Is technology, per se, the only reason for social changes?
What has really changed?The new forms of human interaction, through the overcoming of the limitations imposed by time and by space. This turned into a series of implications in the everyday life of theindividuals, especially in what concerns the forms of communication.
In which principals are the communities based on? Typaldos, C. (2000), RealCommunities.com
π π Exchange of ValuesExchange π Exchange of ππ of Ideas Competences π π ππ π ππ π ππ π ππ π π π π π Exchange of Exchange of Information Goods ππ Exchange of Social Roles Pierre Levy, CRC, Université d’Ottawa
What’s the difference between the real and the virtual communities? What distinguishes them? Real Community Virtual CommunityTypes Multiple types Normally based on interestMechanisms Face-to-face communication Virtual communication- chat, e-mail, Non presencial communication etcCharacteristics Geographical and time obstacles No geographical and time constraints One-to-one or one-to-many Many-to-many communication is also communication possible Language, voice, gestures Based mainly on written text communication richnessMembers Vary depending on the community Normally finantially wealthier, with more time to spend on the internetWidth Normally small May vary (small or big)Time demanded Normally a long time Normally quickfor formation Kotha & Wadhwa,1999
It is easy to think that off-line (real) and on-line(virtual) communities are different, therefore it isimpossible to establish a comparison.But, what supports this? The geographical distance? The absence of physical language? The available media? Does communicating in bits and byteshave the same immediate effect of thecommunication in presence?
How can anthropology contribute?• Observing the repercussions and transformations thatICT has in the virtual world as well as in the real world;• Identifying the rites of passage of the net users, that allowa permanent and generalized interchange of different sightsof the world;• Researching the social interactions and organizationnegotiated in such environment.
Questions• Which alterations take place in the formation of friendships,in the relations of proximity, while interacting on-line?• Would the process of changing between real/virtualcommunities implicate alterations in the final organization ofthe group?• The idea one has of the other and, consequently, the wayone is thought by the others, could lead to alterations in thefinal structuring of the communities?
Sociometric questionnaireFocused on four areas: 1 – Authority or Respect of the group 2 – Organizational Abilities 3 – Comfort in Public 4 – Recreational ActivitiesThe questionnaire was answered before the interactions onlinestarted (with the real names of the participants) and again after the 3months interactions online (with the nicknames of the participants).N.B.: The basic rule was that they shouldn’t reveal their realname while interacting online.
[22:35]<EsPf> foi ás 11 da manhã![22:35] <jorga> cantao as nossas almas pra o menino eusebio uma salva de palmas[22:35] <jorga> eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[22:35] <neu_ro_tic> es mto piadetico[22:35] <Down_Rodeo> essebio[22:35] <Down_Rodeo> uma salva de palmas[22:35] <_Spinner> boa[22:35] <_Spinner> palmas para ele[22:36] <neu_ro_tic> so faz 60[22:36] <Down_Rodeo> eee eeeee eeehehehehehehehehehehe[22:36] <_Spinner> xiiiiiii[22:36] <Down_Rodeo> o[22:37] <jorga> o?[22:37] <neu_ro_tic> viva portugal que ja esta apurado directamente para o europeu[22:37] <neu_ro_tic> 2004[22:37] <jorga> VIVA[22:37] <EsPf> ok! o eusébio já passou à história![22:37] <neu_ro_tic> tb acho[22:37] <EsPf> assim tá bem![22:37] <neu_ro_tic> ok[22:38] <neu_ro_tic> vova ao fcp
Authority or Respect of the Group Group A 1st Moment 2nd Moment(Real Community) (Virtual Community )
Organizational Abilities 1st Moment 2nd Moment(Real Community) (Virtual Community )
Comfort in Public 1st Moment 2nd Moment(Real Community) (Virtual Community )
Recreational Activities 1st Moment 2nd Moment(Real Community) (Virtual Community )
Results Group A Group BVariables depending on Variables depending on Observed vs. Expected Correlation of Observed vs. Expected Correlation ofthe response the response Frequencies Categories Frequencies CategoriesPositive (+) e Negative (-) Positive (+) e Negative (-)R1+ V1+ Chi-Square = 6,250000 0,625 R1+ V1+ Chi-Square = 15,80000 0,2 df = 8 p < ,619251 df = 9 p < ,071182R1 - V1 - Chi-Square = 6,833333 0,746 R1 - V1 - Chi-Square = 6,000000 0,6848 df = 8 p < ,554718 df = 9 p < ,739917R2+ V2 + Chi-Square = 10,25000 0,071 R2+ V2 + Chi-Square = 20,83333 0,5758 df = 8 p < ,247920 df = 9 p < ,013413R2 - V2 - Chi-Square = 4,533333 0,579 R2 - V2 - Chi-Square = 16,50000 0,5152 df = 8 p < ,806088 df = 9 p < ,057151R3+ V3+ Chi-Square = 18,75000 0,625 R3+ V3+ Chi-Square = 10,57143 0,2697 df = 8 p < ,016258 df = 9 p < ,306236R3 - V3 - Chi-Square = 5,583333 0,358 R3 - V3 - Chi-Square = 5,300000 0,33 df = 8 p < ,693791 df = 9 p < ,807410R4+ V4+ Chi-Square = 17,30000 0,217 R4+ V4+ Chi-Square = 16,33333 0,2667 df = 8 p < ,027135 df = 9 p < ,060243R4 - V4 - Chi-Square = 10,83333 0,579 R4 - V4 - Chi-Square = 11,78333 -0,18 df = 8 p < ,211328 df = 9 p < ,225807
Discussion and conclusionJust a few alterations took place in the organizationand structure of the group – but overall thechanges were not significant.Group A presented changes in the variable 3 –Comfort in Public (positive choice) – and in thevariable 4 – Recreational Activities (positivechoice);Group B, only in the variable 2 – OrganizationalAbilities (positive choice), presented a difference.
An atempt to explain The comfort in using technology– for example, the fact of a few of the students were more regular visitors of the chatrooms than others; Being hidden behind a mask – nicknames- students could feel more uninhibited; The ability to write using a keyboard, dominating the language and especially the fact of not being in presence of a physical body – first factor of the formation of impression in real context. The objective of each individual is to be accepted by other(s), therefore everything said or done in this context will have repercussions not only in this context, but also in real context,– all the individuals knew each other in the real world.