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Presentation 10

  1. 1. ADEOLA CAXTON-IDOWUREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMPROF. RASHIDAH ABDULLAHThe reproductive system or genital system is a system of organs within anorganism which work together for the purpose of reproduction.The majororgans of the human reproductive system include the external genitalia(penis and vulva) as well as a number of internal organs including thegamete producing gonads (testicles and ovaries). Diseases of the humanreproductive system are very common and widespread, particularlycommunicable sexually transmitted diseases.Human reproduction takes place as internal fertilization by sexualintercourse. During this process, the erect penis of the male is insertedinto the females vagina until the male ejaculates semen, which containssperm, into the females vagina. The sperm then travels through thevagina and cervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization of theovum. Upon successful fertilization and implantation, gestation of thefoetus then occurs within the females uterus for approximately ninemonths, this process is known as pregnancy in humans. Gestation ends
  2. 2. with birth, the process of birth is known as labor. Labor consists of themuscles of the uterus contracting, the cervix dilating, and the babypassing out the vagina. Humans babies and children are nearly helplessand require high levels of parental care for many years. One importanttype of parental care is the use of the mammary glands in the femalebreasts to nurse the baby.The human male reproductive system is a series of organs located outsideof the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contributetowards the reproductive process. The primary direct function of themale reproductive system is to provide the male gamete or spermatozoafor fertilization of the ovum.The major reproductive organs of the malecan be grouped into three categories. The first category is spermproduction and storage. Production takes place in the testes which arehoused in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm thentravel to the epididymis for development and storage. The secondcategory are the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include theseminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens. The final category arethose used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm)
  3. 3. within the male, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, andCowpers gland.Major secondary sexual characteristics includes: larger, more muscularstature, deepened voice, facial and body hair, broad shoulders, anddevelopment of an adams apple. An important sexual hormone of malesis androgen, and particularly testosterone.The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarilylocated inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female thatcontribute towards the reproductive process. The human femalereproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which acts asthe receptacle for the males sperm, the uterus, which holds thedeveloping fetus, and the ovaries, which produce the females ova. Thebreasts are also a reproductive organ during the parenting stage ofreproduction.The vagina meets the outside at the vulva, which alsoincludes the labia, clitoris and urethra; during intercourse this area islubricated by mucus secreted by the Bartholins glands. The vagina isattached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached tothe ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, typically
  4. 4. approximately every 28 days, the ovaries release an ovum, which passesthrough the fallopian tube into the uterus. The lining of the uterus, calledthe endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through aprocess known as menstruation.Major secondary sexual characteristicsinclude: a smaller stature, a high percentage of body fat, wider hips,development of mammary glands, and enlargement of breasts. Importantsexual hormones of females include estrogen and progesterone.The production of gametes takes place within the gonads through aprocess known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis occurs when certaintypes of germ cells undergo meiosis to split the normal diploid number ofchromosomes in humans (n=46) into haploids cells containing only 23chromosomes.In males this process is known as spermatogenesis andtakes place only after puberty in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.The immature spermatozoon or sperm are then sent to the epididymiswhere they gain a tail and motility. Each of the original diploid germscells or primary spermatocytes forms four functional gametes which iseach capable of fertilization.In females gametogenesis is known asoogenesis which occurs in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. This
  5. 5. process does not produce mature ovum until puberty. In contrast withmales, each of the original diploid germ cells or primary oocytes willform only one mature ovum, and three polar bodies which are notcapable of fertilization.Work Cited