Marine (Civil) Engineering - By Jignesh Adhyaru
Outline• Introduction• Types of marine structures and basics• Technical features / aspects• Gujarat’s Maritime footprints• Scope of Marine Civil Engineering In Gujarat• Conclusion
Introduction• Marine Civil Engineering is a specialised construction technology branch, it covers Civil construction, repair and maintenance projects of structures like Jetties, Berths, Dry Dock, Wharves, Slipways, Marinas, Shiplift, Marine railways, Shipways, Navigational Aids, Sea Link Bridges, offshore yard, shore protection works and other specialist foundation works in or near sea.
Types of Marine facilities• Port and Harbor – Bulk goods / Gaseous goods• Port and Harbor – Container goods• Port and Harbor – Combined• Shipyard• Ship Dismantling yard• Sea Link Bridges• Floating Structures• Fishing ports• Special Structures
Port and harbor• A Port is town or city with a harbor where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.• Port locations are selected – To optimize access to land and navigable water for commercial demand – for shelter from wind and waves. – In area of growing goods transport through waterways.
Waterway• The waterway serve as the road for the vessel to enter the harbor. A harbor may be located in shallower water then Vessel’s draft. For this reason the area should be dredged for harbor basin to enable a vessel to arrive in the basin, a channel shall be dredged to connect basin with deeper water if required. Water way Deep Harbor water basin
Wharf, Pier and Jetty• All the above are landing places where ships may tie up (moored) and may load / unload.• A pier is a platform extending from a shore over water and supported by piles or pillars, used to secure, protect, and provide access to ships or boats.• A quay or wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline, often of concrete. It is pronounced, key.• A jetty is a structure, such as a pier, that projects into a body of water to influence the current or tide or to protect a harbor or shoreline from storms or erosion.
What is a Dock? Gate Dry Dock Water bodyLand area
DockDry / Graving DockIs a rectangular basin dug into the shore of a body of water andprovided with a removable enclosure wall or gate on the sidetoward the water, used for ship building, major repairs andoverhaul of vessels.Floating Dockis a trough-shaped cellular structure, used to lift ships out ofthe water for inspection and repairs.Wet Dockis a rectangular basin dug into the shore of a water bodywithout removable enclosure or gate and always open to thesea but protected from three sides in high tide, else dry.
DockMarine railwayA marine railway is a set of tracks which are used with a cradleto bring ships up out of the water.ShipliftIt consists of a structural platform that is lifted and loweredexactly vertical, synchronously by a number of hoists. First, theplatform is lowered underwater, then the ship is floated abovethe support, and finally the platform with ship support and shipis lifted and the ship is brought to the level of the quay.SlipwayA slipway is a ramp on the shore by which ships or boats can bemoved to and from the water. They are used for building andrepairing ships and boats.
Shipyard facilities• Waterway• Dock / Slipway• Gate to dock• Cranes• Mooring and Hauling in facilities• Berth, Pier• Workshop and stores• Stack yard• Offices• Road
Marine Project consists of..• Dredging• Area Development by Dredged material• Ground Improvement by various methods• Piling and its types• Diaphragm wall• Sheet pile wall• Retaining / counter fort wall• Rock / Soil Anchors• Precast / In-situ concrete
Dredging• Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater, in shallow seas or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location. This technique is often used to keep waterways navigable.
What is pile?• Piling is a type of ground treatment - driving a column into the ground below weak strata to transfer the load to the sustainable ground. It’s used to strengthen the soil to make the ground able to support the load of the building. • Driven piles • Bored piles • Steel pile • Timber pile • End bearing pile • Concrete pile • Friction pile • Composite pile • Dual bearing pile
Making of a quay• Installation of piles by Gantry / Barge• Casting of precast pile cap, beam, slab• Placing precast pile cap / Muff• Placing of Longitudinal / transitional beams• In-situ concreting• Placing Precast slab• In-situ concreting and various installations.
Diaphragm wall• It is a reinforced concrete wall constructed underground using slurry rotation technique. It involves excavation of a trench which is kept full of designed slurry, installing steel cages and replacing slurry with concrete to form a wall. Width ranges from 300 – 1200 mm and depth up to 45 m.• Types – Insitu cement bentonite RCC wall – Insitu RCC Vertical wall – Precast RCC Vertical Wall
At Pipavav Shipyard• Installation of app.. 2.5 km length T section diaphragm wall for Two wet docks, one of which was later converted in Dry Dock.• More then 1200 BCIS piles for Crane foundations, quay and other purposes.• Stone columns, Soil and rock anchors (vertical, horizontal and inclined),• Record 55000 Cu. m. In-situ concrete in a month• 6.0 km 30 m wide 350 MT / Sq m capacity dedicated road with 200 m bridge and various size culverts.
Indian Maritime History• As a peninsular sub continent with over 10000 km coast line, India is a maritime nation from post Ice age, i.e. about 10,000 B.C.• Indian Ships dominated the vast ocean around our peninsula from over 4000 B.C. till 17th Century A.D.• Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country.
Evidences• ASI excavated Lothal site from 1955 to 1961, they found township and market, factories and public utility structures.• But the Burnt Brick basin built in 2400 B.C. was an amazing and unique discovery.• This is assumed to be world’s first Dock for ship building, berthing, loading / unloading and passenger movements.• Ships from Lothal traded to China, coasts of Africa, Babylon and Mediterranean areas through red sea and Persian Gulf.• Lothal Scientists used Shell compass to divide sky in 8-12 parts, 2000 years before Greeks
Lothal Dockyard• The dominant sight at Lothal is the massive dockyard which has helped make this place so important to international archaeology. Spanning an area 37 meters from east to west and nearly 22 meters from north to south, the dock is said by some to be the greatest work of maritime architecture before the birth of Christ.
Technical aspects• The dock was connected to sea through old course of Sabarmati river.• Dock was located away from currents of the sea to reduce silt deposition to avoid dredging costs• Unearthed trenches working as inlet chambers working as connecting dock to the river were existing.• Some believe that this is a dumping pit for sewage of the city of Lothal.
Gujarat – on Maritime Map• Gujarat, From Lothal till today, remained as an important player on World Maritime Map.• Mundra, Kandla, Alang, Dahej, Jamnagar are on this map since ages leaving their impressions as Important waterfront places.• Pipavav, India’s first Public Private partnership port,• Pipavav Shipyard is India’s largest and world’s third largest Shipyard today. It will be world’s largest shipyard facility by 2014.
Upcoming Projects in GujaratThese are more then infra projects in any developed country.Scale and magnitude of these confirms huge requirement ofCivil Engineers working for Marine Construction Projects. Inaddition to the projects below, many major ports andShipyards of Gujarat are in expansion mode and will need Civilengineering backup for the same.• Dholera SIR as a part of DMIC• Pipavav Shipyard’s World’s Biggest Dry Dock• Kalpasar Project in Gulf of Khambhat• Sardar Patel statue in Narmada river• Ro-Ro ferry service from Ghogha to Dahej• SP Shipyard in Mahuva and Power project at Chara, Kodinar
Dholera SIR• Total Area : 903 sq. kms, developable area: 547 sq. kms.• High Access Corridor: City Centre, Industrial, Logistic, Knowledge & IT, Recreation & Sports, Entertainment• World-class infrastructure & connectivity: within & outside, Central spine express way & Metro Rail to link the SIR with mega cities, Airport & Sea Port in the vicinity• Benefit of sea coast, nature park, golf course• Capable to cater to both International & Domestic Market• Close to Gujarat International Finance TechCity (GIFT)• Close to Petro-chemicals and Petroleum Inv. Region (PCPIR)• Benefits of the high impact Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC)
Dholera Port and SEZ• The Port with 6-km long waterfront, natural draught of 15 to 18 m at 200 m away from the shore, Channel draught of 8 to 11 m - is sufficient to bring largest vessels. The total cost of the project is Rs. 3,000 crores.• As a part of Dholera SIR, Dholera Port is being jointly developed by J.K. and Adani Group, as an all-weather commercial port.• Dholera Port is expected to handle six million tonnes of general cargo per annum. DPL has obtained all the clearances from the State and Central Govt.
Benefits - Kalpasar• Irrigation benefit• Transportation Benefit• Land Reclamation benefit• Port development on Downstream• Non Conventional Energy generation• Fisheries benefit• Proposed 10 lane road for Ahmadabad-Bhavnagar route• 2000 sq. km world’s biggest fresh water reservoir (in sea) with 6-lane periphery road of 270 km long• Solar and Wind power, Tourism, Bio-fuel park, Transportation, Fisheries etc. project components / benefits.
Value addition of LandProjects in vicinity of Kalpasar project• Dholera SIR• Fedara International Airport• PCPIR at Dahej• SEZ, GIDC etc.• Delhi- Mumbai Industrial Corridor
Concluding Remarks• Marine project involves many Civil engineering Sub categories like Structural, Geotechnical, Hydraulics, Transportation, Water resources and environmental Engineering and hence scope remains for each and every specialization.• Marine project execution needs hard work and being away from City and Society its least preferred job type, but is a very specialized experience and market has scarcity of such engineers.• Technically it’s a very satisfying experience to design and execute such projects.• Scope of Marine engineering was, is and will remain always.
References and Mentions• http://Wikipedia.com• http://projectsmonitor.com• http://kalpasar.gujarat.gov.in• Gujarat Pipavav Port Limited• Pipavav Defense and offshore engineering company limited• http://Youtube.com• http://www.harappa.com/lothal