Introduction  to Computers Hardware Concepts-I
Information Technology <ul><li>The branch of technology devoted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study and application of dat...
Model of an Information System DATA H/W Procedures Stored  Data S/W People INFORMATION
The  Five Generations  of Computers <ul><li>First Generation - 1940-1956: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Tubes  for Circuit ...
The  Five Generations  of Computers <ul><li>Second Generation - 1956-1963:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors  replaced v...
The  Five Generations  of Computers <ul><li>Third Generation - 1964-1971:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated circuit   </l...
The  Five Generations  of Computers <ul><li>Fourth Generation - 1971-Present:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor , whe...
The  Five Generations  of Computers <ul><li>Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on  artif...
Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Super computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the  largest  and  faste...
Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Main frame computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are less powerful and  ...
Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Mini Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of computer performs data...
Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Micro computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a full fledged computer syst...
C omponents of PC <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices ...
Block Diagram of Computer CPU Primary Storage Secondary Storage Communications Devices Output Devices Input  Devices Buses
Central Processing Unit (CPU)   <ul><li>Area of the computer system,  </li></ul><ul><li>That manipulates symbols, numbers,...
Control Unit <ul><li>Component of the CPU  that controls and coordinates the other parts of the computer system   </li></u...
Arithmetic-logic Unit (ALU) <ul><li>Component of the CPU  </li></ul><ul><li>That performs the principal logic and arithmet...
Primary Storage (Main Memory) <ul><li>Part of the computer that temporarily stores program instructions and data being use...
RAM (Random Access Memory) <ul><li>Primary Storage, accessed at electronic speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile  (electrical ...
RAM (Random Access Memory) <ul><li>Two types of RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM: Dynamic RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
ROM <ul><li>Read Only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile </li></ul><ul><li>It is used...
ROM <ul><li>The data or programs which are stored in ROM can be  read  and  used  but they cannot be  altered.   </li></ul...
Cache Memory <ul><li>Cache is special area of high speed memory that is located  between  the  CPU  and  main memory .  </...
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The Deal

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The Deal

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers Hardware Concepts-I
  2. 2. Information Technology <ul><li>The branch of technology devoted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study and application of data and the processing thereof; i.e., the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation (including transformation), management, movement, control, display, interchange, transmission or reception of data and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) The development and use of the hardware, software, and procedures associated with this processing. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Model of an Information System DATA H/W Procedures Stored Data S/W People INFORMATION
  4. 4. The Five Generations of Computers <ul><li>First Generation - 1940-1956: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Tubes for Circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic drums for Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous in size , taking up entire rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used a great deal of electricity , generated a lot of heat , which was often the cause of malfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on machine language to perform operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They could only solve one problem at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input was based on punched cards and paper tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output was displayed on printouts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g..: UNIVAC and ENIAC </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Five Generations of Computers <ul><li>Second Generation - 1956-1963: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors replaced vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper , more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punched cards for input and printouts for output. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic, or assembly languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-level programming languages, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored instructions in their memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Five Generations of Computers <ul><li>Third Generation - 1964-1971: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboards for input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors for output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaced with an operating system , which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Five Generations of Computers <ul><li>Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor , where thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit in the palm of the hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked together to form networks , which led to the development of the Internet . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Five Generations of Computers <ul><li>Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on artificial intelligence , are still in development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though there are some applications, such as voice recognition , that are being used today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Super computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the largest and fastest computers available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used for commercial data processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead used in specialized area such as defence, aircraft design, computer generated movies etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can process 64 bits or more at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing speed ranges from 10,000 million instructions per second to 1.2 billion instructions per second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can support up to 10,000 terminals at a time. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Main frame computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are less powerful and cheaper than super computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However they are big general-purpose computers capable of handling all kinds of scientific and business applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can process at several million instructions per second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can support more than 1000 remote terminals at a time. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Mini Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of computer performs data processing activities in the same way as the mainframe but on a smaller scale . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of minis is lower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It costs about Rs 5 lacs to 50 lacs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is usually input by means of a keyboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It consists of a C.P.U., several disk drives, a high speed printer and number of terminals </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Classification of Computers based on Size <ul><li>Micro computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a full fledged computer system that uses a microprocessor as its CPU. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called personal computer systems . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now a days computer are also categorized as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It provides services to other computing systems called –clients- over a network. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between minicomputer and microcomputer- in terms of processing power. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looks like PC and used by one person. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. C omponents of PC <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication devices </li></ul>
  14. 14. Block Diagram of Computer CPU Primary Storage Secondary Storage Communications Devices Output Devices Input Devices Buses
  15. 15. Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Area of the computer system, </li></ul><ul><li>That manipulates symbols, numbers, and letters, </li></ul><ul><li>And controls the other parts of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Two components of CPU : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Control Unit <ul><li>Component of the CPU that controls and coordinates the other parts of the computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Reads and interprets program instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Direct internal processor components </li></ul><ul><li>Moves programs and data in & out of RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoder: to decode instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulator: to store results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registers: to store instruction, data </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Arithmetic-logic Unit (ALU) <ul><li>Component of the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>That performs the principal logic and arithmetic operations of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Performs computations (+,-,*, /) </li></ul><ul><li>Performs logic operations (>, <, =, AND, OR, XOR) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Primary Storage (Main Memory) <ul><li>Part of the computer that temporarily stores program instructions and data being used by the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>It is mainly categorized into two types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM : Random Access Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM : Read Only Memory </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. RAM (Random Access Memory) <ul><li>Primary Storage, accessed at electronic speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile (electrical interruption loses data) </li></ul><ul><li>The program can randomly select and use any of the storage locations of RAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Data and programs can be stored in RAM from input devices or auxiliary storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>The stored data can be retrieved and displayed on a CRT screen or printed on a printer </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in RAM can be changed by a user using instructions within a computer program during computer processing . </li></ul>
  20. 20. RAM (Random Access Memory) <ul><li>Two types of RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM: Dynamic RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is dynamic because each memory cell quickly loses its charge, so it must be refreshed hundreds of times each second to prevent data from being lost. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM: Static RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is like DRAM, but it is a lot faster, larger and more expensive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is static because it does not need to be continually refreshed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of its speed, it is used in a special area of memory called Cache. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. ROM <ul><li>Read Only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Volatile </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for storing micro-program control instructions that cause the machine to perform certain operations. </li></ul><ul><li>With ROM, data is recorded in the memory when the memory is manufactured. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ROM <ul><li>The data or programs which are stored in ROM can be read and used but they cannot be altered. </li></ul><ul><li>The information form the memory may be read but fresh information cannot be written into it. </li></ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS is one such example. </li></ul><ul><li>But now a days some alterations can be done in the following forms of ROM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROM – Programmable read only Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPROM – Erasable Programmable read only memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Cache Memory <ul><li>Cache is special area of high speed memory that is located between the CPU and main memory . </li></ul><ul><li>When the processor needs data, it checks high-speed cache first to see if the data is there, if not, the processor then retrieves the data from the main memory. </li></ul><ul><li>On some systems, cache memory is four times as fast as regular main memory. </li></ul><ul><li>However, cache costs six times as much as main memory </li></ul>

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