This template can be used as a starter file for a photo album.
Sentence structure (AdeS)
Ade Sudirman, S.Pd
1. Ecology is a science;
2. Because pollution causes cancer;
3. To protect the environment;
4. After working all day;
5. Before studying hard;
6. If I declare my major now;
7. Students normally spend four years in
8. That an exciting experience in my life.
A clause is a group of words that contains (at least)
a subject and a verb.
1. I will declare my major
now, but I may change
2. Many international
culture shock when
they come to the
3. Students normally
spend four years in
1. If I declare my major
2. When they come to the
United States . .
3. Although students
normally spend fours
years in college. . .
1. Simple Sentence;
It has one independent clause: English grammar is easy.
2. Compound sentence;
It has two independent clauses joined by
coordinator, conjunctive adverb, and semicolon: Grammar is
easy, so I learned it quickly.
3. Complex sentence;
It has one independent and one or more dependent clauses:
Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly.
4. Compound-complex sentence;
It has two independent clauses and one or more dependent
clauses: Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly, but it took
me several years to master writing.
The Kinds of Sentences
1. Simple sentences
• Subject + Verb:
The rice is burning.
• Subject + verb + complement:
She is intelligent.
• Subject + verb + direct object:
I have read this book.
• Subject + verb + indirect object + direct
My friend wrote me a letter.
• Subject + verb + object + complement:
They made him very famous.
We can link simple sentences to form compound sentences of
two or more clauses.
• With a co-ordinating conjunction, sometimes preceded by a
comma. FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) :
He loves her but she doesn’t love him.
• With a semi-colon or colon:
I met David yesterday; he has just come out of hospital.
I met David yesterday: he has just come out of hospital.
• With a semi-colon or a colon followed by a connecting
adverb (however, nevertheless, meanwhile, after all, finally )
He performed very well in the interview; however, he did
not get the job.
He performed very well in the interview: however, he did
not get the job.
2. Compound sentences
Complex sentences have a main clause and one or more
subordinate clauses or phrases. We can link the clauses as
• With relative clauses
Many people who are out of work become depressed.
• With noun clause:
I have always known that he hated me.
I know what you want.
• With adverbial clauses:
Did you see him when he came in?
• With infinitive or participial constractions:
To do the job properly, you will need to get some tools.
She ran out of the house calling for help.
3. Complex sentences
Compound-Complex sentences have two independent clauses
and one or more dependent clauses.
• I wanted to travel after I graduated from college; however, I
had to go to work immediately.
• After I graduated from college, I wanted to travel, but I had
to go to work immediately.
• I wanted to travel after I graduated from college, but I had to
go to work immediately because I had to support my family.
• I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so
I did nothing.
4. Compound - Complex sentences
b. Adjective clause
c. Adverbial clause
a. Noun Clauses
Noun Clause is sometimes called a that-clause.
However, noun clauses do not always use that.
1. Noun clause as object:
1. Do you think that she’ll come?
2. Noun clause as subject:
1. That you don’t love him is obvious.
3. Noun clause after certain adjectives:
1. Are you sure (that) he said that?
4. Noun clause after a large number of abstract nouns:
1. I don’t like the suggestion that we do this job together.
5. Noun clause with question words:
1. I will never understand why he did that to me.
6. Noun clause with if/whether:
1. I don’t know whether he’s coming tonight.
b. Relatives clause/adjective clause is a clause
that has function as adjective. It uses relative pronoun.
Relative clause may come in the middle or at the end of a
sentence. It follow the word that it defines.
Subject Who Which
Object Whom Which
Possessive Whose Whose
a. Subject relative pronoun:
• The man is Rudi.
• The man is standing beside the red car.
The man who is standing beside the red car is Rudi.
• He is the singer. He sings my favorite song .
He is the singer who sings my favorite song.
• The book is expensive. I read the book everyday.
The book which I read everyday is expensive.
• The cat stole the meat. The cat is sleeping now.
The cat which stole the meat is sleeping now.
b. Object relative pronoun:
• They are the artists. The girl adores them.
The are the artists whom the girl adores.
• Sari is a girl. Adi loves her so much.
Sari is a girl whom Ado loves so much.
• You borrowed a book.
• I bought it at Menes market
You borrowed a book which I bought at Menes market.
c. Relative pronoun: object of a preposition:
• This is a beach. I was telling about it.
This a beach which I was telling about.
d. Possessive relative pronoun:
• The old man looks very sad. His wife is in the
The old man whose wife is in the hospital looks very sad.
C. Adverbial Clauses
A clause that has function as adverb.
1. Adv clause of time:
Dody had lived in Jakarta before he moved.
2. Adv clause of place:
She goes where she likes.
3. Adv clause of reason:
Since she was ill, she didn’t attend the class.
4. Adv clause of purpose:
Shaneel spoke loudly so that everyone hears
what she said.
5. Adv clause of concession:
I will go even if it’s raining.
6. Adv clause of condition:
You are not allowed unless you persuade your