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Graphene

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project report on manufacturing of graphene

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Graphene

  1. 1. GRAPHENE REINFORCED METAL COMPOSITES AND POLYMER COMPOSITES`GIBIN SUNNY ` B090565MEJEFFIN V THOMAS B090367MEPRADEEP EAPEN MATHEW B090370MESUHAS NAHAS B090086MEVIPIN DAS B090648ME 1
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE• To enhance the properties of metals such as Aluminium, Copper, Magnesium etc and polymers such as PDMS, epoxy, polyethylene which are extensively used, by reinforcing them with graphene which is a material having high tensile strength, thermal conductivity, optical transmittance and various other mechanical and physical properties. 2
  3. 3. GRAPHENE UNIQUE PROPERTIES• Large theoretical specific area (2360 m2/g)• Thermal conductivity (∼5000 W/mk )• High intrinsic mobility (200,000 cm2/sv )• Extremely high Young’s modulus (∼1.0 TPa)• Optical transmittance (∼97.7%) 3
  4. 4. ALUMINIUM STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONSHIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO Tensile Strength : 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Density : 2.70 g·cm−3APPLICATIONS• Aircraft industry, marine/shipbuilding industry, AND rail transport industry• Engine Blocks, Wheels, Cylinder heads, Bumper beams in automobiles.• High pressure gas cylinders. 4
  5. 5. ALUMINIUM THERMAL APPLICATIONSTHERMAL PROPERTIES Thermal Conductivity : 237 W·m−1·K−1 Thermal Expansion : 23.1 µm·m−1·K−1APPLICATIONS• Thermal Dissipation by a Fin System that will Draw Heat away from the Engine Casing• Heat Exchanger for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another• Heat Sink in various electronic devices• Heat transfer fin stock and heat transfer tubes in automobiles 5
  6. 6. POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE APPLICATIONSUNIQUE PROPERTIES:• Highly flexible and relatively good tensile strength• High Optical Transmittance• Viscoelastic at high temperatures and can mold to any surface imperfectionsAPPLICATIONS• Construction of Micro and Nanoscale channels for fluid flow• Micro and Nano fluidic devices• Cooling of small scale integrated circuits by providing proper channels for cooling fluid flow 6
  7. 7. BULK SYNTHESIS OF GRAPHENE MODIFIED HUMMERS METHOD Conc. H2SO4 is added KMnO 4 added Graphite Powder ` kept in ice and mix gradually at a + NaNO3 and mixed properly bath temperature < 20 C 30% H2O2 was added to Addition of 150ml of The mix stirred for the mix stirring water keeping in ice 18 hrs in water bath for 2 hrs. bath, t < 50 C temperature < 35 C Mixture filtered, Resulting solid washed with 10% Few Layered dried in a vacuum graphene flakes aqueous HCl, and heated in oven distilled water, are obtained upto 100 Cethanol (anhydrous) 7
  8. 8. GRAPHENE CHARACTERIZATION• Scanning Electron Microscopy• Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy• Thermo-gravimetric Analysis• Atomic Force Microscopy• Raman Spectroscopy• X-Ray Diffraction 8
  9. 9. SEM IMAGE (10000X MAGNIFICATION) GRAPHITE 9
  10. 10. SEM IMAGE (10000X MAGNIFICATION) GRAPHITE OXIDE 10
  11. 11. SEM IMAGE (10000X MAGNIFICATION) GRAPHENE FLAKES 11
  12. 12. EDAX GRAPHITE OXIDEELEMENT WEIGHT % ATOMIC %CARBON 58.34 65.60OXYGEN 39.84 33.63SULPHUR 1.82 0.77 12
  13. 13. EDAX GRAPHENEELEMENT WEIGHT % ATOMIC %CARBON 72.71 78.02OXYGEN 27.29 21.98 13
  14. 14. THERMO-GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS GRAPHITE 14
  15. 15. THERMO-GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS GRAPHITE OXIDE 15
  16. 16. THERMO-GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS FEW LAYERED GRAPHENE 16
  17. 17. ALUMINUM GRAPHENE COMPOSITE POWDER METALLURGY 2mg (.1 wt %) Dispersion by Add 2gm of graphene Mixed Probe Aluminum Powder with 20 ml of Sonication at Regular intervals acetone Sintering at a Powder Mixture Kept fortemperature of 550 C Compaction at Evaporation of (0.7 - 0.9 Melting a Pressure of Acetone Point) 200 MPa 17
  18. 18. PDMS GRAPHENE COMPOSITE PREAPARATION• 5 gms of PDMS and 0.5 gms of Hardener (10:1)• Different weight proportions of Graphene (.1%, .2%, .5%) Graphene Sonication for PDMS added mixed with Homogeneous and stirred Hardener Dispersion thoroughly Heating to Pouring the mixture into the Removal of 150 C for 10 glass mould Entrapped gases minutes 18
  19. 19. TENSILE TESTSPECIMENS PREPARED 19
  20. 20. TENSILE TEST RESULTS OBTAINED (PDMS) Tensile (Mpa) 1.425 Max Force (N) 4 Elong at Max (%) 26.86Stress at Break (Mpa) 0.1068 Force at Break (N) 0.3 Elongation (%) 49.14Stress @ 10 % (Mpa) 0.712Stress @ 20 % (Mpa) 0.962Stress @ 30 % (Mpa) 0.1068Stress @ 40 % (Mpa) 0.1068Stress @ 50 % (Mpa) 1.425 20
  21. 21. TENSILE TESTFORCE V/S ELONGATION CURVE (PDMS) 21
  22. 22. TENSILE TEST RESULTS OBTAINED (0.1 wt %) Tensile (Mpa) 1.088 Max Force (N) 3.3 Elong at Max (%) 35.67Stress at Break (Mpa) 0.0989 Force at Break (N) 0.3 Elongation (%) 69.7Stress @ 10 % (Mpa) 0.3296Stress @ 20 % (Mpa) 0.4285Stress @ 30 % (Mpa) 0.758Stress @ 40 % (Mpa) 0.527Stress @ 50 % (Mpa) 0.3955 22
  23. 23. TENSILE TESTFORCE V/S ELONGATION CURVE (0.1 wt. %) 23
  24. 24. TENSILE TEST RESULTS OBTAINED (0.5 wt. %) Tensile (Mpa) 4.242 Max Force (N) 11.3 Elong at Max (%) 73.3Stress at Break (Mpa) 0.863 Force at Break (N) 2.3 Elongation (%) 74Stress @ 10 % (Mpa) 0.2628Stress @ 20 % (Mpa) 0.751Stress @ 30 % (Mpa) 1.014Stress @ 40 % (Mpa) 1.502Stress @ 50 % (Mpa) 2.14 24
  25. 25. TENSILE TESTFORCE V/S ELONGATION CURVE (0.5 wt. %) 25
  26. 26. WORK TO BE DONE• Nano-indentation and various other nano-scale tests on the composites for various concentrations of graphene.• Testing of properties such as Thermal conductivity, Wear Resistance, Indentation etc. on both Aluminium and PDMS composites.• Study on effectiveness of utilization of PDMS-graphene composite in microfluidic devices and its other potential applications.• Preparation of graphene reinforced composites of copper and magnesium.• Preparation of graphene reinforced composites of epoxy and polyethylene.• Characterization and testing of all composites in macro, micro and nano scales 26

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