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Sentence structure (AdeS)


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Sentence structure (AdeS)

  1. 1. Sentence Structure Ade Sudirman, S.Pd
  2. 2. conju 1. Ecology is a science; 2. Because pollution causes cancer; 3. To protect the environment; 4. After working all day; 5. Before studying hard; 6. If I declare my major now; 7. Students normally spend four years in college; 8. That an exciting experience in my life. A clause is a group of words that contains (at least) a subject and a verb.
  3. 3. conju 1. I will declare my major now, but I may change it later. 2. Many international students experience culture shock when they come to the United States. 3. Students normally spend four years in college. Independent clauses 1. If I declare my major now. . 2. When they come to the United States . . 3. Although students normally spend fours years in college. . . Dependent clauses
  4. 4. conju 1. Simple Sentence; It has one independent clause: English grammar is easy. 2. Compound sentence; It has two independent clauses joined by coordinator, conjunctive adverb, and semicolon: Grammar is easy, so I learned it quickly. 3. Complex sentence; It has one independent and one or more dependent clauses: Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly. 4. Compound-complex sentence; It has two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses: Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly, but it took me several years to master writing. The Kinds of Sentences
  5. 5. 1. Simple sentences • Subject + Verb: The rice is burning. • Subject + verb + complement: She is intelligent. • Subject + verb + direct object: I have read this book. • Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object: My friend wrote me a letter. • Subject + verb + object + complement: They made him very famous.
  6. 6. conju We can link simple sentences to form compound sentences of two or more clauses. • With a co-ordinating conjunction, sometimes preceded by a comma. FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) : He loves her but she doesn’t love him. • With a semi-colon or colon: I met David yesterday; he has just come out of hospital. I met David yesterday: he has just come out of hospital. • With a semi-colon or a colon followed by a connecting adverb (however, nevertheless, meanwhile, after all, finally ) He performed very well in the interview; however, he did not get the job. He performed very well in the interview: however, he did not get the job. 2. Compound sentences
  7. 7. conju Complex sentences have a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses or phrases. We can link the clauses as follows: • With relative clauses Many people who are out of work become depressed. • With noun clause: I have always known that he hated me. I know what you want. • With adverbial clauses: Did you see him when he came in? • With infinitive or participial constractions: To do the job properly, you will need to get some tools. She ran out of the house calling for help. 3. Complex sentences
  8. 8. conju Compound-Complex sentences have two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. • I wanted to travel after I graduated from college; however, I had to go to work immediately. • After I graduated from college, I wanted to travel, but I had to go to work immediately. • I wanted to travel after I graduated from college, but I had to go to work immediately because I had to support my family. • I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing. 4. Compound - Complex sentences
  9. 9. DependentClauses a.Noun clause b. Adjective clause c. Adverbial clause
  10. 10. a. Noun Clauses Noun Clause is sometimes called a that-clause. However, noun clauses do not always use that. 1. Noun clause as object: 1. Do you think that she’ll come? 2. Noun clause as subject: 1. That you don’t love him is obvious. 3. Noun clause after certain adjectives: 1. Are you sure (that) he said that? 4. Noun clause after a large number of abstract nouns: 1. I don’t like the suggestion that we do this job together. 5. Noun clause with question words: 1. I will never understand why he did that to me. 6. Noun clause with if/whether: 1. I don’t know whether he’s coming tonight.
  11. 11. b. Relatives clause/adjective clause is a clause that has function as adjective. It uses relative pronoun. Relative clause may come in the middle or at the end of a sentence. It follow the word that it defines. Relative Pronoun Person Thing Subject Who Which Object Whom Which Possessive Whose Whose
  12. 12. a. Subject relative pronoun: • The man is Rudi. • The man is standing beside the red car. The man who is standing beside the red car is Rudi. • He is the singer. He sings my favorite song . He is the singer who sings my favorite song. • The book is expensive. I read the book everyday. The book which I read everyday is expensive. • The cat stole the meat. The cat is sleeping now. The cat which stole the meat is sleeping now.
  13. 13. b. Object relative pronoun: • They are the artists. The girl adores them. The are the artists whom the girl adores. • Sari is a girl. Adi loves her so much. Sari is a girl whom Ado loves so much. • You borrowed a book. • I bought it at Menes market You borrowed a book which I bought at Menes market. c. Relative pronoun: object of a preposition: • This is a beach. I was telling about it. This a beach which I was telling about. d. Possessive relative pronoun: • The old man looks very sad. His wife is in the hospital. The old man whose wife is in the hospital looks very sad.
  14. 14. C. Adverbial Clauses A clause that has function as adverb. 1. Adv clause of time:  Dody had lived in Jakarta before he moved. 2. Adv clause of place:  She goes where she likes. 3. Adv clause of reason:  Since she was ill, she didn’t attend the class. 4. Adv clause of purpose:  Shaneel spoke loudly so that everyone hears what she said. 5. Adv clause of concession:  I will go even if it’s raining. 6. Adv clause of condition:  You are not allowed unless you persuade your mother.
  15. 15. The end Thank you