Radio Monitoring Handbook

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Radio Monitoring Handbook

  1. 1. - iii -PREFACEIn 1999, Radiocommunication Study Group 1 decided to revise, on an evolutionary basis, theSpectrum Monitoring Handbook (edition 1995) taking into account the latest developments indigital radio systems and the needs of spectrum management regulatory authorities, in particular,those of developing countries.As previously, this fourth edition of the Handbook on Spectrum Monitoring includes advertising ina separate booklet. The inclusion of advertisements helps to reduce the sale price of the Handbook.The Handbook has been developed by a Group of Experts from 16 Member States and 11 ITU-RSector Members. Containing the latest information on all aspects of monitoring, the Handbookrepresents a valuable reference manual for the spectrum management community.Six Chapters describe in detail the key elements of spectrum monitoring and its relationship tospectrum management. In addition, the Handbook contains many references that can be consultedfor additional details.The Handbook on Spectrum Monitoring is intended for the use by administrations of bothdeveloping and developed countries and by the Radiocommunication Bureau. The Handbook willalso be useful to radiocommunication engineers everywhere.Robert W. JonesDirector, Radiocommunication Bureau
  2. 2. - v -FOREWORDIt is a matter of great importance that due to the growing demands on the radio frequency spectrum,that there is a need to improve spectrum monitoring techniques that take into account advances inradiocommunication technology and to disseminate such information the world over. Accordingly,Radiocommunication Study Group 1 entrusted Working Party 1C with the task of revising theHandbook on Spectrum Monitoring for the benefit of developing and developed countries.The radio frequency spectrum is a limited natural resource and it is essential that it is used in themost effective and efficient manner by all radiocommunication users the world over. This is so thatvarious radiocommunication networks can function in an interference-free radio environment.Radiocommunication technology is advancing at a rapid pace. With the emerging of newtechnologies and the phenomenal growth of radiocommunication services, requirements for theradio frequency spectrum and the geostationary satellite orbit are increasing at an astronomical rate.Effective and efficient spectrum management is the key element for ensuring the co-existence ofvarious radiocommunication networks, without causing interference to each other.Spectrum monitoring is one of the essential tools of spectrum management. Spectrum monitoringtechniques are developed to ensure that technical parameters and standards for radiocommunicationsystems are adhered to. In addition spectrum monitoring assists in promoting the efficient utilisationof the radio frequency spectrum and the geostationary satellite orbit. Spectrum monitoringtechniques are different from those of a radiocommunication network in that they are carried-out innon-optimal situations and in an unknown environment.This Handbook has been developed covering all essential features of spectrum monitoringtechniques and activities including the establishment of monitoring facilities. The Handbook isexpected to be of great value to administrations and spectrum monitoring agencies. It is consideredto be equally valuable to the developing as well as to developed countries.We convey our great appreciation to Mr. Jan Verduijn (the Netherlands), Chairman ofthe Monitoring Handbook Group of Working Party 1C, sub-coordinators, contributors, participantsand all those who have been instrumental in the development of this Handbook and without whoseefforts this Handbook would not have been a reality. Our special gratitude is also due toMr Albert Nalbandian, Counsellor of the Radiocommunication Bureau who has played a key role inthe development of the Handbook.It is hoped that this Handbook will prove to be a great asset in the field of spectrum managementand spectrum monitoring for establishment and operation of monitoring facilities. It should provideessential tools for spectrum management and for the performance of radiocommunication networksin an interference-free environment.Robert MayherChairman, Study Group 1Spectrum ManagementNabil KisrawiVice-Chairman, Study Group 1Chairman, Working Party 1CSpectrum Monitoring Techniques
  3. 3. - vii -INTRODUCTION BY THE HANDBOOK GROUP CHAIRMANThis Handbook on Spectrum Monitoring has been developed by a Group of experts of WorkingParty 1C in accordance with Decision of the Radiocommunication Study Group 1. The previousissue of the Spectrum Monitoring Handbook was published in 1995.To organise the work a Management Team meeting took place in Tel Aviv, 7-9 December 1999.This new edition has been prepared during three meetings, Paris (Genevilliers), 12-18 April 2000,Munich, 17-23 January 2001 and Chicago, 26 November-4 December 2001.This Handbook consists of 6 Chapters and two Annexes, with a coordinator for each Chapter andAnnex:Chapter 1 Spectrum monitoring as a key function of aspectrum management systemMr. P. VACCANI (Canada)Chapter 2 Organization, physical structures andpersonnelMr. R. TRAUTMANN(Germany)Chapter 3 Monitoring equipment and automation ofmonitoring operationsMr. A. PAVLIOUK (Russia)Chapter 4 Measurements Mr. P. TOMKA (Hungary)Chapter 5 Specific monitoring systems and procedures Mr. W. LUTHER (USA)Chapter 6 Supporting tools Mr. H. MAZAR (Israel)Annex 1 Monitoring system planning and tenders Mr. P. MEGE (THALES, France)Annex 2 Industry/company capabilities for spectrummanagement and monitoringMr. B. ERNST(Rohde & Schwarz, Germany)Each of these Chapters and Annex 1 were divided into sub-chapters whose drafting has beenentrusted to other coordinators, where appropriate.Electromagnetic radiation is defined as “a form of oscillating electrical and magnetic energycapable of traversing space without the benefit of physical interconnections”. The entire range offrequencies form the electromagnetic spectrum, and the band from 9 kHz to 3 000 GHz is known asthe radio frequency spectrum.This vital natural resource, which we cannot see, touch or smell, provides the basis for the tele-communications industry, one of the fastest growing sectors in the world economy.The spectrum is used for radio and television broadcasting, microwave and satellite links whichcarry long distance telephone calls, facsimiles, telexes and data communications. It is also used bymobile radio, cellular service and paging companies. Commercial airlines, taxi and truckingcompanies, towing companies, couriers and delivery agents, construction companies and buildingcontractors, oil exploration and utilities companies, farmers and retailers, also depend on theeffective management of the spectrum for the operation of private communications systems.
  4. 4. - viii -Besides all the active use, the spectrum is also used by passive users such as radio astronomy.Governments and agencies use the spectrum for armed forces, police, ambulance, air traffic control,marine safety, emergency and public safety services. Ambulance paramedics use the spectrum totransmit vital patient cardiac information while en route to hospital, allowing diagnosis to beginbefore arrival. Police officers use radiocommunications to coordinate their movements and consultcentral police computers from their vehicles. Radio signals are used in aircraft instrument landingsystems, guiding pilots to safe landings at night or when visibility is poor, and in the form of radarsignals by air traffic controllers to establish aircraft positions and prevent collisions. Shipboardradar and radiocommunication systems play a vital role in marine navigation, particularly in badweather and in communication with shore-based stations. Radio signals from ships and aircraft canprovide vital communications for search and rescue.The use of spectrum related technology is becoming more prevalent in the work environment withthe use of wireless networks linking several computers in the same building, city or across nations.In our homes, spectrum is increasingly being used, for example, for the reception of radio andtelevision, for the operation of alarm systems, cordless telephones, remote controls, garage dooropeners, microwave ovens, and many other useful, necessary purposes.Spectrum monitoring can be defined as a process of observing the radio frequency spectrum andreporting on it’s use. Normally reporting is done for the benefit of other departments working in thespectrum management system such as the frequency management department, license department,and the enforcement department, and also to external customers.As the radio frequency spectrum is used for 24 h a day, the monitoring process must also cover thesame time period. Only on that condition can a total view be given on the use of the observedfrequency band. In relation to the other players in the spectrum management system you can saythat spectrum monitoring serves as the eyes and ears of the spectrum management process. It isnecessary in practice because in real life, authorised use of the spectrum does not ensure that it isbeing used as planned. The monitoring system provides a method of verification (and closes theloop) of the spectrum management process. The purpose of spectrum monitoring is to support thespectrum management process in general, the frequency assignment and the planning functions.The extension of the usable spectrum into the higher frequency bands calls for the dispersal of fixedmonitoring stations throughout the national territory, and/or the use of numerous mobile monitoringstations. Since for various reasons, including economic, administrations may be unable to monitorall the bands and all the significant parameters, it is recommended that they consider possibilities ofco-operation in monitoring with telecom service providers, broadcasting organisations, andgovernmental or other organisations such as maritime and aeronautical authorities.Although it was not the idea, the 1995 edition of the Spectrum Monitoring Handbook was oftenused as a standard to set up spectrum monitoring services in countries. In this edition it is not theaim to set a standard, but try to give guidance on all aspects of spectrum monitoring.For this reason Chapters 1 and 2 and Annex 1 are of interest for those involved in the managementof a monitoring service. These chapters describe the role and relation of spectrum monitoring toother parts of spectrum management, including organization, personnel and procedures. The neededequipment described in Chapter 3 is related to that.
  5. 5. - ix -Annex 1 describes planning and tenders for new equipment.This Handbook is also intended for monitoring operators. Measurement principles, specificmonitoring systems and procedures are described in Chapters 4 and 5, whilst various tools tosupport the monitoring operators in their work can be found in Chapter 6.The list found below includes the names of experts who brought their knowledge, contributions andsuggestions to the three meetings and without whose expertise, production of this Handbook wouldnot have been possible.This Handbook is the collective work of an international Group of experts. It will certainlycontribute to a better understanding, worldwide, of the problems identified by the radio monitoringcommunity and as well as to the solutions available to make a viable, productive spectrummanagement process everywhere.It is essential that, while radiocommunication services are still under rapid development,Administrations are equipped with appropriate monitoring means that are as compatible with oneanother as possible.I sincerely want to thank the Coordinators of the Chapters and Annexes for their work and devotion.The Group in charge of drafting sincerely thanks the secretariat of the ITU RadiocommunicationBureau, the Chairman of the Working Parties, and Mr. Albert Nalbandian, ITU-R Counsellor, fortheir help and encouragement.Jan J. VerduijnChairman of the WP 1C Group on the Handbook
  6. 6. - xi -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe would like to thank the following ITU Member States and Sector Members, and companies fortheir kind support and participation:Brazil (Federative Republic of), Canada, China (People’s Republic of), France, Germany (FederalRepublic of), Hungary (Republic of), Iran (Islamic Republic of); Israel (State of), Japan;Netherlands (Kingdom of the); Russian Federation; Spain, Switzerland (Confederation of), Turkey,Ukraine, United States of America,Agilent Technology (USA), ITT Industries (USA), L&S (Germany), Mitsubishi ElectricCorporation (Japan), NEC Corporation (Japan), Rohde & Schwarz (Germany), SAT Corporation(USA), Tadiran Electronic Systems (Israel), TCI, a Dielectric Company (USA), THALES (France),Toshiba Corporation (Japan),as the Chapter coordinators contributed to all of the Chapters, we also want to acknowledge thecontributions and the helpful guidance and discussions of the following persons, named inalphabetical order:Mr. Abramovitz A. Israel, Tadiran; Mr. Aoyagi M., Japan, NEC; Mr. Bohac B., USA; Mr. Bull E.,UK; Mr. Clevers P., Germany, L&S (§ 6.2); Mr. Cong Y., China; Mr. Couturier F., France(§ 2.5 and 5.5); Mr. Dondl P., Germany (§ 5.1); Mr. Eidome Y., Japan, Mitsubishi Electric;Ms. Fidelis da Silva M. A., Brazil; Mr. Fokken T., Germany, Rohde & Schwarz; Mr. Funtov D.,Russia; Mr. Gottlob C., Germany, Rohde & Schwarz; Mr. Gulsen M., Turkey (§ 6.1-6.7);Mr. Hasenpusch T., Germany(§ 4.5); Mr. Iiri T., Japan, Mitsubishi Electric; Mr. Jacquet A., France;Mr. Kadyrov T., Russia; Mr. Kaneki K., Japan, NEC; Ms. Karpenko L., Ukraine;Mr. Kashanifar B., Iran; Mr. Kazem-Nejad M. (§ 5.5 and 6.7); Iran; Mr. Khatami A., Iran (§ 2.6);Mr. Kitazawa M., Japan, Toshiba; Mr. Klenner N., Germany, L&S (§ 6.2); Mr. Korsak V., Ukraine;Mr. Kouno K., Japan, NEC; Mr. Kurganov A., Russia; Mr. Le Guen R., France; Mr. Locascio B.,USA, Agilent Technology; Mr. Maanen E. van, Netherlands (§ 4.9, 5.2 and 6.6); Mr. Mendez A.,ITU BR (§ 1.4); Mr. Monie J., USA; Mr. Moreno J., Spain, Mr. Morisawa H., Japan, NEC;Mr. Mueller T., Switzerland; Mr. Murray J., USA; Mr. Narancsik M., Hungary; Mr. Nutting L.,USA, Agilent Technology (§ 5.3, 5.4, 6.3 and 6.5); Mr. Okamura A., Japan, Mitsubishi Electric;Mr. Pejtsik P., Hungary (§ 4.1-4.9); Mr. Rohner C., Germany, Rohde & Schwarz; Mr. Sakamoto T.,Japan, Mitsubishi Electric; Mr. Santos R. D. D., Brasil; Mr. Sato Y., Japan; Mr. Sharp E. D., USA,TCI; Mr. Shiriaev S., Russia; Mr. Stecher M., Germany, Rohde & Schwarz (§ 4.1 and 4.3,);Mr. Stefler S., Hungary; Mr. Stel H., Netherlands (§ 4.4, 5.2 and 6.4); Mr. Tranavitch W., USA,ITT Industries; Mr. Unselt U., Germany, Rohde & Schwarz; Ms. Volkova J., Russia;Mr. Wiemann K., Germany; Mr. Woolsey R., USA, TCI (§ 3.2-3.6); Mr. Yoichi T., Japan; Mr. ZareGarizi F., Iran; Mr. Zaskaleta Y., Ukraine.
  7. 7. - xiii -TABLE OF CONTENTSPagePREFACE.......................................................................................................................................... iiiFOREWORD..................................................................................................................................... vINTRODUCTION BY THE HANDBOOK GROUP CHAIRMAN............................................ viiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................................... xiCHAPTER 1 – SPECTRUM MONITORING AS A KEY FUNCTION OF A SPECTRUMMANAGEMENT SYSTEM................................................................................ 1CHAPTER 2 – ORGANIZATION, PHYSICAL STRUCTURES AND PERSONNEL........... 27CHAPTER 3 – MONITORING EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION OF MONITORINGOPERATIONS...................................................................................................... 99CHAPTER 4 – MEASUREMENTS.............................................................................................. 169CHAPTER 5 – SPECIFIC MONITORING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES ....................... 387CHAPTER 6 – FUNDAMENTALS.............................................................................................. 493ANNEX 1 – MONITORING SYSTEM PLANNING AND TENDERS .................................. 555ANNEX 2 – INDUSTRY CAPABILITIES FOR SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT ANDMONITORING......................................................................................................... 577ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 581ADVERTIZING SECTION – PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ...................................................... 585
  8. 8. - 1 -Chapter 1CHAPTER 1SPECTRUM MONITORING AS A KEY FUNCTION OFA SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMPage1.1 Spectrum management .......................................................................................... 31.1.1 Description of spectrum management................................................................... 41.1.2 Spectrum monitoring............................................................................................. 41.1.3 Databases............................................................................................................... 51.1.4 Software ................................................................................................................ 61.1.5 Legal and regulatory foundation for a national spectrum management system.... 61.1.6 Spectrum planning and allocation......................................................................... 71.1.7 Spectrum engineering............................................................................................ 71.1.8 Rules, regulations and associated standards.......................................................... 81.1.9 Frequency coordination and notification............................................................... 81.1.10 Licensing, assignment and billing......................................................................... 91.1.11 Inspection of radio installations ............................................................................ 91.1.12 Law enforcement................................................................................................... 91.2 Spectrum management considerations.................................................................. 101.2.1 Efficient use of spectrum....................................................................................... 101.2.2 Spectrum sharing................................................................................................... 101.2.3 Economic aspects .................................................................................................. 111.3 National monitoring goals..................................................................................... 111.3.1 Monitoring for compliance with national rules..................................................... 121.3.1.1 Verification of technical and operational parameters ........................................... 121.3.1.2 Resolution of interference and identification of unauthorized transmitters.......... 13
  9. 9. - 2 -Chapter 1Page1.3.2 Monitoring to aid spectrum management policy................................................... 131.3.2.1 Spectrum usage (occupancy) data......................................................................... 131.3.2.2 An aid to new assignments.................................................................................... 141.3.2.3 An aid to developing better management models ................................................. 141.3.2.4 An aid to dealing with complaints and queries ..................................................... 141.3.2.5 An aid to categorizing and interpreting interference and propagation effects ...... 141.3.2.6 An aid to spectrum sharing ................................................................................... 151.3.2.7 Database verification and improvement................................................................ 151.4 International monitoring........................................................................................ 151.4.1 The international monitoring system..................................................................... 151.4.2 Coordination role of the Bureau............................................................................ 161.4.3 Use of international monitoring information by the Bureau................................. 161.4.3.1 Assisting in clearance of unauthorized or out-of-band operations........................ 171.4.3.2 Assistance to administrations in cases of harmful interference ............................ 181.4.3.3 Guidance to administrations in selecting frequencies .......................................... 181.4.3.4 Preparation for radiocommunication conferences................................................. 181.4.4 International monitoring programmes................................................................... 191.4.4.1 The regular programme......................................................................................... 191.4.4.2 Special programmes .............................................................................................. 191.4.5 Global monitoring coverage.................................................................................. 201.5 Collaboration among monitoring stations of different countries .......................... 201.5.1 Collaboration below 30 MHz................................................................................ 201.5.2 Collaboration above 30 MHz................................................................................ 21ANNEX 1 – Agreement for direct co-operation among radio monitoring stations ........... 23
  10. 10. - 3 -Chapter 11.1 Spectrum managementThe purpose of this section is to provide a brief overview of the spectrum management process andthe role of spectrum monitoring as a key function in spectrum management. The followingdiscussion of national spectrum management systems (NSMS) is meant as a general overview (seeFig. 1-1).Spec-011SpectrummonitoringLegal andregulatoryfoundation forNSMSSpectrumplanning andallocationSpectrumengineeringRules,regulationsand associatedstandardsFrequencycoordinationand notificationLicensing,assignmentand billingInspectionof radioinstallationsLawenforcementNSMS,including databasesandsoftwareFIGURE 1-1Simplified national spectrum management systemThe reader should refer to the ITU [Handbooks, 1995 and 1999], [Reports ITU-R SM.2012 andITU-R SM.2015] and [ITU-D, 1999] for more information on these related spectrum managementissues.
  11. 11. - 4 -Chapter 11.1.1 Description of spectrum managementSpectrum management is the combination of administrative, scientific and technical proceduresnecessary to ensure the efficient operation of radiocommunication equipment and services withoutcausing interference. Simply stated, spectrum management is the overall process of regulating andadministering use of the radio frequency spectrum. The goal of spectrum management is tomaximize spectrum efficiency and minimize interference. Rules and regulations, based on relevantlegislation, form a regulatory and legal basis for the spectrum management process. Databases ofinformation, including details of all authorized users of the spectrum, provide the administrative andtechnical basis for the process. Analysis of the information in these databases facilitates thespectrum management process resulting in decisions for spectrum allocations, frequencyassignments, and licensing. Spectrum monitoring, inspection, and law enforcement provide thenecessary means to maintain the integrity of the spectrum management process.1.1.2 Spectrum monitoring1.1.2.1 Purpose of spectrum monitoringSpectrum monitoring serves as the eyes and ears of the spectrum management process. It isnecessary in practice because in the real world, authorized use of the spectrum does not ensure thatit is being used as intended. This may be due to the complexity of the equipment, interaction withother equipment, a malfunction of equipment, or deliberate misuse. This problem has been furtherexacerbated due to the accelerating proliferation of terrestrial wireless and satellite systems and ofequipment that may cause interference, such as computers and other unintentional radiators. Themonitoring system provides a method of verification and “closes the loop” on the spectrummanagement process.Use of the spectrum occurs 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, every week of the year, whetherlocally, regionally, or globally. Likewise, spectrum monitoring should also be on a continuous basisif the purposes and goals of monitoring are to be appropriately fulfilled.The purpose of spectrum monitoring is to support the spectrum management process in general,including frequency assignment and spectrum planning functions. Specifically, the goals ofmonitoring (not necessarily in priority order) are to:– assist in the resolution of electromagnetic spectrum interference, whether on a local,regional or global scale, so that radio services and stations may coexist compatibly,reducing and minimizing resources associated with installing and operating thesetelecommunication services while providing economic benefit to a country’s infrastructurethrough access to interference- free, accessible telecommunication services;– assist in ensuring an acceptable quality of radio and television reception by the generalpublic;– provide valuable monitoring data to an administration’s electromagnetic spectrummanagement process concerning the actual use of frequencies and bands (e.g., channeloccupancy and band congestion), verification of proper technical and operationalcharacteristics of transmitted signals, detection and identification of illegal transmitters, andthe generation and verification of frequency records; and
  12. 12. - 5 -Chapter 1– provide valuable monitoring information for programmes organized by the ITU Radio-communication Bureau (Bureau), for example in preparing reports to RadiocommunicationConferences, in seeking special assistance of administrations in eliminating harmfulinterference, in clearing out-of-band operations, or in assisting administrations in findingsuitable frequencies.1.1.2.2 Relationship between spectrum monitoring and spectrum managementThe functions of spectrum monitoring and spectrum management are closely related. Linking thesefunctions through an integrated computer system can result in significantly increased effectivenessand cost-efficiency for both. It is critically important in implementing a spectrum managementsystem to first develop a system structure that maintains the integrity of the process, and thedatabase that contains all relevant information to support the process. In the case of an inadequatedatabase, the combination of monitoring and enforcement techniques can be effectively used toobtain critical information and thereby, help improve the database and the overall spectrummanagement process.Monitoring is closely associated with inspection and compliance in that it enables the identificationand measurement of spectrum usage, interference sources, the verification of proper technical andoperational characteristics of radiated signals, and detection and identification of illegaltransmitters, producing data on the effectiveness of spectrum management policies.Monitoring further supports the overall spectrum management effort by providing generalmeasurement of channel and band usage, including channel availability statistics of a technical andoperational nature, thereby giving a measure of spectrum occupancy. Monitoring is also useful forplanning, in that it can assist spectrum managers in understanding the level of spectrum use ascompared to the assignments that are registered on paper or in data files. A monitoring andmeasurement system can help in some instances where a solution to a problem requires more thanknowledge of authorized or designed characteristics of radio systems. A monitoring and measuringsystem also obtains information on the operation of individual stations, for regulatory, enforcement,and compliance purposes, and can be used to establish the location and identity of stations causinginterference.In general terms, monitoring gives feedback to spectrum management on whether the practical useof the spectrum matches the national policy. Monitoring can also identify the need for futurerequirements for spectrum management officials. In this case monitoring gives feed-forwardinformation to spectrum management.1.1.3 DatabasesAn integral component of spectrum management is the ability to store, maintain and accessinformation about individual communication networks. This information forms one of the spectrummanagement system databases, which is a description of all of the relevant parameters of individualradiocommunication facilities. This database enables the governing agency to conduct variousengineering and managerial analyses to ensure spectrum efficiency, operational compliance withrules and regulations, and interference free operation between systems. Without accurate databaserecords, the integrity of the spectrum management process would be compromised.
  13. 13. - 6 -Chapter 1The spectrum monitoring service must have access to the complete central database of authorizedusers. This allows a means of verifying the licensing and assignment conditions, and identifyingunauthorized uses of the spectrum. The monitoring service can also create its own databases ofmonitored transmission activity and measured characteristics. This information can be used forevent records and later correlated to the central databases.1.1.4 SoftwareSpectrum management and monitoring systems may contain a significant amount of software toautomate data collection, processing, evaluation, and interference analysis tasks. Using software tosave spectrum monitoring results in relational databases and correlating this information with thecentral database of authorized users can save considerable research time while increasing accuracy.1.1.5 Legal and regulatory foundation for a national spectrum management systemBecause of the rapid advance of radio technology and the central role that technology plays in thelife of each nation, laws covering the spectrum resource are becoming as important as those thatgovern land and water use. Therefore, the use and regulation of radiocommunications must becovered within each nation’s body of law. The radiocommunications law is a basic documentestablishing concepts, authorities, broad goals and objectives, and responsibilities, but should notstray into detailed delineation of regulations and procedures. This law should give recognition to thefact that the radio spectrum is a national resource and that there is a need to govern it in the interestof all citizens. It should therefore establish the right of the national government to regulateradiocommunications use, including authorization for use and enforcement of spectrummanagement rules, primarily controlled through monitoring and inspection. In order to carry outthese functions, spectrum managers should be granted the authority to identify sources ofinterference and to require that they be turned off or confiscated under an appropriate legalmechanism. The limits of the authority should also be specified.The radiocommunications law should establish the right of both citizens and government to own andoperate radiocommunications equipment. National, regional, or local government may best operatesome communication systems. These are most often systems that support the missions of thegovernment organizations themselves. However, many of the needs of society can be met bycommercial ventures or individuals, and the quality and availability of communication services maybe linked closely to the kinds of activity and the level of freedom granted to service providers.Elements that also should be covered within the national radiocommunications law are therequirements for public access to the spectrum management decision process and for governmentresponsiveness to the public input. The specific processes whereby the public presents its spectrumrequirements or its position on spectrum issues to the spectrum manager, may be describedelsewhere, but the right to access, and any limits to that access, could be established in the law.Based on the spectrum manager’s basic mission to manage spectrum use in the national interest, byresponding to public input, is essential. Therefore, the radiocommunications law should require thatthe spectrum management authority provide the public with information on its decisions, includingwritten explanation of the basis for its decisions. In addition, the law should provide a process forreview and appeal of decisions in accordance with established criteria and procedure.
  14. 14. - 7 -Chapter 1The primary day-to-day tools of spectrum management are the set of published regulations andprocedures promulgated and adopted by the national spectrum manager. These regulations serve asthe basis for daily conduct of radiocommunications use and enable the spectrum users to understandthe manner in which their operations are governed. The regulations provide a method of interactionwith the spectrum management authority. These regulations and procedures should cover areas suchas procedures for obtaining and renewing a licence, emission standards, equipment authorizationprocedures, channelling plans, and operational requirements.1.1.6 Spectrum planning and allocationSpectrum allocation is the process of distribution of radio frequency spectrum among differentradiocommunication services on either an exclusive or shared basis. At the international level thisallocation is governed by World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs) and reflected inArticle 5 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR). Based on its international Table of FrequencyAllocations, administrations may establish a national frequency allocation table, allocate frequencybands to radiocommunication services and authorize specific systems.To use the spectrum efficiently, it is essential to allocate frequency bands that will meet thepropagation requirements of the intended service. For example, services that are typically requiredto provide omni-directional coverage over a large area, such as broadcast television, are allocatedfrequency bands that are relatively low in the spectrum; private mobile radio (PMR) services areallocated VHF/UHF frequency bands to ensure limited local coverage; and for global aeronauticaland maritime services, which require worldwide coverage, HF frequency bands are allocated. Theseallocations are sometimes subdivided into channel plans to ensure that specific loading, channel andfrequency re-use requirements are met.In response to requests from particular users, administrations should follow these allocation tablesto assign appropriate frequencies for the needed radio system, issue relevant licences and produceappropriate records in the database. Technical procedures of frequency assignment should alloweffective channel and frequency re-use requirements based on permissible interference concepts ornecessary frequency-distance separation criteria between radio transmitters and receivers.1.1.7 Spectrum engineeringSpectrum management involves decisions pertaining to a field of technology and engineering that isrequired to adequately evaluate the information, capabilities and choices involved. Though social,economic, and political considerations enter into most decisions, many spectrum managementissues can be analysed, and spectrum management decisions made, based on engineering andtechnical factors. Therefore, a part of the organization versed in these analysis techniques, andknowledgeable in technological developments, is needed to provide unbiased assessments to thosewithin the policy and planning groups who must consider other factors such as economics andnational policy. They may identify and recommend solutions to interference problems, determineequipment technical characteristics necessary to ensure compatibility between systems, or in somecases, encourage the use of alternative technologies. An important aspect involves the use of models
  15. 15. - 8 -Chapter 1with input information supplied by appropriate databases, to perform analysis pertinent to spectrummanagement such as frequency assignments. Models can be used to predict whether compliancewith rules and regulations (e.g., satellite power flux-density limits) is possible, and to assess thepotential for sharing by analysing the probability of interference.1.1.8 Rules, regulations and associated standardsITU has established general rules and regulations regarding international spectrum allocation andspectrum management. These are contained in the Radio Regulations published by the ITU. Takinginto account these international regulations, each member nation creates its own legislation andrelevant rules and regulations to accommodate its national radiocommunication infrastructure andgoals. The intent of these rules is to provide a necessary framework for administration andenforcement of the spectrum management process. The regulations should include the process ofauthorization of equipment, including specifications and standards for transmitter characteristics.1.1.9 Frequency coordination and notificationBecause the radio spectrum is a limited resource and the demand from both private and governmentusers continues to increase, it is necessary to create a mechanism by which frequencies can beassigned to particular services and systems whereby the greatest number of users can beaccommodated. This is implemented through a frequency coordination process.Frequency coordination starts with the process of selecting frequencies for a system that is notlikely to cause interference to other existing systems. This information can then be exchanged or“coordinated” with appropriate parties to insure compatibility between systems. The purpose of thisprocess is to maximize frequency reuse while minimizing operational interference betweencommunication systems.There are several key elements to consider in the frequency coordination process. First, theadministration must define the rules and regulations, which will become the basis for the process.Next there must be an exchange of information between the applicant for a new service and thecoordinators. The information must contain sufficient technical data so that the coordinators canperform an analysis to assure that the new service will not cause harmful interference into existingradio facilities. The effectiveness of frequency coordination is directly related to the accuracy andcurrency of the records contained in the database and the ability to accurately predict the operationof the existing and proposed systems.Frequency coordination and compatibility studies between existing and proposed radio facilities arenecessary parts of an effective spectrum management system, whether carried out at the national orinternational level.International frequency coordination is a procedure that can be implemented before giving afrequency assignment to a station that might conflict with that of another country. This frequencycoordination procedure is usually under a special agreement concluded between two or morecountries. Global, general rules for the assignment and use of frequencies, and special agreementsare described in RR Articles 4 and 6.
  16. 16. - 9 -Chapter 11.1.10 Licensing, assignment and billingThe necessary administrative steps in the process of licensing and frequency assignment are definedby the rules and regulations identified previously. A government agency usually controls thelicensing function or process. Once the agency has determined that the proposed communicationsystem complies with these rules, authorization is normally granted through the issuance of alicence or equivalent. If any significant changes are made to a licensed system, rules usually requirethe user to notify the regulatory agency of these changes so that a revised licence may be issued. Ifthese procedures for licensing are followed, they will ensure that the integrity of the spectrummanagement database is maintained by reflecting changes made in operational systems in a timelymanner. Data on decommissioned systems can be moved in the database to an inactive section fortemporary, future reference, and eventual elimination.The licensing and administrative functions of an effective spectrum management system havebenefits that go beyond merely creating and maintaining a database of technical parameters. Thelicensing process can be a source of revenue for the administration in the form of fees when theinitial licence is granted, fees for renewal of existing licences. It can also be a source of revenue interms of fines and penalties for operating without the proper licence, operating outside of thelicensed parameters or operating in defiance of the established rules and regulations.1.1.11 Inspection of radio installationsThe inspection of radio installations is an effective means of regulating and ensuring more efficientuse of the spectrum. This has been facilitated in recent years by improvement in size, weight andpower consumption of portable measuring equipment. A number of different approaches may betaken by administrations in inspecting radio installations. This can range from inspecting all newinstallations or sampling existing installations periodically for statistical information or selectiveenforcement as explained below.An effective approach is to use a sampling program of existing transmitters. The sample would beselected randomly for different services. The results of the inspection would then be evaluated inaccordance with the national standards. In future years, the sample rates or focus would be adjustedbased on the compliance results of the previous year. If compliance were relatively high in aparticular service, the number of samples would be reduced; alternatively, they would be increased.1.1.12 Law enforcementThe benefits of a spectrum management system cannot be realized if the users fail to comply withtheir licence(s) and the appropriate rules and regulations. Rules and regulations should includeprovisions defining the actions that can be taken if a user is found to be in non-compliance. Basedupon the severity of the violations, penalties could range from warnings, to fines, to revocation oflicences and terminating operation of systems. Without effective enforcement procedures theintegrity of the spectrum management process would be compromised.The ability of an administration to enforce established rules and regulations pertaining to theoperation of radiocommunication systems is clearly dependent upon both an effective spectrummanagement system and a spectrum monitoring system. When a complaint concerning interference
  17. 17. - 10 -Chapter 1is received, the interfering signal can be monitored to determine the location of the signal, the typeof transmission and other technical parameters that may aid in identifying and locating the source ofinterference. The spectrum management database can be searched to determine if the source ofinterference is a licensed transmitter that is operating outside of its authorized technical parameters,or is from an illegal operator.1.2 Spectrum management considerations1.2.1 Efficient use of spectrumThe rapid growth of demand for worldwide communication services, driven by the move towardsan information-based society, could lead to a serious shortage of available spectrum unlessmeasures are taken to manage the spectrum effectively on national, regional and internationallevels. Because frequency spectrum is a limited resource, required growth must be achieved throughefficient use of the available spectrum.Efficient use is achieved by strategically allocating portions of the spectrum to meet therequirements of users without creating any waste of the spectrum. Conservation of spectrum willallow for future growth and the emergence of new wireless technologies.1.2.2 Spectrum sharingThe ability of one or more users or services to share a segment of the frequency spectrum withoutinterference is an important consideration in spectrum management. Sharing of spectrum effectivelyincreases the amount of spectrum available for the wide variety of services. Sharing can befacilitated by power control, geographical separation of users, separation of radiation patterns, timeseparation of users, by permitting some interference when it can be tolerated without becomingharmful, or use of newer technologies that allow coexistence of multiple transmissions on the samefrequency.Allocation of spectrum to users with geographical restrictions takes advantage of the limitations ofsignal propagation. The simplest example of geographical restrictions is the differences inallocations between the ITU Regions. On a smaller scale, geographical separation is also the basisof frequency planning for a cellular system, which allows for frequency re-use after an appropriatephysical separation between cells and between emission patterns has been achieved.Time separation is also an effective method of facilitating sharing through the use of time-agiletechnologies and trunking systems. In these systems, one or more channels may be shared by manyusers that have delineated transmission time requirements.Many systems are capable of coexisting in the same time and space segment of the spectrum,depending upon the specific modulation and interference threshold or multiple access scheme ofeach system (e.g., code division multiple access (CDMA)). For example, one of the primaryadvantages of spread spectrum technology is its increased resistance to interference. Thischaracteristic allows multiple transmissions to occupy the same spectrum at the same time withoutdisruption but, of course, within system limitations.
  18. 18. - 11 -Chapter 11.2.3 Economic aspectsRadiocommunications have become an increasingly vital part of the telecommunications infra-structure and economy of a country and economic approaches to national spectrum management arebecoming essential. These approaches promote economic, technical, and administrative efficiency,and help ensure that radio services are able to operate on a non-interference basis. In order to haveeffective radiocommunications, a country must have an effective spectrum management system.The starting point for an effective spectrum management system is to obtain adequate financialresources. These resources can be obtained from the administration or from fees obtained from theuse of the radio spectrum. The collection of fees varies from the fee for the processing of a radiolicence to the auctioning of a portion of the radio spectrum. Fees can promote efficient use of thespectrum provided that they incorporate the correct economic incentives and are not so low as to benegligible in the eyes of spectrum users or so high as to exceed what a market would set, in whichcase spectrum may sit idle and generate no benefits.Auctions may be most appropriate when there are competing applicants for the same frequencyassignment. Auction revenues may vastly exceed spectrum management costs but the auctionapproach holds potential for an accurate reflection of the value of the spectrum. Auctions may notbe appropriate for services in which there is limited competition for spectrum assignments, forsocially needed services such as safety and national defence, and for some services, e.g.,international satellite services. Since recent auctions have placed significant values on spectrum,sometimes in the billions of dollars, administrations have to ensure that an auctioned spectrum bandis acceptable for use, whether by moving existing users or through the implementation of sharingconditions. Monitoring such bands in the appropriate coverage areas will support this activity.A number of administrations have implemented various forms of support for national spectrummanagers. These include:– communication groups with a direct interest in spectrum such as advisory committees, tradeassociations, professional organizations, and quasi-governmental associations;– frequency coordinators and designated spectrum managers, and– spectrum management consultants, and support contractors.These supporting methods have potential for saving government financial or human resources,increasing the efficiency of spectrum use, improving the efficiency of frequency assignment andcoordination, and supplementing the expertise of the national spectrum manager.For details on spectrum economics see Report ITU-R SM.2012.1.3 National monitoring goalsThe purpose of spectrum monitoring, as previously described, is to assist in the resolution ofinterference, in ensuring acceptable quality of radio and television reception, and to providemonitoring information to spectrum management.
  19. 19. - 12 -Chapter 1Historically, it was because of more and more intensive use of high frequencies for internationallinks that countries met to lay down rules for frequency allocation and procedures for dealing withinterference. RR Article 16 describes the procedure and facilities to be used as noted in § 1.4. Tofulfil RR Article 16, it is recommended that countries establish a centralizing office and HFmonitoring station(s).Nowadays, although it is still necessary to monitor at HF, the need to pay special attention toVHF/UHF/SHF monitoring is becoming more and more urgent. These frequencies are increasinglyused for radiocommunication networks whose range is, by their very nature, limited roughly to line-of-sight, or around a hundred kilometres, depending on the frequency, power, propagationconditions, and antenna (transmitting and receiving) height.The best way to site monitoring stations, in the light of the limited range of the transmitters to bemonitored, is considered in Chapter 2. National use of these facilities is described below, while theirinternational use is dealt with in § 1.4.1.3.1 Monitoring for compliance with national rulesThe purpose of monitoring is to identify those transmissions that do not conform to requirementseither because the transmission is unlicensed or because of some technical non-compliance of thetransmission with national rules and regulations.There are a number of reasons for this type of work:– an unauthorized or defective transmission causes other users poor service throughinterference;– unauthorized transmissions represent loss of licence income to the administration and adisincentive for other users to seek licences, and they complicate the resolution ofinterference;– planning can only effectively proceed in a stable and coordinated environment; and– the public has a right to an acceptable level of broadcast, mobile radio and paging services.1.3.1.1 Verification of technical and operational parametersMonitoring is used to obtain detailed information on the technical and/or operational characteristicsof radio systems. This might typically include a detailed measurement of the emitted spectrum of atransmitter and/or its antenna pattern. These measurements can be made to provide informationneeded in a particular electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis, to verify conformance withthe characteristics authorized in a particular frequency assignment record, or as part of a type-acceptance process to ensure that a particular kind of equipment will operate compatibly with otherequipment in the frequency band. Finally, measurements might be made to ascertain that a giventransmitter was operating within specified limits.Although many types of technical parameters can be measured, probably the most important one isthe emitted spectrum of a transmitter. A measurement technique must be selected that will allowvarious types of signal modulation to be quantitatively measured in a useful way. Thus, ameasurement system should have a variety of bandwidths, filters, attenuators and other parametersthat may be selected individually for the signal being measured. Vector signal analysis capabilitiesare required for some of these measurements.
  20. 20. - 13 -Chapter 11.3.1.2 Resolution of interference and identification of unauthorized transmittersSpectrum monitoring data are useful in identifying and resolving the cause of interference toauthorized transmitters. Such measurements may detect the presence of unauthorized transmitterscausing the interference or, for example, detecting intermodulation interference resulting from acombination of transmitters and unintended spurious emissions. Although a wide variety ofcombinations of spectrum measurements and engineering analyses may be needed to resolve sometypes of interference, spectrum monitoring data often play a key role in this process. Auralmonitoring will often be useful in learning the identity of transmitters involved in the interference.Unauthorized transmitters may be suspected as a cause of interference. For this reason, there willoften be a close association between the ability to solve interference problems and the ability todetect and identify unauthorized transmitters. A major problem with the detection of unauthorizedtransmitters is that it is often difficult to separate legal signals from those that are unauthorized.This is especially difficult in crowded bands where authorized and unauthorized transmitters sharethe same band and have similar modulation characteristics.Detection of unauthorized signals can sometimes be accomplished by aural monitoring onfrequencies where authorized users have complained of interference or where frequency assignmentrecords show no legally-assigned users. Direction finding, mobile-tracking vans and informationderived from aural monitoring are helpful in identifying and locating illegal transmitters after theiroperation has been detected.1.3.2 Monitoring to aid spectrum management policyGood spectrum management can only satisfactorily proceed if the planners are adequately informedon the current usage of the spectrum and the trends in its demand. While much data is collectedfrom prospective users on licence application or renewal forms, it is seldom completely adequatefor spectrum management purposes. These records will only indicate that the use of a frequency isauthorized, but may not give adequate information on whether or how the frequency is actuallyused. Therefore, a frequency band that appears crowded on the basis of frequency assignmentrecords may or may not, in fact, be crowded.1.3.2.1 Spectrum usage (occupancy) dataUsage or channel occupancy data indicates how much of the time a particular frequency or band hashad a signal present during a specified observation interval. Measurements on a single frequencycan be combined to show how usage varies during a 24 h day (including busy hour and hours ofpeak, average and minimum usage). Data from many frequencies can be combined to show theaverage usage for all frequencies in a band, or for a selected group of users.Channel occupancy and band congestion information is a valuable tool for several spectrummanagement functions. This information can be used to identify vacant channels in a band, and canbe used to prohibit adding more assignments to heavily used channels. Such data can also be used toprompt an investigation, either when signals are present on unassigned channels, according to thefrequency management records, or when no usage is seen on frequencies with assignments.Changes with time-of-occupancy statistics, for the same band in the same geographical area, canreveal trends. Finally, this type of information can be used to help anticipate and plan for theallocation of additional bands when existing bands become too crowded.
  21. 21. - 14 -Chapter 1Spectrum usage measurements are particularly helpful in the land mobile radio bands or similarlychannellized communication bands. Other mobile bands would also be good candidates for usagemeasurements. Standards of use could be established by the spectrum management process forreference purposes in each of the services involved.The relationship between monitoring information and spectrum management records is not alwaysstraightforward. Channel occupancy information tells us only that a frequency is used. It does notindicate which transmitter is producing the signal. The existence of an assignment at a particularfrequency and the presence of a signal at that frequency do not necessarily mean that the measuredsignal was transmitted by the assigned transmitter. Aural monitoring for call signs or similarinformation to identify a transmitter may be needed to resolve any ambiguity. Alternatively,direction finders make it possible to compute occupancy measurements on a per transmitter basiswith the identification relying on geographical fix information. The absence of a signal during themeasuring time, however, does not necessarily indicate the absence of a frequency assignment orthat the frequency is unused. An assigned transmitter may not have been used during the monitoringperiod.1.3.2.2 An aid to new assignmentsThe level of use by each licensee varies according to the relevant business, the time of day and theday of the week. Licensing data can be used to predict levels of use with some degree of successdepending on the sophistication of the prediction model and the accuracy of the data. As congestionincreases the model may become progressively less adequate in identifying the least used channels.Monitoring data from the geographical area of the proposed assignment will be invaluable inidentifying a frequency most suited to the prospective purpose.1.3.2.3 An aid to developing better management modelsMonitoring data may be expensive to collect and analyse. Therefore, despite being a valuable tool,it is impractical to utilize monitoring data for all assignments. Lightly used areas of the country maybe adequately served by modelling based on available licence data. Monitoring data collected in thebusier areas can be compared to the levels predicted by the model with the results used to identifysuspect licensing data, and then to refine the model so that it best fits the total picture. By thismeans, the model can be validated and subsequently, better applied. Accordingly, monitoring canbe better targeted to those areas most in need of assistance.1.3.2.4 An aid to dealing with complaints and queriesAs congestion grows, the users will become less satisfied with the service available. By being ableto monitor in areas attracting disproportionately large numbers of complaints, the true nature of aproblem can be ascertained and the best remedial action devised. It will also be possible tosubstantiate or refute allegations regarding the quality of service perceived.1.3.2.5 An aid to categorizing and interpreting interference and propagation effectsThe VHF and UHF bands are not immune to the effects of anomalous propagation. The result maybe interference from distant services normally considered too distant to warrant great efforts incoordination.
  22. 22. - 15 -Chapter 1These effects are short-lived and while statistical data on them are available, it is only bymonitoring that the implications for particular services can be accurately assessed. It may well bethat only a few services are affected by only a few distant transmitters. The appropriate cure may becase-specific. Good monitoring data will greatly aid in identifying the causes of a problem.1.3.2.6 An aid to spectrum sharingThe demand on the spectrum is now such that services are expected to share. Some service types areclearly incompatible, but often the matter is borderline. Trials could be carried out to determine thedegree of compatibility. Monitoring the conduct of a trial will give information such as relativesignal levels that will aid analysis of the system performance.1.3.2.7 Database verification and improvementIntegrity of databases requires regular updates and verification. Monitoring data can be utilized tohelp verify the accuracy of spectrum management databases and to help bring them up-to-date.Also, monitoring capability of checking the data helps provide some added motivation for betterdatabase maintenance.1.4 International monitoring1.4.1 The international monitoring systemAs can be appreciated from different Chapters of this Handbook, the monitoring of emissions is anessential component of the frequency spectrum management system. Each country should operatemonitoring facilities as essential tools for ensuring efficient spectrum management at the nationallevel. On the other hand, since aims of the ITU include ensuring efficient and economic use of thefrequency spectrum and help towards the rapid elimination of harmful interference, administrationshave decided to cooperate in the development and operation of an international monitoring systemand, to that end, have adopted appropriate regulatory provisions.RR Article 16 contains the provisions governing the establishment and operation of the inter-national monitoring system.The international monitoring system comprises only those monitoring stations that are designated assuch by administrations. Such stations may be operated by an administration, a public or privateagency, a monitoring service established jointly by several countries or by an internationalorganization. The administrations responsible determine whether the technical standards observedby stations are in accordance with the ITU-R Recommendations and communicate the informationto the ITU. It is to be noted in this respect that administrations may authorize the participationof stations observing lower technical standards in order to meet some particular needs formonitoring data.A centralizing office must be designated by each administration, by a group of administrations incases where a joint monitoring service has been set up, or by an international organizationparticipating in international monitoring. Requests for monitoring information must be sent to the
  23. 23. - 16 -Chapter 1centralizing office, which then assembles the monitoring results for transmission to the Bureau orother centralizing offices. In accordance with RR Article 20, information on such stations ispublished by the ITU in the List of International Monitoring Stations (also known as List VIII),together with the name of the centralizing office.The information published in List VIII indicates which of the following functions each station isable to perform:– frequency measurements;– field strength or power flux-density measurements;– radio direction-finding measurements;– bandwidth measurements; and– automatic spectrum occupancy monitoring.List VIII also contains a section on monitoring stations that conduct measurements on stations inthe space radiocommunication services.List VIII is an indispensable document for operating in the international monitoring system, becausethe information it contains enables rapid contact to be made between centralizing offices,particularly in the case of harmful interference. It is therefore important for administrations tocarefully update (upon periodic request by the Bureau) the information in List VIII and notify theBureau immediately of any significant change. Supplements to List VIII are published regularlyand, in addition, information received between publication of the supplements is published in theITU Operational Bulletin.1.4.2 Coordination role of the BureauThe international monitoring system is a means for coordinating monitoring activities to satisfyinternational needs relating to the collection, exchange and publication of information. Monitoringactivities within the system are carried out in response to a request by either Administrations or bythe Bureau. The Bureau plays an essential role in the operation of the system by coordinating theorganization of regular and special monitoring programmes, collating and studying the results andmaking the necessary arrangements for communicating them to administrations. Since 1999, theBureau publishes the reports of monitoring information received from administrations in the ITUWeb site (http://www.itu.int/brtpr/monitoring/index.html), and the corresponding electronic filescan be downloaded free of charge.The Bureau organizes different types of monitoring programmes on a world or regional basis, aswell as limited programmes confined to a few administrations.1.4.3 Use of international monitoring information by the BureauThe Bureau needs monitoring data to perform the following tasks:– assisting in clearance of unauthorized or out-of-band operations;– assistance to administrations in cases of harmful interference;– guidance to administrations in selecting frequencies; and– preparation for Radiocommunication Conferences, in particular those responsible forallocating frequency bands, by providing reports on spectrum occupancy.
  24. 24. - 17 -Chapter 1Because of the different propagation characteristics in different parts of the frequency spectrum, themonitoring data used by the Bureau generally relates to the terrestrial services in the frequencybands below 28 MHz or those frequency bands used in space radiocommunications. In some specialcases, however, particularly when intervening in cases of interference, the Bureau must be able toobtain data relating to any frequency band.In this connection, it should be emphasized that with the increasing use of the frequency spectrumby the space radiocommunication services, there is a growing need for monitoring informationconcerning the bands used by these services. Recommendation 36 (WRC-97) invites ITU-R tostudy and make recommendations concerning the facilities required to provide adequate coverage ofthe world with a view to ensuring efficient use of resources, and invites administrations:– to make every effort to provide monitoring facilities as envisaged in RR Article 16;– to inform ITU-R of the extent to which they are prepared to cooperate in such monitoringprogrammes as may be requested by ITU-R; and– to consider the various aspects of monitoring emissions originating from space stations toenable the provisions of RR Articles 21 and 22 to be applied.It is also essential that those administrations already having space monitoring facilities participate inthe international monitoring system and to this effect notify to the Bureau of the particulars of theirmonitoring stations for inclusion in the appropriate section of List VIII.1.4.3.1 Assisting in clearance of unauthorized or out-of-band operationsFrom time to time the Bureau organizes special monitoring campaigns with the purpose ofidentifying unauthorized or out-of-band operations and encouraging administrations to take thenecessary action to eliminate the emissions concerned.The frequency bands for which these campaigns are organized are usually those in which safetycommunications are found. During these campaigns, the Bureau asks administrations to intensivelymonitor the bands concerned over a period of generally one week. The type of data required isexplained in a BR Circular Letter. The Bureau for facilitating further analysis summarizes thereports so obtained. If the Bureau is able to determine with reasonable certainty that the operatingunauthorized or out-of-band station is under the jurisdiction of a particular administration, it willdraw the attention of this administration to the reported operation and to the interference potentialof such emissions to safety services.Interfering emissions are sometimes due either to spurious emissions resulting from maladjustmentof a transmitter working in another band or to stations recorded in the Master InternationalFrequency Register (Master Register) as operating on a “non-interference basis” as foreseen inRR No. 4.4. Administrations are therefore generally able to clear the resulting interference.As an example, a special campaign has been in progress since 1987, pursuant to Resolution No. 205(Rev. Mob-87), in the 406-406.1 MHz band allocated exclusively to satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacons. This campaign has produced very positive results. Statistics about thenumber of interfering emissions that have been detected and further suppressed are appropriatelypublished in the BR annual reports.
  25. 25. - 18 -Chapter 11.4.3.2 Assistance to administrations in cases of harmful interferencePursuant to RR Article 15, an administration may request the assistance of the Bureau in solvingcases of harmful interference. In the studies it conducts for that purpose, the Bureau frequently usesinformation secured through international monitoring, often obtained by organizing specialprogrammes involving only a few monitoring stations.The Bureau may require two types of information in cases of harmful interference.The first of these concerns the identification and location of possible sources of harmfulinterference. In this case, the Bureau will request those administrations that have suitably locatedmonitoring stations to make the necessary observations and measurements.The Bureau evaluates the results of the measurements thus obtained so as to determine the locationof the interfering stations and hence, to identify the administration under whose jurisdiction itappears to be operating. The administration responsible is approached with a view to securing rapidelimination of the interference.The second use of monitoring information in connection with cases of harmful interference is themeasurement of the field strength of the interfering station. This may be necessary when there issome uncertainty as to the degree of harmful interference experienced, or if specific criteria in theRadio Regulations or an ITU-R Recommendation, might apply. The Bureau will, in cases of thistype, request the assistance of administrations whose monitoring stations are suitably located andequipped to make the measurements required.1.4.3.3 Guidance to administrations in selecting frequenciesIf requested by any administration in accordance with RR No. 7.6, and particularly by anadministration of a country in need of special assistance, the Bureau will use the informationrecorded in the Master Register, together with monitoring information received in the context ofregular or special monitoring programmes in order to identify potential frequencies that could beassigned to their stations in the fixed or mobile services.Special attention will be given to cases where replacement frequencies are needed for the regularoperation of stations in the aeronautical or maritime mobile service due to unresolved cases ofharmful interference.1.4.3.4 Preparation for radiocommunication conferencesAs part of the preparations for a radiocommunication conference, particularly if the conference hasto make changes in the Table of Frequency Allocations, the Bureau may organize specialmonitoring campaigns designed to supplement the data in the Master Register. Results would bereported to the conference in the form of a report so that it can evaluate the impact of the proposedchanges in spectrum use.
  26. 26. - 19 -Chapter 1In addition, a radiocommunication conference may request the Bureau to organise specialmonitoring campaigns not only with a view to providing information concerning the use of aspecific part of the spectrum but also to supporting studies concerning interference caused to safetycommunications for further analysis by a subsequent conference.1.4.4 International monitoring programmes1.4.4.1 The regular programmeSince the introduction of the Table of Frequency Allocations adopted by the Atlantic City RadioConference in 1947, the ITU maintained a regular programme of monitoring in the HF bandsbetween 2 850 and 28 000 kHz. The first issue of the "Summary of Monitoring Information"appeared in 1953 and these summaries have been published since then on a regular basis. The mainobjectives of the regular monitoring programmes of the International Monitoring System asestablished in BR Circular Letter CR/159 can be summarized as follows:– to assemble information on spectrum utilisation at the location of the monitoring stationsand to derive therefrom an indication of how the spectrum is used;– to identify stations whose emissions are not in conformity with the Radio Regulations(RR No. 16.8);– when requested by a radiocommunication conference, to assemble information on the useof the bands exclusively allocated to specific services (i.e. broadcasting, maritime,aeronautical) for consideration by appropriate, future radiocommunication conferences; and– to provide administrations which do not have monitoring facilities with information forfrequency management purposes.Several administrations normally contribute reports to the Bureau for the preparation of summariesof regular monitoring. The Bureau validates the information received and prepares a compileddatabase in the form of quarterly files, which are continuously updated and published on the ITUWeb site (http://www.itu.int/brtpr/monitoring/index.html).1.4.4.2 Special programmesFrom time to time, the Bureau organizes special monitoring programmes covering certain frequencybands and time intervals. These are carried out over several two- to three-week periods, each near intime to at least one equinox and two solstices.Each such special programme is announced in a circular letter sent to all administrations, invitingthem to make all the necessary arrangements well in advance for effectively participating in thecampaign. The circular letter also contains a list of the different parameters which monitoringstations are invited to collect, and indicates the format in which the data should be communicated tothe Bureau. To facilitate processing of the data, participants in the campaigns are stronglyrecommended to supply the results of their observations directly on magnetic or electronic media sothat they can be handled as quickly as possible without having first to be captured.
  27. 27. - 20 -Chapter 11.4.5 Global monitoring coverageOne of the main conditions for successful operation of the international monitoring system is toachieve a uniform coverage of all parts of the world by monitoring stations adequately equippedand taking an active part in these ITU monitoring programmes. For the time being, this coverage isvery uneven, particularly in some areas of the world from where the collection of monitoringinformation is often an essential requirement.Resolution ITU-R 23 refers to the need for extension of the international monitoring system to aworldwide scale and in particular resolved that:– all administrations now participating in the international monitoring system, including formonitoring of space stations emission levels, should be urged to continue to do so to themaximum extent possible and to provide data to the Bureau for the preparation ofsummaries of monitoring in application of RR Article 16;– administrations, which do not at present participate in the international monitoring system,should be urged to make monitoring facilities available to that system, in accordance withRR Article 16 using the relevant information contained in this Handbook;– cooperation between monitoring stations of different administrations should be encouragedand improved with a view to exchanging monitoring information concerning terrestrial andspace stations emissions, and to settling harmful interference caused by transmittingstations that are difficult to identify or cannot be identified;– administrations, located in those areas of the world where monitoring facilities areinadequate, should be urged to promote the establishment of monitoring stations for theirown use and make them available for international monitoring, in accordance with RRArticle 16; and– administrations with more advanced terrestrial and space monitoring systems should beurged to accept officials from other administrations to train them in the techniques ofmonitoring, direction finding and location. Initial contact for training may be made to theappropriate centralizing office as incorporated in List VIII.1.5 Collaboration among monitoring stations of different countriesAs mentioned above, one of the objectives spelled out in Resolution ITU-R 23 by the Radio-communication Assembly is the cooperation between monitoring stations of differentadministrations. This cooperation is particularly useful in areas where monitoring stations ofdifferent countries are relatively close to one another. Different forms of cooperation can beenvisaged. Two examples of such cooperation are described below in the following two sections.1.5.1 Collaboration below 30 MHzIn order to avoid overlapping of activities by monitoring stations covering the same area, closecooperation can be organized between these stations so that they can take part, in turn, in a specificmonitoring programme. For this purpose, the part of the spectrum to be monitored can be dividedinto sub-bands that each monitoring station taking part in the programme will explore in turn in
  28. 28. - 21 -Chapter 1accordance with a predetermined timetable, for instance once a week. Some common operationalrules have to be defined so that a uniform method is used in conducting all operations, including theappraisal of reception quality. It is advisable that all these operations be coordinated by one of theparticipating monitoring stations.Such arrangements can be implemented either for particular purposes, for instance during specialmonitoring programmes organized by the Bureau, or they can be of a more permanent nature likethe arrangement made by the European Broadcasting Union for the monitoring of the LF/MFbroadcasting bands in the European area.Another field of activity where close coordination between monitoring stations may be essential isthe determination of the location of a transmitter and its identification, particularly in the case ofharmful interference. In such a case the most important factors are the speed and accuracy ofintervention. It is thus essential that administrative and operational arrangements be concluded, apriori, among the administrations of the countries in which the monitoring stations are located. Assoon as the need arises, these stations can then establish direct contact between themselves in orderto perform simultaneous measurements of the same emission including, as necessary, takingbearings on the transmitter concerned.Again, one of the monitoring stations should take a leading role in the exercise but it, of course,does not need to be the same station in all cases. Normally, the station that requests theinvestigations would take the leading role.1.5.2 Collaboration above 30 MHzNeighbouring countries are increasingly endeavouring to provide harmonized radiocommunicationsto facilitate cross-frontier operations by adopting common specifications. This phenomenon is avery marked one, at least in Europe, and should encourage the countries concerned to set upharmonized or even integrated monitoring facilities by using identical procedures and, under certaincircumstances, a common infrastructure. This would make monitoring services more efficient andalso lead to lower and, therefore, more readily acceptable financial investments for monitoringinfrastructure.Collaboration between technicians of different countries in the definition and development of acommon operational system could also have a major positive impact on technical innovation andthe quality of inter-personal and related international relations.As mentioned in § 2.6, countries need to introduce VHF/UHF monitoring stations that are carefullysited, having regard to the normal, limited range of transmitters in these bands.With few exceptions, countries have at least one frontier with their neighbour(s). The monitoring ofemissions in frontier areas has at least two special features:– it is generally less efficient than in the interior of the country because some of themonitoring station’s coverage area often overlaps the neighbouring country; and– measurements are harder to exploit owing to interference from unknown emissions from aneighbouring country, although this difficulty has to a large extent been solved in the caseof frequencies used by countries having harmonized specifications and frequencies.
  29. 29. - 22 -Chapter 1In such situations, neighbouring countries might be advised to conclude special agreements betweenone another on the basis of RR Article 16, with a view to optimizing the monitoring procedures andfacilities to be introduced in frontier area(s). Such bilateral or even multilateral agreements may beclassified in three categories. The first category is to be regarded as the initial step while the secondand third categories constitute longer-term objectives. The main issues to be covered are thefollowing:First category:– cases in which the regional authorities on both sides of the frontier are authorized to enterinto direct contact, for example, only when the frequencies concerned are the direct respon-sibility of the regional centre (frequencies to be specified), on the basis of RR No. 16.3;– in such cases, methods for informing the centralizing offices (RR No.16.3); and– exchange of list of actions authorized by the regional authorities, e.g.:– carrying out measurements from their own territory on transmitters in the neighbouringcountry, at its request, and transmitting the results to it;– authorizing a mobile team from the neighbouring country to come and takemeasurements itself; and– mutual assistance in both cases.Second category:– joint establishment of a plan for the distribution of monitoring stations in frontier areas;– definition of the interfaces to enable each country to take measurements of transmitterslocated on its own territory from any station in the frontier area; and– establishment of a schedule for installing harmonized monitoring facilities.Third category:– exchange of lists of authorized networks in the frontier areas of each country, together withtheir technical characteristics, so that “foreign” transmitters are no longer regarded asunknown; and– exchange of such lists using automatic remote data transmission procedures.Arrangements of this kind exist in many parts of the world, particularly in congested areas. Thelong-standing arrangements among Canada, Mexico, and the USA constitute a typical example ofsuch cooperation.The need for such collaboration is also exigent in the European area where, for instance, France,Germany and Switzerland entered into an agreement of the first category in 1993. A detaileddescription of this arrangement is given in Annex 1 to this Chapter.In developing its national spectrum monitoring system, France’s aim is, in particular, to makeaccess to its system easy and automatic, both for authorized national users and for users fromagreeing countries.
  30. 30. - 23 -Chapter 1ANNEX 1AGREEMENT FOR DIRECT CO-OPERATION AMONGRADIO MONITORING STATIONSAgreement among the Administrations of France, Germany and Switzerland onthe direct co-operation between radio monitoring stationsAGREEMENTAmong the signatory administrations on the direct co-operationbetween radio monitoring stationsThe following has been determined by the signatory Administrations within the scope of theirresponsibilities as defined by Articles1) 20, 22 and 24 of the Radio Regulations for the settlement ofproblems of harmful interference or unauthorized emissions:1. If the assistance of another country is deemed necessary, the centralizing office of thecountry concerned shall turn to the centralizing office of the other country in accordancewith the Radio Regulations (No. 1875 of the Radio Regulations).2. The bodies responsible for radio monitoring shall designate radio monitoring stationswhich, when deemed appropriate, may establish direct contact with each other (Nos. 1946and 1956 of the Radio Regulations).3. The Administrations give their consent for mobile monitoring equipment of the radiomonitoring stations mentioned in 2. above to cross the common borders of their countries inthe fulfilment of radio monitoring tasks.Consent from the other country is to be obtained in each case.Stations may use their own monitoring equipment.The use of means of communication is not covered by this Agreement.4. No official acts may be performed directly towards citizens within the territory of the othercountry.5. The radio monitoring stations shall mutually support each other in the application of thisAgreement.6. The bodies responsible for radio monitoring shall stipulate the terms regarding theapplication of this Agreement in a protocol.Paris, 16 September, 1993 Bern, 15 October, 1993 Bonn, 9 November, 1993For the Minister responsible forTelecommunications in France:The Director of theRéglementation Générale:For the General Directorateof the Swiss PTT Operators:The Director of the Directoratefor Radio and Television:For the Federal Ministerof Posts andTelecommunications:____________________1) Replaced by Articles 16, 15, and 18, respectively.
  31. 31. - 24 -Chapter 1PROTOCOLRegarding the Agreement of 1993 among the Administrations of Germany,Switzerland and France on the direct co-operationbetween radio monitoring stations1. Participants in the co-operation:– for Germany: the radio monitoring stations in Constance and Darmstadt;– for France: the services régionaux des radiocommunications of Lyon-St André deCorcy and Nancy and the international radio monitoring centre in Rambouillet;– for Switzerland: the radio monitoring stations in Basel, Bern, Châtonnaye, Geneva,St. Gallen and Zürich.2. Form of the co-operation:The direct co-operation provides for the following possibilities for the countries participating in theAgreement:– to carry out measurements with fixed and mobile monitoring equipment at the requestof a neighbouring country on their own territory;– to carry out measurements with their own mobile monitoring equipment outside theirterritory;– to exchange measurement results.3. Procedure for the co-operationThe request for measurements shall be transmitted among the monitoring stations by telephone, byfax or by telex. If measurements with mobile monitoring equipment have to be carried out onforeign territory, a distance of 50 km from the border may not be exceeded.4. Limits of the co-operationThe direct co-operation of the monitoring stations shall end when the request can no longer betreated on the grounds that the matter lies outside the competence of the monitoring station.It shall also end– when the measurements with fixed monitoring equipment are expected to require morethan three hours;– when the measurements with mobile monitoring equipment are expected to requiremore than nine hours or more than one monitoring vehicle.
  32. 32. - 25 -Chapter 1In both cases, the requests are to be addressed to the centralizing office.Paris, 16 September, 1993 Bern, 15 October, 1993 Mainz, 29 November, 1993For the Direction de laRéglementation Générale,Le Service National desRadiocommunications:For the General Directorate of theSwiss PTT Operators,Directorate for Radio andTelevision Department for the StateRadiocommunications Monopoly:For the BAPT,The Centralizing Office ofthe Radio MonitoringService:NOTE – Due to reorganisation of telecommunication authorities, the name of the signing authorities havechanged. Nevertheless, the agreement is still in use.ReferencesHandbook [1995] National spectrum management, International Telecommunication Union, Radio-communication Bureau, Geneva.Handbook [1999] Computer-aided techniques for spectrum management, International TelecommunicationUnion, Radiocommunication Bureau, Geneva.ITU-D [1999] Question 2/2 - Preparation of Handbooks for developing countries: economic, organizationaland regulatory aspects of national spectrum management, International Telecommunication Union,Telecommunication Development Bureau, Geneva.ITU-R texts:NOTE – In every case the latest edition of the Report should be used.Report ITU-R SM.2012 – Economic aspects of spectrum management.Report ITU-R SM.2015 – Methods for determining national long-term strategies for spectrum utilization.Resolution ITU-R 23 – Extension of the international monitoring system to a worldwide scale.
  33. 33. - 27 -Chapter 2CHAPTER 2ORGANIZATION, PHYSICAL STRUCTURES AND PERSONNELPage2.1 Tasks and structure of the monitoring service ...................................................... 302.1.1 Tasks of the monitoring service ............................................................................ 302.1.1.1 Tasks derived from the Radio Regulations (RR) .................................................. 302.1.1.2 Tasks on a national basis....................................................................................... 302.1.1.3 Tasks usually assigned to the radio inspection service ......................................... 312.1.1.4 Cooperation with other bodies .............................................................................. 312.1.2 Measurement tasks and essential equipment......................................................... 322.1.3 Structure of a monitoring system .......................................................................... 332.1.3.1 Centralizing office and international cooperation................................................. 332.1.3.2 Organizational structure ........................................................................................ 332.1.3.3 Geographic configuration of monitoring stations ................................................. 342.2 Operation............................................................................................................... 352.2.1 Work instructions and forms................................................................................. 352.2.2 Work schedules ..................................................................................................... 362.2.3 Typical procedure for dealing with interference complaints ................................ 372.2.3.1 Interference report................................................................................................. 372.2.3.2 Preliminary diagnosis............................................................................................ 372.2.3.3 Localization of the source by mobile means......................................................... 372.2.3.4 Measurements of emissions and possible sources................................................. 372.2.3.5 Measurement evaluation and necessary action ..................................................... 382.2.3.6 Interference involving foreign or military stations ............................................... 382.2.3.7 Final check-up....................................................................................................... 382.2.4 COSPAS/SARSAT ............................................................................................... 382.2.5 Identification and disconnection of illegal radio stations...................................... 382.2.6 Case documentation .............................................................................................. 39
  34. 34. - 28 -Chapter 2Page2.3 Management information system.......................................................................... 402.3.1 Database ................................................................................................................ 402.3.2 Reporting system, statistical analyses ................................................................... 412.3.3 Working plan......................................................................................................... 422.3.4 Resource planning................................................................................................. 422.4 Types of monitoring station .................................................................................. 422.4.1 Fixed monitoring stations...................................................................................... 432.4.2 Mobile monitoring stations ................................................................................... 442.4.2.1 Navigation and positioning systems...................................................................... 442.4.2.2 Vehicles................................................................................................................. 452.4.2.3 Airborne monitoring stations ................................................................................ 542.4.2.4 Maritime monitoring stations................................................................................ 572.4.3 Portable monitoring stations.................................................................................. 582.5 Remote control of monitoring equipment ............................................................. 582.5.1 Remote modes of operation and exchange of information ................................... 582.5.2 Communication architecture ................................................................................. 592.5.2.1 Interconnection of equipment on a local basis...................................................... 592.5.2.2 Long distance telecommunication network........................................................... 602.5.2.3 Protocol and software advice ................................................................................ 642.5.3 System security and access method ...................................................................... 642.6 Siting, buildings, facilities..................................................................................... 652.6.1 Siting of monitoring stations................................................................................. 652.6.1.1 General considerations .......................................................................................... 652.6.1.2 Desirable minimum site criteria for a station........................................................ 652.6.1.3 Additional desirable site criteria for stations equipped with direction finders ..... 662.6.1.4 Protection from strong transmitter fields .............................................................. 682.6.1.5 Protection from local computer systems ............................................................... 692.6.1.6 Land requirements................................................................................................. 692.6.1.7 Roadways .............................................................................................................. 702.6.1.8 Fencing.................................................................................................................. 702.6.2 Buildings and auxiliary facilities........................................................................... 71

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