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FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
                          IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
                        COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION

                                         Antonio Dias de Figueiredo
                                   Departament of Informatics Engineering
                                                UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA




University of Coimbra                                   September, 7-8, 2006
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
        COMPUTER SCIENCE
               EDUCATION

   HIGHER EDUCATION
     changing vision about learning
                 changing methods
                Bologna Process
LEARNING OUTCOMES
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
       IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
               COMPUTER SCIENCE
                      EDUCATION

   ENGINEERING EDUCATION
changing vision about learning for the profession
             changing vision about accreditation


         LEARNING OUTCOMES
What is important is what the students
   learn, not how much the lecturer covers
                                       Donald Bligh, 1972



Traditional methods were based on what the lecturer
       covered: on the content the lecturer delivered
        What is important is what the students learn

                 To learn is not just only to acquire
            knowledge and understanding, but also
               to build skills, values and attitudes.

      These cannot be learned by telling-and-testing
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
     statements of what the students should
                know, understand or be able
              to do as a result of the course
They are expressed as competences: dynamic
  combinations of knowledge, understanding,
                  skills, values, and attitudes
HIGHER EDUCATION


LEARNING OUTCOMES
          The Dublin Descriptors
        • knowledge and understanding
• applying knowledge and understanding
                  • making judgements
               • communications skills
                       • learning skills
ENGINEERING EDUCATION

EUR-ACE: OUTCOMES OF ACCREDITED
ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES
             • knowledge and understanding
                     • engineering analysis
                       • engineering design
                              • investigation
                      • engineering practice
                         • transferable skills
TWO VISIONS OF LEARNING

                            2.
                    1.
Vision of CONTENT           Vision of CONTEXT
        mechanistic         constructivist
 “transfer” or “delivery”   “construction” of knowledge
               of content   by the learners
                            (individually or in groups)
                            in stimulating contexts
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
               IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
             COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION

                           Antonio Dias de Figueiredo
                        Departament of Informatics Engineering
                              UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA




University of Coimbra                            September, 7-8, 2006
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
1
                           CONTEXTUAL LEARNING

                    action learning              question posing

                                         computer supported cooperative learning
        directed dialogues

                                                                      learning by doing
                                         problem solving
 simulations
                                                                       debates
                learning by reflection


   CONTEXTUAL LEARNING
                learning by teaching              situated learning
story telling                                                         socratic dialogues
                                      projects
        case studies                                          panel discussions
                              incidental learning
 learning from mistakes
                                role playing                small group discussions
  story listening
                                           project based learning
1
                  CONTEXTUAL LEARNING



 ARTICULATE THIS MULTITUDE OF DISTINCT
CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND PRACTICES INTO A
  SINGLE, COHERENT AND OPERATIONAL
              WORLDVIEW:


    CONTEXTUAL LEARNING
LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
2
    THEORIES SUPPORTING CONTEXTUAL LEARNING


•  PHILOSOPHICAL PRAGMATISM        (Dewey, Pepper)
                                                      (Piaget, Vygotsky)
•  CONSTRUCTIVISM, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
                                                (Freire, Mezirow)
•  CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
•  THEORIES OF THE COMMUNTIES OF PRACTICE             (Lave, Wenger)
•  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING              (Forman, Cole)
•  ACTIVITY THEORY   (Engeström, Chaiklin & Lave, Nardi)
                              (Latour, Callon, Law)
•  ACTOR NETWORK THEORY
•  PATTERN THEORY (Alexander)
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
3
                                          LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

                       MODEL FOR CONTEXT ENGINEERING
                                                                                       •  level descriptors
                                        diagnostic
consolidation                                                                          •  learning outcomes
                                                            innovation



                                                 model of
                                                                                        •  assessment strategy
                                                 context
                                                                                        •  subject descriptors
                                                                                        •  teaching strategy
                        evaluation
                                                            creation

                                   model of
                                                                                      •  content
                                   mediator


          generalization                                adaptation

                                     Roque & Figueiredo (2005) Context Engineering for Learning: A Socio-Technical Approach,
      in Figueiredo, A.D. and Afonso, A.P. (eds.) Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: the Role of Context, Idea Book Inc., 2006
3
                       LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

                 LOCUS OF CONTROL


teacher
control
          moderation


                                  helpdesk
                                             self-organiztion
                                                of learner
                                                    or
                                               of learning
                                               community



                        CONTROL
3
                              LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

     COLLABORATION: SUSTAINABILITY, CYCLES, RYTHMS

Principles of sustainability e.g. value proposition

Cycles of collaboration:




Rhythms regular events, special events, dates, limits, debates, visibility.
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
4
                                  CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT



LEARNING OUTCOMES should be formulated so that they can be assessed and
grading criteria established and stated.

ASSESSMENT should drive curriculum planning – not vice-versa.

ASSESSMENT must be able to answer questions such as:

        •  What knowledge and understanding have been acquired?
        •  What skills and values have been developed or enhanced?
        •  What attitudes have been changed?
4
                   CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT

               Collection of the assignments produced by a student, in a
   LEARNING    given course, to demonstrate success in satisfying the
  PORTFOLIO    learning objectives. It must include the personal reflections
               of the student about her own progress.

               Activity that has a clear purpose, a beginning and and end,
    PROJECT
               and is aimed at producing a visible result.


               Extended written text enabling learners to display their
               command of learning objectives while cultivating higher
       ESSAY   order thinking skills (scientific or technical papers, user
               manuals, research essays, short essays, brochures).


PRESENTATION   Public demonstration, before an audience, of the
               knowledge and competencies gained the learner (slide
               presentations, poster presentations, focused debates).
4
                                    CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT



CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is also called AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
because it engages the learners in tasks and procedures where knowledge
and competencies are exercised in real-world, complex, situations – not in
artificial and de-contextualized tasks.

LEARNING PORTFOLIOS are often used, with good results, in connection with
LEARNING CONTRACTS [Knowles].

One of the most valuable mechanisms in CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is
BLIND PEER-ASSESSMENT
4
                                CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT

 RUBRICS are versatile
contextual assessment
     and grading tools
        simplified example quot;

        They can be used
  to assess and grade as
little as individual skills,
           and as much as
          full projects and
                  programs

  They can be used by:
            - teachers
                - peers
                   - self
                                           © California State University, Long Beach
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
5
                        CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS


       Learning Management Systems. Software platforms that
LMS
       organize and provide access to online learning services for
       students, teachers, and administrators. They usually include
       access control, provision of learning content, communication
       tools, and organization of user groups.

       Learning Content Management Systems. Software platforms for
LCMS
       the management of contents (“learning objects”) by authors,
       instructors, and learners.

       Learning CONTEXT Management Systems. Software platforms
LXMS
       for the organization and management of learning contexts
       (namely social networking and collaboration within
       communities).
5
                                       CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS

PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE




pioneering example of a (sill quite
crude) contextual learning platform.


manages sequences of activities,
rather than isolated activities.
5
             CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS

PROTOTYPES
5
                             CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
          SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES
      OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS


      management of     easy management of blind peer-assessment for all kinds of
                        assignments.
blind peer-assessment

rubric generation and   generation of rubrics and easy rubric grading mechanisms
                        for all kinds of assignments.
         management

portfolio management    easy management, instructor feedback, peer cross-
                        annotation, and grading of learning portfolios
5
                                     CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
                 SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES
             OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS
                          (continued)

            networking and      contextual access to, and management of, shared
                                information repositories characterized by organic and
             social filtering
                                unpredictable growth (http://del.icio.us)
                                systems to track the relationships of collaboration and
           sociographic and
                                affection between the members of teams and communities
sociometric analysis systems
                                so as to permit early corrective action.

 mechanisms for minimalist      mechanisms offering to each participant in a collective
                                learning process some visibility about the progress of the
           social visibility
                                others (ex.: social trasnlucence).

           mechanisms for       mechanisms facilitating the discovery of useful information
                                whose existence we ignore by searching information whose
     serendipity generation
                                existence we know (serendipity engines).
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
                 4. Contextual assessment
                  5. Contextual platforms
                           6. Conclusions
6
                                                      CONCLUSIONS


•  Higher Education is moving from CONTENTS TO CONTEXTS

•  A solid body of theory exists to support this change

•  The various existing forms of CONTEXTUAL LEARNING can be put together
into organic, coherent, and operational frameworks

•  LEARNING CONTEXTS can be designed, so that CONTENT makes sense
within CONTEXT

•  Gigantic challenges exist in improving CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT

•  We are witnessing the pre-history of CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
                          IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
                        COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION




     THE END
                                         Antonio Dias de Figueiredo
                                   Departament of Informatics Engineering
                                                UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA




University of Coimbra                                   September, 7-8, 2006

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Technology Supported Computer Science Education

  • 1. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  • 2. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION changing vision about learning changing methods Bologna Process LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • 3. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION ENGINEERING EDUCATION changing vision about learning for the profession changing vision about accreditation LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • 4. What is important is what the students learn, not how much the lecturer covers Donald Bligh, 1972 Traditional methods were based on what the lecturer covered: on the content the lecturer delivered What is important is what the students learn To learn is not just only to acquire knowledge and understanding, but also to build skills, values and attitudes. These cannot be learned by telling-and-testing
  • 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES: statements of what the students should know, understand or be able to do as a result of the course They are expressed as competences: dynamic combinations of knowledge, understanding, skills, values, and attitudes
  • 6. HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING OUTCOMES The Dublin Descriptors • knowledge and understanding • applying knowledge and understanding • making judgements • communications skills • learning skills
  • 7. ENGINEERING EDUCATION EUR-ACE: OUTCOMES OF ACCREDITED ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES • knowledge and understanding • engineering analysis • engineering design • investigation • engineering practice • transferable skills
  • 8. TWO VISIONS OF LEARNING 2. 1. Vision of CONTENT Vision of CONTEXT mechanistic constructivist “transfer” or “delivery” “construction” of knowledge of content by the learners (individually or in groups) in stimulating contexts
  • 9. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  • 10. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 11. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 12. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING action learning question posing computer supported cooperative learning directed dialogues learning by doing problem solving simulations debates learning by reflection CONTEXTUAL LEARNING learning by teaching situated learning story telling socratic dialogues projects case studies panel discussions incidental learning learning from mistakes role playing small group discussions story listening project based learning
  • 13. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING ARTICULATE THIS MULTITUDE OF DISTINCT CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND PRACTICES INTO A SINGLE, COHERENT AND OPERATIONAL WORLDVIEW: CONTEXTUAL LEARNING LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN
  • 14. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 15. 2 THEORIES SUPPORTING CONTEXTUAL LEARNING •  PHILOSOPHICAL PRAGMATISM (Dewey, Pepper) (Piaget, Vygotsky) •  CONSTRUCTIVISM, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (Freire, Mezirow) •  CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORIES OF LEARNING •  THEORIES OF THE COMMUNTIES OF PRACTICE (Lave, Wenger) •  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING (Forman, Cole) •  ACTIVITY THEORY (Engeström, Chaiklin & Lave, Nardi) (Latour, Callon, Law) •  ACTOR NETWORK THEORY •  PATTERN THEORY (Alexander)
  • 16. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 17. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN MODEL FOR CONTEXT ENGINEERING •  level descriptors diagnostic consolidation •  learning outcomes innovation model of •  assessment strategy context •  subject descriptors •  teaching strategy evaluation creation model of •  content mediator generalization adaptation Roque & Figueiredo (2005) Context Engineering for Learning: A Socio-Technical Approach, in Figueiredo, A.D. and Afonso, A.P. (eds.) Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: the Role of Context, Idea Book Inc., 2006
  • 18. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN LOCUS OF CONTROL teacher control moderation helpdesk self-organiztion of learner or of learning community CONTROL
  • 19. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN COLLABORATION: SUSTAINABILITY, CYCLES, RYTHMS Principles of sustainability e.g. value proposition Cycles of collaboration: Rhythms regular events, special events, dates, limits, debates, visibility.
  • 20. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 21. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT LEARNING OUTCOMES should be formulated so that they can be assessed and grading criteria established and stated. ASSESSMENT should drive curriculum planning – not vice-versa. ASSESSMENT must be able to answer questions such as: •  What knowledge and understanding have been acquired? •  What skills and values have been developed or enhanced? •  What attitudes have been changed?
  • 22. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT Collection of the assignments produced by a student, in a LEARNING given course, to demonstrate success in satisfying the PORTFOLIO learning objectives. It must include the personal reflections of the student about her own progress. Activity that has a clear purpose, a beginning and and end, PROJECT and is aimed at producing a visible result. Extended written text enabling learners to display their command of learning objectives while cultivating higher ESSAY order thinking skills (scientific or technical papers, user manuals, research essays, short essays, brochures). PRESENTATION Public demonstration, before an audience, of the knowledge and competencies gained the learner (slide presentations, poster presentations, focused debates).
  • 23. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is also called AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT because it engages the learners in tasks and procedures where knowledge and competencies are exercised in real-world, complex, situations – not in artificial and de-contextualized tasks. LEARNING PORTFOLIOS are often used, with good results, in connection with LEARNING CONTRACTS [Knowles]. One of the most valuable mechanisms in CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is BLIND PEER-ASSESSMENT
  • 24. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT RUBRICS are versatile contextual assessment and grading tools simplified example quot; They can be used to assess and grade as little as individual skills, and as much as full projects and programs They can be used by: - teachers - peers - self © California State University, Long Beach
  • 25. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 26. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS Learning Management Systems. Software platforms that LMS organize and provide access to online learning services for students, teachers, and administrators. They usually include access control, provision of learning content, communication tools, and organization of user groups. Learning Content Management Systems. Software platforms for LCMS the management of contents (“learning objects”) by authors, instructors, and learners. Learning CONTEXT Management Systems. Software platforms LXMS for the organization and management of learning contexts (namely social networking and collaboration within communities).
  • 27. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE pioneering example of a (sill quite crude) contextual learning platform. manages sequences of activities, rather than isolated activities.
  • 28. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PROTOTYPES
  • 29. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS management of easy management of blind peer-assessment for all kinds of assignments. blind peer-assessment rubric generation and generation of rubrics and easy rubric grading mechanisms for all kinds of assignments. management portfolio management easy management, instructor feedback, peer cross- annotation, and grading of learning portfolios
  • 30. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS (continued) networking and contextual access to, and management of, shared information repositories characterized by organic and social filtering unpredictable growth (http://del.icio.us) systems to track the relationships of collaboration and sociographic and affection between the members of teams and communities sociometric analysis systems so as to permit early corrective action. mechanisms for minimalist mechanisms offering to each participant in a collective learning process some visibility about the progress of the social visibility others (ex.: social trasnlucence). mechanisms for mechanisms facilitating the discovery of useful information whose existence we ignore by searching information whose serendipity generation existence we know (serendipity engines).
  • 31. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 32. 6 CONCLUSIONS •  Higher Education is moving from CONTENTS TO CONTEXTS •  A solid body of theory exists to support this change •  The various existing forms of CONTEXTUAL LEARNING can be put together into organic, coherent, and operational frameworks •  LEARNING CONTEXTS can be designed, so that CONTENT makes sense within CONTEXT •  Gigantic challenges exist in improving CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT •  We are witnessing the pre-history of CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
  • 33. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION THE END Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006