Science (FCS) Faculty of Economics and Business Administration (FEBA)
  2. 2. LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  3. 4. <ul><li>Our activity over Internet is carefully monitored ( link s, keywords used in queries , the computers on which we connect the Internet , etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them have to making our life easier, and others can report anti-social or harmful to society ( such task the Wikipedia Vandalism from CLEF2010 ) </li></ul><ul><li>It is up to the invocation of national security (after 11 September) and to the interests of big companies </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  4. 5. <ul><li>There are resources available from Yahoo (Cries task from Clef 2010) or from Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo!Questions and Answers (Surdeanu M., M. Ciaramita, H. Zaragoza, ACL 2008) aim is to identify human experts in a field </li></ul><ul><li>A study on the use of social networks StudiVZ, Facebook and MySpace - Social Networking Sites and the Surveillance Society (C. Fuchs, 2009) </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  5. 6. <ul><li>We want to find out users’ opinions on various products or events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I want to buy a certain product (eg iPhone). What are the strengths and weaknesses of it are? What say persons who have used it already? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenon flu “ AH1N1 “. To make or not make flu vaccine? What are the benefits of the vaccine? What are the unintended side effects ? </li></ul></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  6. 7. <ul><li>It is based on three main components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexing with Lucene Nutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search texts and their classification according to the feelings and opinions found in them </li></ul></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  7. 8. Internet surveillance Opinions identification User query Local index Emotion Triggers Negations, Emphasizes and Diminishing words Consumer opinions - Paragraphs ( +/- ) - NEs
  8. 9. <ul><li>Google API , Yahoo API </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networks (MySpace, Facebook, Twitter ) </li></ul><ul><li>We initially had performance issues (because we prefer Wikipedia pages) </li></ul><ul><li>Solution : we added additional criteria to prefer blogs, forums, or areas that allow to add personal comments and opinions </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  9. 10. <ul><li>Romanian researchers working on English, Spanish, the Romanian (Dan Tufiş, Rada Mihalcea, Alexandra Balahur) </li></ul><ul><li>Other researchers (Carlo Strapparava, A. Montoyo) </li></ul><ul><li>Used techniques involve disambiguation, the use of SentiWordNet resources, identify triggers feelings, etc. </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  10. 11. <ul><li>Based on the resources from English language (A. Balahur and A. Montoyo, 2008) we build our resources specific to the Romanian language </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Romanian WordNet (Tufiş et al., 2004) we extended this resource </li></ul><ul><li>The resources we have completed and adapted (Iftene, Rotaru, 2010) with specific terms used in social networks or in blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Specific terms: “successfully”, “super”, “fine”, “good” and emotional icons &quot;:)&quot; (smiley face  ), “  ” (sad face  ), etc. </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  11. 12. <ul><li>We considered a set of principal terms representing positive triggers ( pride , family , home , freedom , esteem , etc..), and another set of principal terms representing negative triggers ( murder , treason , cowardice , etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms and hyponyms of principal terms were added to the same set to which they belonged </li></ul><ul><li>Antonyms of principal terms were added to other sets </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  12. 13. <ul><li>Terms that changes valence to another term that accompany </li></ul><ul><li>Negations - which (radically) change valence (“no”, “never”) </li></ul><ul><li>Amplifiers - that emphasize the positive or negative aspect of a trigger (adjectives: “high”, “more”, “better”, “profound”, “exceptional”, adverbs: “definitely”, “sure”, “certainly”, “ultimately”) </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished - that diminishes the positive or negative or positive valence of a trigger, going to a neutral valence (adjective “small”, “less”, “worse”, “rather” modal verbs “can”, “possible”, “must”, “want” adverbs: “probably”) </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  13. 14. <ul><li>1. Alex is a good person. </li></ul><ul><li>“ good” is a positive trigger </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ben is a very good person. </li></ul><ul><li>“ good” as positive trigger, but we have also the amplifier “very” </li></ul><ul><li>3. John is the best. </li></ul><ul><li>“ best” is a positive trigger with the strongest intensity </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  14. 15. <ul><li>A1. Alex is a good person. </li></ul><ul><li>A2. Ben is not a good person. </li></ul><ul><li>we have the antonym relation: </li></ul><ul><li>good ≠ not good (= bad ) </li></ul><ul><li>B1. John is the best . </li></ul><ul><li>B2. Thomas is not the best . </li></ul><ul><li>we consider not the best to be somewhere between good and the best </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>We are interested to see what are Romanian people opinions regarding listening and interception of their communications </li></ul><ul><li>We generate queries in Romanian using basic words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS, e-mail, mobile/fixed phone, e-mail, chat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and additional words representing Romanian organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI - Romanian Intelligence Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA - National Anticorruption </li></ul></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  16. 17. <ul><li>In total we obtained over 30 queries and around 100 links corresponding to searches with these queries (after filtering phase) </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  17. 18. <ul><li>Positive opinions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it can intercept corrupt politicians, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>businessmen who have illegal business, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>terrorist acts in time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative opinions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we have the right to privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interceptions are used for extortion and intimidation, or to eliminate business competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral opinions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>users who say they have nothing to hide, nor did that they would interest in what other persons doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases users come with ironic comments regarding to SRI capabilities to surprise even any communication </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>“ Law no. 298/2008 related to retention of data generated or processed by providers of electronic communications ... ” issued on 18 November 2008 by the Romanian Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Negative opinions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases, users see the law a return back in communist times when security was using wiretaps for the oppression of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other comments are critical of the television and newspapers that have shown the introduction of this law </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>“ Law no. 298/2008 related to retention of data generated or processed by providers of electronic communications ... ” issued on 18 November 2008 by the Romanian Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Positive opinions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of them is a technical comment that explain how data transfer protocols that track network packets route across a network, may report errors and can correct them if they know who and to whom was sent the package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other messages show that this law will be beneficial for tracking crime groups </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  21. 22. <ul><li>On six subjects, three people were evaluated over 100 paragraphs => ~ 44% classification accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>For Romanian, there are major differences between the number of search results obtained using Google or Yahoo and search on social networks </li></ul><ul><li>On English language searches have enough results by both methods </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  22. 23. <ul><li>Existing information on the Internet are very useful </li></ul><ul><li>Case study on wiretaps and monitoring activities on the Internet (chat, email, etc.) showed that are more negative opinions than positive ones </li></ul><ul><li>We could also find that negative views are focused on law adopted and the SRI </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi
  23. 24. <ul><li>THANK YOU  </li></ul><ul><li>Q/A </li></ul>LiSS Conference , 3 - 5 Ma y , Iasi

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