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The Haber-Bosch Process
AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AMMONIA
Adeyemi Fakorede
History
• Reaction was discovered by Bosch and was published in
his 1905 book1,2
• Fritz Haber received a Nobel price in 1...
Image from https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proc%C3%A9d%C3%A9_Haber
Raw Materials4
Nitrogen from air
Hydrogen from natural gas
3𝐻2(𝑔) + 𝑁2(𝑔) ⇌ 2𝑁𝐻3(𝑔) ∆H = -92.44 kJ/mol
Reaction conditions...
Optimizing reaction rate and yield
•Forward reaction is exothermic
•Ammonia yield is favoured at low temperatures
•But rea...
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Haber-Bosch Process

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An industrial process for producing liquid ammonia from its constituent elements (nitrogen and hydrogen)

Published in: Science

Haber-Bosch Process

  1. 1. The Haber-Bosch Process AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AMMONIA Adeyemi Fakorede
  2. 2. History • Reaction was discovered by Bosch and was published in his 1905 book1,2 • Fritz Haber received a Nobel price in 1918 for the synthesis of ammonia from its constituents elements2 • Carl Bosch made it an industrial process to make explosives • First commercial high-pressure synthesis of ammonia in 19132 using Haber process • Ammonia is very useful – explosives, fertilizer, Ostwald process (1) Haber, F. The synthesis of ammonia from its elements Nobel Lecture, June 2, 1920. Resonance. 2002, 7, 86-94. (2) Fritz Haber – Biographical. 2014. Nobelprize.org. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1918/haber-bio.html (accessed Mar 16, 2016). (3) Modak, J.M. Haber process for ammonia synthesis. Resonance. 2002, 7, 69-77.
  3. 3. Image from https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proc%C3%A9d%C3%A9_Haber
  4. 4. Raw Materials4 Nitrogen from air Hydrogen from natural gas 3𝐻2(𝑔) + 𝑁2(𝑔) ⇌ 2𝑁𝐻3(𝑔) ∆H = -92.44 kJ/mol Reaction conditions 500 0C 200 atm Fe catalyst (4) Appl, M. Ammonia. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2006.
  5. 5. Optimizing reaction rate and yield •Forward reaction is exothermic •Ammonia yield is favoured at low temperatures •But reactions are slower at lower temperatures •Fe catalyst increases reaction rate 𝟑𝑯 𝟐(𝒈) + 𝑵 𝟐(𝒈) ⇌ 𝟐𝑵𝑯 𝟑(𝒈) ∆H = -92.44 kJ/mol

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