Belize Garifuna Timeline


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Belize Garifuna Timeline

  1. 1. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY 367 years of history (1635 - 2002)
  2. 2. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1635 - two Spanish ships wrecked off the coast of St. Vincent - West African slaves escape to the island, where they found the Yellow Caribs, a group which emerged from the intermarriages between the Venezuelan Caribs and the island Arawaks.
  3. 3. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1675 - another shipwreck brought another wave of Africans to St. Vincent. Also, African slaves who had escaped nearby slave plantations from places like Jamaica found their way to the island.
  4. 4. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1750 - The new race of people - today called the GARIFUNA or Black Caribs, which emerged on the island of St. Vincent through the integration of 3 peoples: the Arawaks, the Yellow Caribs and the Africans - are said to have grown strong and prosperous on the island.
  5. 5. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1763 - British colonizers established presence on the island; French had already partially colonized the territory. British and French were fighting for territorial control. The Garifuna sided with the French, with whom they had developed a trading relationship after an informal war truce/peace pact.
  6. 6. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1763-1795: 32-year conflict between the Caribs and the Europeans, particularly the British. There was some intermarriage also between the Caribs and the Europeans, resulting in the so- called Red Carib race, known from the island of Dominica.
  7. 7. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1795: On March 14, Paramount Chief of the Black Caribs, Joseph Chatoyer died in battle.  It is reported that Chatoyer’s daughter, Gulisi was one of the first to settle Belize. At the age of 24, she reportedly came to Belize from Honduras, with 5 sons.
  8. 8. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY Chatoyer, Chief of Black Caribs on St. Vincent with his 5 wives. (Late 18th century engraving from 1773 original by Agontino Brunias.)
  9. 9. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1796: The French surrendered to the British; but the Caribs kept up the fight. They were famed as “belligerent.” To subdue them, the British -who were after the land they had cultivated- torched their possessions. There were two major wars: the Caribs won the first in 1795, and the British won the second sometime in 1796.
  10. 10. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1797: Just over 5,000 Garinagu were said to have “survived” the wars. In March, the British launched a manhunt for the Garinagu. They wanted to use those who had survived the bloody wars to help them fight against the Spaniards. They were expecting a war, which came in 1798 - the historical Battle of St. George’s Caye, and had uniforms made for the Garifuna men.
  11. 11. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY 1797 cont’d: One year before the Battle of St. George’s Caye, the British packed up about the Garinagu into ships, reportedly with the intent of sending them to Belize. The popular traditional accounts say that they were “deported” from St. Vincent to Roatan, Honduras - then a Spanish colony. Perhaps the Garinagu refused to fight!
  12. 12. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1797 cont’d: The Garifuna people were transported from Bequia in St. Vincent to Roatan, and half of them reportedly perished from the scourges of disease, starvation and harsh treatment by colonial powers.
  15. 15. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1799: First reported contact with Belize.  1801: On March 25, Garinagu arrive at Belize City, spotted many white buildings near the sea and called it by the name YARBURA - which later became Yarborough. They were only allowed to stay temporarily for 2 days.
  16. 16. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1802: 150 Caribs settled in Belize at Yarborough. Some surnames of the settlers include: Avaloy, Avila, Beni, Blanco, Cayetano, Ciego, Diego, Ellis, Enriquez, Guerrero, Lambey, Lewis, Martinez, Moguel, Noguera, Nunez, Rhys, Reyes and Serano. One of the prominent leaders at the time was Benito Beni.
  17. 17. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1802: Village of Red Cliff - present day Barranco - established.  Today, Barranco, one of the first Garifuna communities in Belize, is one of the last havens where the Garifuna culture is preserved in one of its most dynamic forms.
  18. 18. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1823: 375 Garinagu recorded at Yarborough in Belize City. On March 31, Elejo Beni, Romauldo Lewis, Elias Martinez, Alejo Lambey joined by Alejo Beni’s cousin, Benito Beni, their interpreter, approached Sup. Major-General Edward Codd (1823-1829) for permission for Garinagu to migrate from Honduras.
  19. 19. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1823: On Wednesday, November 19, 500 Garinagu settled in Belize. This was the largest recorded exodus of Garifuna to Belize. 300Dangriga (then Stann Creek Town) 125Punta Gorda (Toledo) 28 Seine Bight 15 Jonathon Point 8 Newtown (desolated by hurricane)
  20. 20. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1941 - First celebration of Garifuna Settlement Day in Belize, called Carib Disembarkation Day. Founded by Thomas Vincent Ramos.  1943 - Ramos lobbied for a public and bank holiday and succeeded two years after celebrations began. Granted only for Stann Creek.
  21. 21. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  1944: Holiday extended to the Toledo District, where the second largest concentration of Garifuna lived.  1977: Carib Settlement Day becomes a national holiday, and name changed by Garifuna Settlement Day.
  22. 22. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY Annual Re-enactment
  23. 23. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY THEME for 2002: 200 years - Celebrating our Achievements and Meeting the New Challenges! Bian San Irumu – Afeduha Wamei Wawanseru, Aranseñu Luba Iseri Dasi!
  24. 24. TIMELINE OF GARIFUNA HISTORY  2001: On November 15, UNESCO made a public proclamation of the Garifuna culture as a “Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible heritage of Humanity.  2002: On November 13, the Order of Belize will be bestowed posthumously upon T. V. Ramos, now recognized as one of Belize’s true patriots.