ADEOLA CAXTON-IDOWUDIGESTIVE SYSTEMPROF. RASHIDAH ABDULLAHColonoscopyWhat is Colonoscopy.Colonoscopy is a procedure that enables an examiner (usually agastroenterologist) to evaluate the inside of the colon (large intestine orlarge bowel). The colonoscope is a four foot long, flexible tube about thethickness of a finger with a camera and a source of light at its tip. The tipof the colonoscope is inserted into the anus and then is advanced slowly,under visual control, into the rectum and through the colon usually as faras the cecum, which is the first part of the colon.Why is a Colonoscopy done.Colonoscopy may be done for a variety of reasons. Most often it is doneto investigate the cause of blood in the stool, abdominal pain, diarrhea, achange in bowel habit, or an abnormality found on colonic X-rays or acomputerized tomographic (CT) scan.
What bowel preparation is needed for colonoscopy.This consists of drinking a large volume of a special cleansing solution orseveral days of a clear liquid diet and laxatives or enemas prior to theexamination.AnastomosisAnastomosis is the connection of two structures.It refers to connectionsbetween blood vessels or between other tubular structures such as loopsof intestine. In circulatory anastomoses, many arteries naturallyanastomose with each other, for example the inferior epigastric arteryand superior epigastric artery.The circulatory anastomosis is furtherdivided into arterial and venous anastomosis. Arterial anastomosisincludes actual arterial anastomosis (e.g. palmar arch, plantar arch) andpotential arterial anastomosis (e.g. coronary arteries and cortical branchof cerebral arteries). An example of surgical anastomosis occurs when asegment of intestine is resected and the two remaining ends are sewn orstapled together (anastomosed), for example Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Theprocedure is referred to as intestinal anastomosis.
BilirubinBilirubin (formerly referred to as hematoidin) is the yellow breakdownproduct of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, aprincipal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile andurine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases. It is responsiblefor the yellow color of bruises, urine (via its reduced breakdown product,urobilin), and the yellow discoloration in jaundice.HematocheziaHematochezia is the passage of maroon-colored stool.Hematochezia iscommonly associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but may alsooccur from a brisk upper GI bleed.CausesIn adults, most common causes are hemorrhoids and diverticulosis, bothof which are relatively benign; however, it can also be caused bycolorectal cancer, which is potentially fatal. In a newborn infant,hematochezia may be the result of swallowed maternal blood at the timeof delivery, but can also be an initial symptom of necrotizingenterocolitis, a serious condition affecting premature infants. In babies,
hematochezia in conjunction with abdominal pain is associated withintussusception. In adolescents and young adults, inflammatory boweldisease, particularly ulcerative colitis, is a serious cause of hematocheziathat must be considered and excluded. Hematochezia can be due to uppergastrointestinal bleeding.Works Citedhttp://www.medicinenet.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastomosis