Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Por: Adi Baker<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Conditional + irregulars<br />Perfect Tenses<br />Present<br />Past<br />Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Subjunctive Perfect<br />Tanto/tan<br />Impersonal “se”<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal/Formal<br />Affirmative<br />Negative<br />Irregular<br />DOP+IOP placement<br />Nosotros Commands<br />Mono verbs<br />Subjunctive + irregulars<br />Trigger phrases<br />Impersonal expressions<br />Expressions of emotion<br />Conjunctions of time<br />Demonstrative adjectives + pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Conditional<br />Would, should, could, must have, probably<br />Infinitive+<br />
  4. 4. Conditional irregulars<br />Conditional tense used the same irregulars as future tense<br />
  5. 5. Perfect Tenses<br />Haber + past participle<br />Past participle formed by changing –ar to –ado, -er to –ido, and –ir to –ido.<br />Perfect tenses used to show actions that are completed<br />
  6. 6. Present<br />Used to indicate actions that have occurred prior to the present time<br />Present forms of haber<br />
  7. 7. Past<br />Used to indicate an action that occurred prior to another past action<br />Ex. Juan dijo que había viajado a México.<br />He traveled to Mexico before he said it, so past perfect is used.<br />Past forms of haber<br />
  8. 8. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />
  9. 9. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Used to express doubt or uncertainty of a past action<br />Formed by using the subjunctive form of haber + past participle<br />Ex. Es bueno que haya estudiado.<br />
  10. 10. Tanto/Tan<br />Both tan and tanto are used to make comparisons of equality. However...<br />Tan is used for comparisons using adjectives or adverbs<br />Tan + adjective/adverb + como<br />Tanto is used for comparisons using nouns<br />Tanto + noun + como<br />If actions are being compared...<br />Use tanto if there is no adjective, and tan if there is an adjective<br />Verb + tanto + como, or verb + tan + adjective + como<br />
  11. 11. Impersonal “se”<br />Used to make general statements that don’t have a subject.<br />Ex. ¿Cómose dice ... en español?<br />Se + third person singular<br />Plural impersonal (unknown they) does not use se <br />Ex. Abren las tiendas a las nueve de la mañana.<br />
  12. 12. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both saber and conocer means “to know”.<br />Use saber when talking about knowing facts or information.<br />Juan sabe donde está María.<br />Use conocer when talking about knowing a person, place, object, or work of literature.<br />Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.<br />
  13. 13. Los Mandatos<br />Used when telling or ordering someone to do something.<br />There are formal, informal, nosotros, and vosotros commands.<br />
  14. 14. Informal/Formal<br />Informal commands are used among friends, relatives, coworkers, or when addressing a child.<br />Formal commands are used to show politeness and respect.<br />
  15. 15. Affirmative<br />Informal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the vowel that goes with the infinitive.<br />-ar to –a/an, -er to –e/en, -ir to –e/en <br />Formal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the opposite vowel.<br />-ar to –e/en, -er to –a/an, -ir to –a/an<br />
  16. 16. Negative<br />Negative formal commands are formed the same way as affiramtive formal commands.<br />“yo” form->drop the “o”->add opposite vowel<br />Negative informal commands are formed by dropping the “o” from the “yo” form, adding the opposite vowel, and adding s<br />Ex. No hablesmás lentamente.<br />
  17. 17. Irregular<br />There are eight verbs that are irregular in the affirmative tú commands<br />
  18. 18. DOP+IOP Placement<br />In affirmative commands, both DOPs and IOPs are attached directly to the verb.<br />If both are used, IOP comes before the DOP.<br />Ex. Cómpremelo<br />In negative commands, nither object pronoun is attached to the verb.<br />IOP still comes before DOP.<br />Ex. No me lo compre.<br />
  19. 19. Nosotros Commands<br />Commands used when the speaker is included, equivalent to “let’s...”<br />To form, change the ending to that of the opposite vowel.<br />Ex. Comer-> comamos<br />Exception is “ir” <br />Affirmative- vamos<br />Negative- vayamos<br />“Let’s...” can also be formed by using vamos a + infinitive.<br />
  20. 20. -mono verbs<br />Before attaching “nos” or “se” to a nosotros command, drop the “s” at the end.<br />Ex.Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos<br />Ex.Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela.<br />This is not used for negative commands because pronouns are not attached to them.<br />
  21. 21. Subjuntive<br />Used to express doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity. Not used to express certainty and objectivity. <br />Formed by adding the opposite ending to verbs after dropping the “o” from the “yo” form<br />
  22. 22. Irregulars<br />There are six verbs that are irregular in the present subjunctive form<br />Dar Estar Haber Ir Saber Ser<br />
  23. 23. Trigger phrases<br />Phrases used to show that the subjunctive is required by introducing uncertainty or doubt.<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />Expressions of Emotion<br />Conjunctions of Time<br />
  24. 24. Impersonal Expressions<br />Impersonal expressions are used to introduce the subjunctive tense by showing uncertainty or doubt<br />Some examples...<br />
  25. 25. Expressions of emotion<br />Used as main clause, it is followed by a subjunctive clause.<br />Only use subjunctive if there is a change of subject from the main clause to the subjunctive; otherwise, use infinitive. <br />
  26. 26. Conjunctions of Time<br />Used with the subjunctive when it shows a command, something in the future, or something uncertain.<br />
  27. 27. Demonstrative adjectives + Pronouns<br />Demonstrative adjectives are used to describe a noun, while demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun. <br />Ex. Adjective- This book is mine.<br />Ex. Pronoun-This is mine.<br /> Adjectives Pronouns<br />