Grammar Book<br />Adi Baker<br />
Table of Contents<br />Preterite<br />Preterite Trigger Words<br />Car, gar, zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snake Verbs<br />Sn...
Preterite<br /><ul><li>Actions viewed as single events
Actions repeated specific number of times
Actions that occurred during a specific period of time
Actions that were part of a chain of events
Used to state the beginning or end of an action
Used for past actions seen as having been completed</li></li></ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words<br />Words used to indicate ...
Car, gar, zar<br />Verbs ending in –car, change ending to qué<br />Verbs ending in –gar, change ending to gué<br />Verbs e...
Spock verbs<br />Ser<br />Dar<br />Ver<br />Ir<br />Fui<br />Fuiste<br />Fue<br />Fuimos<br />Fueron<br />Di/Vi<br />Diste...
Snake verbs<br />Stem-changing verbs in the preterite. only –ir<br />-ar and –er verbs do not stem change in the preterite...
Snakey verbs<br />Verbs ending in –aer, -eer, oír, -uir and –oer. <br />Third person singular uses yó (instead of ió)<br /...
Cucaracha Irregulars<br />Andar-----------------Anduv_<br />Estar------------------Estuv_<br />Poder------------------Pud_...
Imperfect<br /><ul><li>Actions repeated habitually
Actions that set up other actions
Actions with no referenced beginning or ending
Describing physical or emotional characteristics
Telling time and stating one’s age
Background information (weather, location)
Past actions not seen as completed</li></li></ul><li>Imperfect Trigger Words<br />Words used to indicate when imperfect fo...
Imperfect Irregulars<br />Only three irregulars- ir, ser, and ver. <br />
Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />Both are used to show past actions<br />Some verbs change meaning based on which form they ar...
Ser vs. Estar<br />Both mean “to be”<br />Ser is used for essential characteristics, what it is, permanent.<br />Estar is ...
Verbs Like Gustar<br />When followed by one or more words in the infinitive, singular form is always used. <br />Gustar of...
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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Adi Baker<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Preterite<br />Preterite Trigger Words<br />Car, gar, zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snake Verbs<br />Snakey Verbs<br />Cucaracha Irregulars<br />Imperfect<br />Imperfect Trigger Words<br />Imperfect Irregulars<br />Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />Ser vs. Estar<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Comparatives and Superlatives<br />Transition Words<br />Future<br />Future Irregulars<br />Future Trigger Words<br />Por<br />Para<br />Conditional<br />Conditional Irregulars<br />
  3. 3. Preterite<br /><ul><li>Actions viewed as single events
  4. 4. Actions repeated specific number of times
  5. 5. Actions that occurred during a specific period of time
  6. 6. Actions that were part of a chain of events
  7. 7. Used to state the beginning or end of an action
  8. 8. Used for past actions seen as having been completed</li></li></ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words<br />Words used to indicate that the preterite form should be used.<br />
  9. 9. Car, gar, zar<br />Verbs ending in –car, change ending to qué<br />Verbs ending in –gar, change ending to gué<br />Verbs ending in –zar, change ending to cé<br />Examples:<br />
  10. 10. Spock verbs<br />Ser<br />Dar<br />Ver<br />Ir<br />Fui<br />Fuiste<br />Fue<br />Fuimos<br />Fueron<br />Di/Vi<br />Diste/Viste<br />Dio/Vio<br />Dimos/Vimos<br />Dieron/Vieron<br />Hacer<br />Hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicieron <br />
  11. 11. Snake verbs<br />Stem-changing verbs in the preterite. only –ir<br />-ar and –er verbs do not stem change in the preterite<br />Change e:i and o:u in the third person <br /> (singular and plural)<br />
  12. 12. Snakey verbs<br />Verbs ending in –aer, -eer, oír, -uir and –oer. <br />Third person singular uses yó (instead of ió)<br />Third person plural uses yeron (instead of ieron)<br />Remaining forms use an accent over “i”. <br />Except –uir, only uses í over “yo” form. <br />Exceptions include- traer, atraer, distraer<br />
  13. 13. Cucaracha Irregulars<br />Andar-----------------Anduv_<br />Estar------------------Estuv_<br />Poder------------------Pud_<br />Poner------------------Pus_<br />Querer-----------------Quis_<br />Saber-------------------Sup_<br />Tener-------------------Tuv_<br />Venir-------------------Vin_<br />Conducir---------------Conduj_<br />Producir---------------Produj_<br />Traducir----------------Traduj_<br />Decir---------------------Dij_<br />Traer--------------------Traj_<br />remove i<br />(eron)<br />
  14. 14. Imperfect<br /><ul><li>Actions repeated habitually
  15. 15. Actions that set up other actions
  16. 16. Actions with no referenced beginning or ending
  17. 17. Describing physical or emotional characteristics
  18. 18. Telling time and stating one’s age
  19. 19. Background information (weather, location)
  20. 20. Past actions not seen as completed</li></li></ul><li>Imperfect Trigger Words<br />Words used to indicate when imperfect form should be used.<br />
  21. 21. Imperfect Irregulars<br />Only three irregulars- ir, ser, and ver. <br />
  22. 22. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />Both are used to show past actions<br />Some verbs change meaning based on which form they are used in.<br />If they are used in the same sentence, then the imperfect is the original, continuing action and the preterite is the interrupting action.<br />Imperfect movie<br />Preterite snapshot<br />
  23. 23. Ser vs. Estar<br />Both mean “to be”<br />Ser is used for essential characteristics, what it is, permanent.<br />Estar is used for conditions, how it is, temporary.<br />La manzanaestáverde. La manzanaesverde.<br />The apple is green. (condition)(color) The apple is green. (essence) (unripe)<br />
  24. 24. Verbs Like Gustar<br />When followed by one or more words in the infinitive, singular form is always used. <br />Gustar often used with the conditional <br /> (me gustaría) to soften a request.<br />When talking about a person, use “a” in front of the name or pronoun.<br />Some examples...<br /> aburrir, encantar, faltar, fascinar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caer bien/mal, doler, disgustar, hacer falta, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer<br />
  25. 25. Comparatives and Superlatives<br />Comparatives<br />adjective...que<br />más...que<br />menos...que<br />Superlatives<br />el/la adjective...de<br />El/la más…de<br />El/ la menos…de<br />Irregulars<br />bueno, malo, viejo, joven<br />
  26. 26. Transition Words<br />Words used to connect sentences<br />
  27. 27. Future<br />Used to tell what will happen, or what shall happen<br />Not used to express willingness to do something<br />Used to express wonder or probability in present state<br />Not usually used for actions that will happen in the near future, present tense more common<br />infinitive+ending<br />
  28. 28. Future Irregulars<br />
  29. 29. Future Trigger Words<br />Words used to signal use of future<br />Examples:<br />semana próxima<br />mes próximo<br />el año que viene<br />
  30. 30. Por<br />Can be translated as “for”.<br />¿Por qué? (why?) (for what reason)<br />
  31. 31. Para<br />Can also be translated as “for”.<br />¿Para qué? (why?) (for what purpose)<br />
  32. 32. Conditional<br />Infinitive +<br />Would, should, could, must have, probably<br />
  33. 33. Conditional Irregular<br />Same irregulars as future tense<br />

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