Zingiber officinale

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my seminar of pharmacognosy

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Zingiber officinale

  1. 1. Done By:Adel A.RahmanReem TalibAmmar AhmedZahrra YehyaMais BassilZahrra RahmanGroup (B)Group (B)Seminar ofZingiber officinaleZingiber officinale
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroductionBy:By: Zahrra YehyaZahrra Yehya
  3. 3.  Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of theplant Zingiber officinale consumed as adelicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family(Zingiberaceae). Ginger cultivation began in South Asia and hassince spread to East Africa and the Caribbean.
  4. 4.  The active part of the plant is rhizome (root). The useful components include Ascorbic acid,beta-sitosterol, beta-carotene, caffeic acid,lecithin, limonene, selenium and tryptophan. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.
  5. 5. Chemistry of GingerChemistry of GingerBy:By: Reem TalibReem Talib
  6. 6.  The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger iscaused by a mixture of zingerone, andgingerols, volatile oil that compose 1-3% of thetotal weight of fresh ginger. [6]-gingerol (1-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungentprinciple of ginger. The chemopreventivepotentials of [6]-gingerol present a promisingfuture alternative to expensive and toxicchemotherapeutic agents
  7. 7.  Ginger contains up to three percent of afragrant essential oil whose main constituentsare sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the maincomponent. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids(β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and asmall monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol,andcitral) have also been identified. The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatilephynylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularlygingerols and shagols which form from gingerols whenginger is dried or cooked.
  8. 8. Medicinal UsesMedicinal UsesBy:By: Adel A.RahmanAdel A.Rahman
  9. 9.  Used for abdominal bloating cases. Increase the  motility of the gastrointestinaltract. Has analgesic, sedative, antipyretic, andantibacterial properties. Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skincancer in mice. Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating theproduction of saliva, which makes swallowingeasier.
  10. 10.  Ginger juice is boiled to prevent flu andcommon cold. Ginger has also been historically used totreat inflammation, studies have been showedginger to be better than ibuprofen for treatmentof osteoarthritis In India, ginger is applied as a paste to thetemples to relieve headache.Ginger with lemonand black salt is also used for nause.
  11. 11. Adverse EffectsAdverse EffectsBy:By: Zahraa RahmanZahraa Rahman
  12. 12.  If consumed in reasonable quantities, gingerhas few negative side effects, and is onthe FDAs generally recognized as safe list,though it does interact with some medications,including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people sufferingfrom gallstones, as it promotes the productionof bile.
  13. 13.  Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash,and although generally recognized as safe, ginger cancause heartburn, bloating, gas, belching and nausea,particularly if taken in powdered form. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinalblockage, and individuals who have had ulcers,inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines mayreact badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. There are also suggestions that ginger may affect bloodpressure, clotting, and heart rhythms.
  14. 14. NutritionNutritionBy:By: Mais BassilMais Bassil
  15. 15.  One gram of one of ginger’s principle constituent,zingibain, can actually tenderize as much as twentypounds of meat.  The obvious impact or effect isimproved digestion.  This enzyme can enhance theeffectiveness of other antibacterial elements by as muchas 50%.  The enzyme zingibain can aid immunity to theeffect of digesting parasites and their eggs, and isassociated with anti-inflammatory activity.  This is due inpart to the fact that ginger acts as an antioxidant withmore than twelve constituents  superior to vitaminE.   This action empowers ginger to help neutralize freeradicals which are widely recognized as participation orbeing responsible for the inflammation process.  
  16. 16. ExtractionExtractionBy:By: Ammar AhmedAmmar Ahmed
  17. 17.  Ginger oils from steam distillation and liquid carbondioxide extraction (600 - 700 psi) were fractionated intohydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons by silicagel column chromatography. Volatile hydrocarbonsand oxygenated hydrocarbons were analyzed bycapillary GC and GC-MS. Monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes, aliphatic aldehydes, 2-alkanones, citral,monoterpene alcohols and sesquiterpene alcohols weremajor categories of ginger components which wereaffected or generated by thermal induced degradationduring steam distillation.

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