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Innovation,
                                                                     Quality and the
                                                                  School Ecosystem:
                                                                   Challenges to the
                                                                       Inspectorate
September 13-14, 2012 / Porto, Portugal
SICI WORKSHOP – Innovating Inspections
to Value Innovative Schools
The Standing International Conferences of Inspectorates (SICI)
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION



    Two radically different
      types of innovation:

 incremental innovation
   disruptive innovation

        If we mix them up,
innovation rarely happens
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


          INCREMENTAL INNOVATION

      Incremental innovations build on
existing thinking, products, processes,
       organizations, or social systems
     They can be routine improvements
or they can be dramatic breakthroughs
                                    but
      they apply to what already exists
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


        INCREMENTAL INNOVATION
Examples of incremental innovations:
          •  Airplanes that fly farther
         •  Batteries that last longer
    •  Televisions with better images
   •  Computers that process faster
    •  Schools where students learn
    better by regularly using the Net
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


                   DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

      Disruptive innovations are addressed to
       people who do not have any solutions
      They take root in simple, undemanding,
       applications that are not breakthrough
People are happy to use them, in spite of their
  limitations, because no other solutions exist
           They do not compete with anything
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


    DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

       But as they gain strength
in the realm of non-competition

           they evolve very fast

          and end up replacing
        the traditional solutions
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


                                  DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION

  Example of a disruptive innovation: the personal computer

In the 1970s the professional computer market was occupied
             by 100,000 € minicomputers produced by Digital
        Equipment Corporation (DEC), Data General, and HP.

            The first personal computers (like the Spectrum
                  and the Apple II) were ridiculously limited,
                          and completely out of that market.
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION


                             DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION
                They were supposed to be used mainly
                  as toys by children and their parents.
     But they quickly grew up, in that unexplored market
Ten years later, in the early 1990s, they were much more
 powerful, and starting to erode the minicomputer market
Twenty years later, in the early 2000s, the minicomputer
           market collapsed in favour of the PC market
            DEC and Data General don’t exist any more
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY



                      SCHOOLING
    model transposed from industry
    to education in the 18th century

                         QUALITY
concept transposed from industry to
      education in the 20th century
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY


        SCHOOLING IN THE LAST 200 YEARS

                       industrial	
      social	
  
                          era	
           era	
  

                                 Industrial revolution:
                        fascination with the machine
Pedagogical and organizational processes reproduced
       the repeatability and accuracy of the machine
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

                                                    INDUSTRIAL ERA
With the generalization of the public schools,
        the organizational models of industry
             were transposed to the schools.



                       Rows of desks, bells ringing, artificially separated
                       disciplines, learning out of context, instruction of
                       listening and answering, isolation and competition,
                       rigid national curricula, standard tests.
                       The industry has changed radically, since then, but
                       education keeps much of the old model.
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

                                                     INDUSTRIAL ERA


disciplinary learning

mechanical and industrial vision of learning
learning as ‘knowledge’ delivery (or ‘content’)
predominance of authority and hierarchy
praise of uniformity

primacy of quantity
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY


                                  SOCIAL ERA

                 industrial	
       social	
  
                    era	
            era	
  


    The new forms of socialization provided by
communication networks (internet, cell phones)
 are leading to a multitude of new opportunities
          and promising approaches to learning
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

                                                           SOCIAL ERA


multi-, trans- and meta disciplinary learning

organic and social vision of learning
learning as transformation
predominance of leadership and collaboration

praise of difference

primacy of quality (supported by reasonable quantity)
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY


          industrial era
 social era
           disciplinary learning   multidisciplinary learning
      mechanical and industrial    organic and social
             vision of learning    vision of learning
learning as ‘knowledge’ delivery   learning as transformation
     predominance of authority     predominance of leadership
                and hierarchy      and collaboration
            praise of uniformity   praise of difference
            primacy of quantity    praise of quality (quantified)
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY


   IN WHICH ERA ARE WE?
                               industrial	
           social	
  	
  
                                  era	
                era	
  


          Definitely, in the
            industrial era!
 We are building the 21st
century with the visions of
         the 19th century                       http://leading-learning.blogspot.com/
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY




          http://leading-learning.blogspot.com/
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

WHAT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ARE PRODUCING
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

WHAT THE WORLD NEEDS TODAY
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY


                                                  QUALITY IN THE LAST 100 YEARS
                                     THE	
  QUALITY	
  MOVEMENT	
  IN	
  INDUSTRY	
  
Before	
  1900	
     Quality	
  as	
  an	
  integral	
  element	
  of	
  the	
  cra7	
  
1900-­‐1920	
        Quality	
  control	
  by	
  foreman	
  
1920-­‐1940	
        Inspec>on-­‐based	
  quality-­‐control	
  
1940-­‐1960	
        Sta>s>cal	
  process	
  control	
                                               Schools 2012
                                                                                                     Inspectorate
1960-­‐1980	
        Quality	
  assurance	
  (quality	
  department)	
  
1980-­‐1990	
        Total	
  quality	
  management	
  (TQM)	
  
1990-­‐Present	
   Culture	
  of	
  con>nuous	
  improvement,	
  organiza>on-­‐wide	
  TQM	
  

                                                               (Adapted from Sallis, E. (1996). Total Quality Management in Education, 2nd Ed. London: Kogan Page)
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

                                School Systems                         Corporate World
                                 classical management:                     modern management:
                                   control, repeatability,                  culture, commitment,
Management                   people as replaceable parts             people as knowledge workers

                                  analytical, centralized                  projective, collective,
    Strategy                                and reactive                     and transformative
                                 quality control, quality                   quality management,
      Quality                 assurance, accountability                 quality as transformation
                                 (mechanistic process)                           (social process)


  Education has moved directly from ad hoc                     The corporate world is moving from
  management to bureaucratic management               bureaucratic and mechanistic management to
                                                              organic and ecological management
                  Increasingly emphasizes
                                                      and sees people as their most valuable asset
                 control and forgets people
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

    It is interesting to notice how, as early as 1992, the
EFQM proposed the extension of ISO 9000 to Education
                 ISO 9000 - European Quality Award (EQA), 1992
                     European Foundation for Quality Management

                     people                  satisfaction of
                   management                collaborators
                      (9%)                        (9%)

                     policy &                                  results of the
    leadership                   processes    satisfaction
                     strategy                                  whole activity
       (10%)                       (14%)      of students          (15%)
                       (8%)                      (20%)

                     resources                 impact on
                        (9%)                    society
                                                 (6%)
2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY

    It is interesting to notice how, as early as 1992, the
EFQM proposed the extension of ISO 9000 to Education
                 ISO 9000 - European Quality Award (EQA), 1992
                     European Foundation for Quality Management

                     people                  satisfaction of
                   management                collaborators
                      (9%)                        (9%)

                     policy &                                  results of the
    leadership                   processes    satisfaction
                     strategy                                  whole activity
       (10%)                       (14%)      of students          (15%)
                       (8%)                      (20%)

                     resources                 impact on
                        (9%)                    society
                                                 (6%)
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM


    From the point of view of
  the sociology of innovation

        educational systems
      are networks of actors

     that reinforce each other
    into stable configurations

 These stable configurations
     tend to prevent change
2. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM

Some experts in innovation claim that
  in such conservative echosystems

           it is impossible to produce
       innovations with lasting effects

      the inertia of the system dilutes
            or distorts the innovations
                    and converts them
             to the reigning uniformity

    It is like pouring water in the desert
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM

                                          This is not necessarily so dramatic!
                                                    Incremental innovation in
                                                     educational systems has
                                                            a high failure rate
                                                        but it can be explored
                                                if sound innovation strategies
                                                     are crafted and managed
                                        relying on dependable social theories,
                                                such as Actor-Network-Theory
Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM

                                       However, the promising path to
                              innovation in the educational systems is
                                        through disruptive innovation

                                     that quietly grows in the margins
                                          of the system, unobtrusively

                                                until it starts changing
                                                           it, irreversibly

                                        Clayton M. Christensen is an
                                        inspiring author on this topic
McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM

Examples of disruptive innovations in the school systems:
                 •  Courses provided on-line to a region
                            or a whole country, namely:
                               •  courses for gifted students
                                   •  enrichment classes for
                                      special-needs children
                        •  optional courses in the languages,
                                 arts, humanities, economics
                            •  distant support to homebound
                                and home-schooled students
                                           •  private tutoring
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM



                 •  Pilot schools trying out
                        new school models
    •  Special schools for students wishing
           to follow project-based learning

•  Experimental schools aimed at changing
     transformationally the degraded social
         communities to which they belong
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM

     These are examples of opportunities for
disruptive innovation that don’t clash against
   the mainstream educational echo-system

                   In this way, innovation can
                     incubate at leisure until it
                 matures up to a level where
                  it can be transposed to the
                           mainstream system
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
4. THE INSPECTORATE


The inspectorate is the actor of the school echo-system
 with the mandate to preserve the quality of the system

      Does that mean to preserve the systems as it is?

Does it mean to help create the system as it should be?

              Who decides what and how it should be?

       Considering the highly conservative character of
       the school echo-system, how can inspectorates
                       contribute to school innovation?
4. THE INSPECTORATE


         Possible degrees of intervention:
                •  tolerate school innovation
             •  encourage school innovation
  •  create frameworks for school innovation


                 Two possible alternatives:
             •  through disruptive innovation
•  through (moderate) incremental innovation
4. THE INSPECTORATE


If the attempted innovations remain at the margins
       of the conventional educational echo-system
                        following a disruptive path

                         or if they are based on
                     very cautious, strategically
                managed, incremental innovation

                               They may succeed
                       and produce lasting effects
4. THE INSPECTORATE


                 Otherwise
        and that’s what we
   witness most of the time
                    they fail
and leave no lasting effects

 HOW CAN WE IMPROVE
      THIS SCENARIO?
1. TYPES OF INNOVATION
   2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY
3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
     4. THE INSPECTORATE
          5. CONCLUSIONS
5. CONCLUSIONS


“If we teach today’s students as we did yesterday’s,
                  we are robbing them of tomorrow”
                                            John Dewey


              We are building the 21st century with
                    the visions of the 19th century

           As key actors in the echo-system where
               this is happening, the inspectorates
          can contribute to a much needed change
5. CONCLUSIONS


                          This implies:
reconsidering the aims and paradigms
         of the school in today’s world

     reflecting on the nature of quality
       in today’s school echo-systems

            and engaging in disruptive
              (and incremental, when
                  possible) innovation
THE END
                                      Innovation,
                                  Quality and the
                            School Ecosystem:
                              Challenges to the
The slides will be available at:
http://www.slideshare.net/adfigueiredo
                                    Inspectorate
Porto, Portugal – September 13-14, 2012
SICI WORKSHOP – Innovating Inspections
                                                                  My Webpage:
to Value Innovative Schools
The Standing International Conferences of Inspectorates (SICI)
   adfig.com

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Innovation, Quality, and the School Ecosystem

  • 1. Innovation, Quality and the School Ecosystem: Challenges to the Inspectorate September 13-14, 2012 / Porto, Portugal SICI WORKSHOP – Innovating Inspections to Value Innovative Schools The Standing International Conferences of Inspectorates (SICI)
  • 2. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 3. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 4. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION Two radically different types of innovation: incremental innovation disruptive innovation If we mix them up, innovation rarely happens
  • 5. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION INCREMENTAL INNOVATION Incremental innovations build on existing thinking, products, processes, organizations, or social systems They can be routine improvements or they can be dramatic breakthroughs but they apply to what already exists
  • 6. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION INCREMENTAL INNOVATION Examples of incremental innovations: •  Airplanes that fly farther •  Batteries that last longer •  Televisions with better images •  Computers that process faster •  Schools where students learn better by regularly using the Net
  • 7. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Disruptive innovations are addressed to people who do not have any solutions They take root in simple, undemanding, applications that are not breakthrough People are happy to use them, in spite of their limitations, because no other solutions exist They do not compete with anything
  • 8. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION But as they gain strength in the realm of non-competition they evolve very fast and end up replacing the traditional solutions
  • 9. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Example of a disruptive innovation: the personal computer In the 1970s the professional computer market was occupied by 100,000 € minicomputers produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Data General, and HP. The first personal computers (like the Spectrum and the Apple II) were ridiculously limited, and completely out of that market.
  • 10. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION They were supposed to be used mainly as toys by children and their parents. But they quickly grew up, in that unexplored market Ten years later, in the early 1990s, they were much more powerful, and starting to erode the minicomputer market Twenty years later, in the early 2000s, the minicomputer market collapsed in favour of the PC market DEC and Data General don’t exist any more
  • 11. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 12. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY SCHOOLING model transposed from industry to education in the 18th century QUALITY concept transposed from industry to education in the 20th century
  • 13. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY SCHOOLING IN THE LAST 200 YEARS industrial   social   era   era   Industrial revolution: fascination with the machine Pedagogical and organizational processes reproduced the repeatability and accuracy of the machine
  • 14. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY INDUSTRIAL ERA With the generalization of the public schools, the organizational models of industry were transposed to the schools. Rows of desks, bells ringing, artificially separated disciplines, learning out of context, instruction of listening and answering, isolation and competition, rigid national curricula, standard tests. The industry has changed radically, since then, but education keeps much of the old model.
  • 15. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY INDUSTRIAL ERA disciplinary learning mechanical and industrial vision of learning learning as ‘knowledge’ delivery (or ‘content’) predominance of authority and hierarchy praise of uniformity primacy of quantity
  • 16. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY SOCIAL ERA industrial   social   era   era   The new forms of socialization provided by communication networks (internet, cell phones) are leading to a multitude of new opportunities and promising approaches to learning
  • 17. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY SOCIAL ERA multi-, trans- and meta disciplinary learning organic and social vision of learning learning as transformation predominance of leadership and collaboration praise of difference primacy of quality (supported by reasonable quantity)
  • 18. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY industrial era social era disciplinary learning multidisciplinary learning mechanical and industrial organic and social vision of learning vision of learning learning as ‘knowledge’ delivery learning as transformation predominance of authority predominance of leadership and hierarchy and collaboration praise of uniformity praise of difference primacy of quantity praise of quality (quantified)
  • 19. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY IN WHICH ERA ARE WE? industrial   social     era   era   Definitely, in the industrial era! We are building the 21st century with the visions of the 19th century http://leading-learning.blogspot.com/
  • 20. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY http://leading-learning.blogspot.com/
  • 21. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY WHAT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ARE PRODUCING
  • 22. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY WHAT THE WORLD NEEDS TODAY
  • 23. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY QUALITY IN THE LAST 100 YEARS THE  QUALITY  MOVEMENT  IN  INDUSTRY   Before  1900   Quality  as  an  integral  element  of  the  cra7   1900-­‐1920   Quality  control  by  foreman   1920-­‐1940   Inspec>on-­‐based  quality-­‐control   1940-­‐1960   Sta>s>cal  process  control   Schools 2012 Inspectorate 1960-­‐1980   Quality  assurance  (quality  department)   1980-­‐1990   Total  quality  management  (TQM)   1990-­‐Present   Culture  of  con>nuous  improvement,  organiza>on-­‐wide  TQM   (Adapted from Sallis, E. (1996). Total Quality Management in Education, 2nd Ed. London: Kogan Page)
  • 24. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY School Systems Corporate World classical management: modern management: control, repeatability, culture, commitment, Management people as replaceable parts people as knowledge workers analytical, centralized projective, collective, Strategy and reactive and transformative quality control, quality quality management, Quality assurance, accountability quality as transformation (mechanistic process) (social process) Education has moved directly from ad hoc The corporate world is moving from management to bureaucratic management bureaucratic and mechanistic management to organic and ecological management Increasingly emphasizes and sees people as their most valuable asset control and forgets people
  • 25. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY It is interesting to notice how, as early as 1992, the EFQM proposed the extension of ISO 9000 to Education ISO 9000 - European Quality Award (EQA), 1992 European Foundation for Quality Management people satisfaction of management collaborators (9%) (9%) policy & results of the leadership processes satisfaction strategy whole activity (10%) (14%) of students (15%) (8%) (20%) resources impact on (9%) society (6%)
  • 26. 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY It is interesting to notice how, as early as 1992, the EFQM proposed the extension of ISO 9000 to Education ISO 9000 - European Quality Award (EQA), 1992 European Foundation for Quality Management people satisfaction of management collaborators (9%) (9%) policy & results of the leadership processes satisfaction strategy whole activity (10%) (14%) of students (15%) (8%) (20%) resources impact on (9%) society (6%)
  • 27. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 28. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM From the point of view of the sociology of innovation educational systems are networks of actors that reinforce each other into stable configurations These stable configurations tend to prevent change
  • 29. 2. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM
  • 30. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM Some experts in innovation claim that in such conservative echosystems it is impossible to produce innovations with lasting effects the inertia of the system dilutes or distorts the innovations and converts them to the reigning uniformity It is like pouring water in the desert
  • 31. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM This is not necessarily so dramatic! Incremental innovation in educational systems has a high failure rate but it can be explored if sound innovation strategies are crafted and managed relying on dependable social theories, such as Actor-Network-Theory Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005
  • 32. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM However, the promising path to innovation in the educational systems is through disruptive innovation that quietly grows in the margins of the system, unobtrusively until it starts changing it, irreversibly Clayton M. Christensen is an inspiring author on this topic McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
  • 33. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM Examples of disruptive innovations in the school systems: •  Courses provided on-line to a region or a whole country, namely: •  courses for gifted students •  enrichment classes for special-needs children •  optional courses in the languages, arts, humanities, economics •  distant support to homebound and home-schooled students •  private tutoring
  • 34. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM •  Pilot schools trying out new school models •  Special schools for students wishing to follow project-based learning •  Experimental schools aimed at changing transformationally the degraded social communities to which they belong
  • 35. 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM These are examples of opportunities for disruptive innovation that don’t clash against the mainstream educational echo-system In this way, innovation can incubate at leisure until it matures up to a level where it can be transposed to the mainstream system
  • 36. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 37. 4. THE INSPECTORATE The inspectorate is the actor of the school echo-system with the mandate to preserve the quality of the system Does that mean to preserve the systems as it is? Does it mean to help create the system as it should be? Who decides what and how it should be? Considering the highly conservative character of the school echo-system, how can inspectorates contribute to school innovation?
  • 38. 4. THE INSPECTORATE Possible degrees of intervention: •  tolerate school innovation •  encourage school innovation •  create frameworks for school innovation Two possible alternatives: •  through disruptive innovation •  through (moderate) incremental innovation
  • 39. 4. THE INSPECTORATE If the attempted innovations remain at the margins of the conventional educational echo-system following a disruptive path or if they are based on very cautious, strategically managed, incremental innovation They may succeed and produce lasting effects
  • 40. 4. THE INSPECTORATE Otherwise and that’s what we witness most of the time they fail and leave no lasting effects HOW CAN WE IMPROVE THIS SCENARIO?
  • 41. 1. TYPES OF INNOVATION 2. SCHOOLING & QUALITY 3. THE SCHOOL ECHOSYSTEM 4. THE INSPECTORATE 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • 42. 5. CONCLUSIONS “If we teach today’s students as we did yesterday’s, we are robbing them of tomorrow” John Dewey We are building the 21st century with the visions of the 19th century As key actors in the echo-system where this is happening, the inspectorates can contribute to a much needed change
  • 43. 5. CONCLUSIONS This implies: reconsidering the aims and paradigms of the school in today’s world reflecting on the nature of quality in today’s school echo-systems and engaging in disruptive (and incremental, when possible) innovation
  • 44. THE END Innovation, Quality and the School Ecosystem: Challenges to the The slides will be available at: http://www.slideshare.net/adfigueiredo Inspectorate Porto, Portugal – September 13-14, 2012 SICI WORKSHOP – Innovating Inspections My Webpage: to Value Innovative Schools The Standing International Conferences of Inspectorates (SICI) adfig.com