Skin Cancer


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  • A disease is a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or developmental errors, infection, poisons, nutritional deficiency or imbalance, toxicity, or unfavorable environmental factors; illness; sickness; ailment.

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States

    Between 40 and 50 percent of Americans who live to age 65 will have either skin cancer at least once

  • Skin cancer is the most common but there is a cure

    There are a lot of people that develop skin cancer.

  • Easy to cure when diagnosed early
  • It is a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a papule and enlarges peripherally, developing into a crater that erodes, crusts and bleeds. Metastasis is rare, but local invasion destroys underlying and adjacent tissue. In 90 percent of all cases, the lesion is seen between the hairline and the upper lip.

    Affects about one million Americans a year
    Most common areas are the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back
    People who are at highest risk have fair skin, blond or red hair, and blue, green, or grey eyes.
    Most affected are people in their 20’s or 30’s, occasionally a teenager, rarely children.
    More men get this, they have twice the chance of getting it.
    Basal cell carcinomas are easily treated in their early stages. The larger the tumor grows, the more treatment needed. This skin cancer spreads to vital organs, and can damage surrounding tissue.
    Some cases of basal cell carcinoma are more aggressive than others.

    Basal cell carcinomas on the scalp and nose are very hard to treat.
  • Bumps are often pink, red or white

    Non-healing wounds and growths are very common

    The scar like areas are usually white, yellow, or waxy and are not a perfect shape

    Reddish patches usually occurring on the chest, shoulders, arms or legs
  • Electrodessication and Curettage is when the cancer is burned and then removed with a sharp instrument.

    Freezing kills the cancer cells with liquid nitrogen

    Excision is when the cancer is cut from the skin, but it also cuts away at healthy tissue.

    Micrographic surgery is when the cancer is cut from the skin, but also cuts at healthy surrounding tissue as well. Then doctor then uses a microscope to examine the area for any remaining cancer cells.

    Laser surgery is when a beam of light is used to remove the cancer.

    The cancer can reoccur in the same place or near by.
    It usually takes about 2 years for it to reoccur
  • People who have fair skin, light hair, and blue, green, or gray eyes are at highest risk of developing this cancer

    Squamous cell carcinomas are at least twice as frequent in men as in women. They rarely appear before age 50 and are most often seen in individuals in their 70s.

    The majority of skin cancers in African-Americans are squamous cell carcinomas because they rarely use sun protection

    Chronic infections and skin inflammation can also give rise to squamous cell carcinoma

    HIV and other immune deficiency diseases, chemotherapy, anti-rejection drugs used in organ transplantation, and even excessive sun exposure itself all weaken the immune system, making it harder to fight off disease then it will increase the risk of getting squamous cell
  • All sores/lesions/bumps are usually inflamed and noticeable.
    The tumors can be about 1 inch.
    This cancer can be very very dangerous if not treated, it can spread to internal organs.
    Also dangerous when people get this cancer who have a weak immune system.
    The cure rate is 95%

  • Freezing removes the cancer cells (kills them) with liquid nitrogen, not recommended for large tumors

    An intense beam of light removes the cancer, usually with some damage to surrounding tissue and with a small risk of bleeding, swelling and scarring.

    Mohs surgery is the most effective. The doctor removes the tumor layer by layer, examining each layer under the microscope until there are no more abnormal cells.

    Radiation therapy is for treating large cancers on the eyelids, lips and ears/areas that are difficult to treat surgically/for tumors too deep to cut out.

    Chemotherapy is creams or lotions containing anti-cancer agents that are applied directly to your skin, but some of the medications will cause bad inflammation and scarring.
  • If this cancer is not curable, the cancer can advance and spread to other parts of the body, where it becomes hard to treat and can be fatal.

    The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2008, there will be 8,420 fatalities in the U.S., 5,400 in men and 3,020 in women. The number of new cases of invasive melanoma is estimated at 62,480; of these, 34,950 will be in men and 27,350 in women.

    Anyone who has more than 100 moles is at greater risk for melanoma.

    If your mother, father, siblings, or children (first-degree relatives) have had a melanoma, you are part of a melanoma-prone family and have a 50 percent risk

    The Skin Cancer Foundation is urging the public to reach out to Congress to request $10 million for melanoma research last year (March 2009).
  • Moles that are melanoma cancer are blue-black.
    Existing moles that are not cancerous can grow to be cancerous.

    Swollen especially in the armpit or groin.

    Weight loss that is not expected

    Grey skin is called melanosis

    A chronic cough meaning that it will not go away when treated for it

  • Interferon is the most popular medication, it is given before and/or after surgery

    Excision removes the cancer around the border of it and makes the skin look normal
    Small excisions are closed with stitches
    Large excisions are skin grafted to close the wound after surgery

    Lymphadenectomy removes the lymph nodes that are infected/cancerous

    Keep hydrated

    Do a monthly check for any signs and get treated if any.
  • A for Asymmetry One half is different than the other half.
    B for Border Irregularity The edges are notched, uneven, or blurred.
    C for Color The color is uneven. Shades of brown, tan, and black are present.
    D for Diameter Diameter is greater than 6 millimeters.

  • The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous Under the squamous cells are round cells called basal cells. The deepest part of the epidermis also contains melanocytes. These cells produce melanin, which gives the skin its color.

    Dermis: The lower or inner layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands that produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature, and sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin's surface through tiny openings in the skin that act as pore

  • Almost everyone has had sunburn before, so everyone knows how discomforting it is.
    Sunburn is literally a burn on your skin, and the consequences is inflammation of the skin.
    Sunburn can start within 30 minutes of exposure

    UVA and UVB give off different wavelengths.

    People with lighter skin and/or hair are more prone to getting sunburn UVB is more damaging to the skin
    Both UVA and UVB are responsible for premature aging of the skin/wrinkle and sunburn.
  • The majority of people who are going tanning are under the age of 30

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer
  • (cancer-causing substance) by the United States Department of Health & Human Services

    An International Tanning Association spokeswoman Sarah Longwel

    President Bush signed the TAN act, this regulates tanning equipment, there are warning labels saying that the beds cause damage to the eyes and skin.

    Tanning beds give off UVA and UVB rays

    Give high risk of:
    Skin cancer
    Actinic keratoses
    Premature aging
    Weakened immune system
  • Tanning is very popular because everyone wants to have a “healthy glow”, especially between the ages of 16-29
  • The researchers cite "decreased outdoor activity" as one reason that people may become deficient in vitamin D
    The government's dietary recommendations are 200 IUs a day up to age 50
    When the sun's UVB rays hit the skin, a reaction takes place that enables skin cells to absorb vitamin D
    Experts say people who are fair skinned should go outside for 10 minutes in the midday sun (in shorts and a tank top with no sunscreen) will give you enough radiation to produce about 10,000 international units of the vitamin.
    People who are dark-skinned and the elderly produce less vitamin D.
  • The Jersey Shore is a very popular TV show on MTV
    It is kind of like The Real World but people seem to like Jersey Shore better.
    It is eight Italians spending the summer together in a beach house in Sea Side, New Jersey
    They cast is Jenni, Mike, Nicole, Paul, Ronnie, Sammi, Vinny, and Angelina
    On the show they always go tanning at the tanning salon, even though they are staying at the beach
    They say that it is better to go tanning at a salon because its quick and easy and you have the rest of the day to do what you want to do.
  • (google images)

    tanning spray contains dihydroxyacetone (DHA). It reacts with dead skin cells on the surface of the body, and they turn brown. It lasts about 5-7 days
  • The sun is the strongest between 10 and 4

    Cover up with a broad-brimmed hat and UV-blocking sunglasses.

    Apply sun screen all over the body 30 minutes before going outside, reapply every 2 hours

    Usually people only think about the sun when they are by a pool or at the beach when actually you are in the sun when you walk outside during the day
  • Because people with lighter skin are more likely to burn, sun burn increases the chances of skin cancer
    darker-skinned people, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans can also develop skin cancer
  • People who are fair skinned will burn easier

  • Contraceptives is birth control pills

    If taking any other medicines, ask your doctor if they will cause sensitivity to sunlight

    Theses are things that will raise your chances of developing skin cancer

  • Can cause vision loss or cataracts and eyelid cancers

    Always wear protective clothing/sunscreen

    Whites are more susceptible because the lighter the skin, the higher the chance for skin cancer

  • A lot of the rules for tanning are going to change, minors will not be able to tan.
    The 10% tax will make people pay more to tan, which they wont want to do.
  • SPF indicates time that can be spent in the sun without protection before you start to burn (about 20 minutes for a light-skinned person)
    The higher the SPF, the greater the protection against UVB, not UVA.

    “broad-spectrum” sunscreens protect against both.
    SPF 30 protects against 97 percent of burning rays, the higher SPF such as 60 is thought not to be much more effective.

    5 hours
  • The active compounds degrade after a period of time.

    If swimming or tend to sweat a lot, water proof should be used
    Water proof provides at least 1 hour of protection against UVR

    There are now hypoallergenic sunscreens for people who break out or have irritation

    Chemical Absorber Sun Screen- absorb rays
    Physical Reflector Sun Screen- Reflect/scatter UV rays, Usually thick, White or colored
  • Skin Cancer

    1. 1. Skin Cancer By: Angela Del Fiacco
    2. 2. Thesis • Skin cancer is becoming a big problem in the United States. It is important to know how to prevent skin cancer and the signs to catch it early.
    3. 3. • Skin cancer is a disease – The uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells – It is very slow to develop – ( – (flickr)
    4. 4. Skin Cancer Statistics • Most common cancer in the US • 1 in 5 Americans will deal with it • About 90 % of the visible changes of aging are caused by the sun • The majority of people diagnosed with melanoma are white men over age 50 • (
    5. 5. Self Examination is Important • Skin cancer is the most common cancer • Affects millions a year & rising • Easiest cancer to cure • (
    6. 6. Basal Cell Carcinoma • Can form anywhere on the body • Can look many different ways • Can be treated – (( • (google images) The most common type of cancer
    7. 7. Signs of Basal Cell Carcinoma • Pearly or waxy bumps • Flat, flesh-colored or brown lesions • Open sores that bleed, ooze, crust or remain open for 3 or more week • Scar like areas • Reddish patches • ( • ( • (google images)
    8. 8. Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment • Electrodessication and Curettage • Freezing • Excision • Micrographic surgery • Laser surgery • Can reoccur after treatment • ( • (google images)
    9. 9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Forms in the squamous cells • Can form anywhere on the body • Most commonly caused by overexposure to sunlight • People who use tanning beds are 2.5 more likely to develop this cancer • ( • (google images) Second most common skin cancer
    10. 10. Signs of Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Crusted/scaly area on the skin • Bump or thickened skin on the lower lip that will not heal • Wart-like growth • Sore that does not heal • Red, scaly patches/bumps • ( • (google images)
    11. 11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment • Freezing • Laser therapy • Mohs surgery • Radiation therapy • Chemotherapy • ( • (google images)
    12. 12. Melanoma • Causes most deaths • Nearly 100 % curable • Hereditary • Moles, brown spots and growths on the skin are most likely harmless • ( • (google images) Most serious form of skin cancer
    13. 13. Signs of Melanoma • Change in size, shape, color or feel of a mole • Swollen lymph nodes • Weight loss • ( • (google images) • Grey skin • Ongoing cough • Severe headaches • Seizures
    14. 14. Melanoma Treatment • There are many medications • Excision • Lymphadenectomy • Also must always protect skin after having this cancer • ( • (google images)
    15. 15. ABCDE rule • A stands for Asymmetry • B stands for Border • C for Color • D for Diameter • E for Evolving • (
    16. 16. The Layers of The Skin (google images)
    17. 17. The Sun – Sunburn may take 20 years + for skin cancer to form – By the age of 18, most people receive 80% of lifetime exposure • One serious sunburn can increase risks by 50% • Give vitamin D • Give off both UVA and UVB ray • ( • (
    18. 18. • Exposure to tanning beds before the age of 30 increases a the risk of developing melanoma by 75 % • ( • (flikr)
    19. 19. Tanning Beds • Are listed as carcinogen • "Both the sun and tanning beds have been unnecessarily demonized by special interests using junk science and scare tactics” • Bad because they cause cancer, good because gives off vitamin D • Exposure can raise skin cancer risk even without causing sunburn • ( • ( • (google images)
    20. 20. Indoor Tanning Statistics • Nearly 30 million people tan indoors in the U.S. every year; 2.3 million of them are teens • 71 % of tanning salon patrons are girls and women aged 16-29 • The indoor tanning industry has an annual estimated revenue of $5 billion • (
    21. 21. Vitamin D • Helps keep bones healthy • Prevent fractures • Maintain muscle strength • Reduces the risk of: – Colon Cancer – Breast Cancer – Multiple sclerosis – High blood pressure – ( – ( – (google images)
    22. 22. Jersey Shore Cast Speaks Out About Skin Cancer • "Jersey Shore"'s Snooki announced that "she does not want to die from skin cancer" on Wednesday’s edition of "Extra". The Skin Cancer Foundation’s Senior Vice President, Dr. Deborah S. Sarnoff, sat down with the cast of MTV’s hit show to discuss the dangers of tanning in an effort to put an end to their favorite motto "GTL", which stands for Gym, Tanning, Laundry. The intervention was successful and the "Jersey Shore" roommates plan to make the switch to spray tanning. • ( • ( (video)
    23. 23. Spray Tan • The alternate to tanning beds! • Cancer free • Available in high-end salon or spas
    24. 24. Prevention – Seek shade between 10 AM and 4 PM – Cover up – Use sun screen 15 SPF or higher every day – Examine skin head to toe every month – Avoid tanning and UV tanning booths – (
    25. 25. Who is more prone to skin cancer? People with lighter skin “The skin tans when UV radiation is absorbed by the skin, causing an increase in the activity and number of melanocytes, the cells that make the pigment melanin. Melanin helps to block out damaging rays up to a point, which is why the skin of darker-skinned people burns less easily. “ (
    26. 26. Avoid over exposure if.. • Previously treated for skin cancer • Have a family history of skin cancer • Have lots of moles • Have freckles/sunburn before tanning • Have fair skin or blond, red, or light brown hair • Live or vacation in tropical or subtropical climates
    27. 27. Avoid over exposure if... continued • Work indoors all week and then get intense sun exposure on weekends • Spend a lot of time outdoors • Have had an organ transplant • Take medicines that lower your immunity • Take oral contraceptives • Taking antibiotics • (
    28. 28. Things You Should Know • The sun can seriously damage your eyes • Rays can travel through car & home windows • “Whites are about 20 times more susceptible to melanoma than African Americans” • Dark chocolate helps protect the skin • (Skin Cancer by Bonnie Juettner) • (
    29. 29. Fighting It • 10 % excise tax on the use of indoor tanning • About 32 states regulate use of tanning for minors • ( • (flickr)
    30. 30. Example: SPF 15 X 20 minutes = 300 minutes without burning (Skin Cancer by Po-Lin-So) (flickr)
    31. 31. Read the label! • Expiration date • Waterproof • Skin irritation • 2 types of sun screen • (Skin Cancer by Po-Lin-So) • (flickr)