LESSON ORGANISATION. OPENING. SEQUENCING. PACING. CLOSING

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Lesson organisation. Opening, Sequencing, Pacing, Closing.

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LESSON ORGANISATION. OPENING. SEQUENCING. PACING. CLOSING

  1. 1. LESSON ORGANISATION AILIN OLIVARES WAN SHU WANG ADELA PÉREZ DEL VISO
  2. 2. LESSON ORGANISATION or STRUCTURE  Lessons: Easily recognized.  Distinguishable from other kinds of speech events (trials, meetings, debates, etc).  Need to optimize the amount of learning that takes place in the time available.  Peculiar characteristics: A) structure. B) typical use of language.  Sequences- The momentum of a lesson.
  3. 3. LESSON ORGANISATION Importance of English Lesson organization or “structure”. Openings. Sequencing. Pacing. Closure.
  4. 4. OPENINGS  Definition. Timing: 5 minutes.  Every stage: Clear boundaries.  Changes in location, voice tone, quality or volume, change in the organization  OPENINGS: Lesson beginnings. Variety of purposes.  Many necessary decisions of the teacher.  Conscious and unconscious decisions
  5. 5.  DECISIONS TO BE MADE:  Describe the goals of a lesson  What sts. are expected to do (I will do/ you will do/ we will do).  Begin activity w or w.o. explanation.  Present the funny characteristic of the activity.  Do something to capture their interest.  Give a short quiz at the beginning.
  6. 6.  Procedures the t. uses to focus the sts attention on the learning aims of the lesson. Relate to the last lesson Assess relevant kn. Prepare sts.to what follows. Allow tuning- in time Reduce the disruptcion
  7. 7. Structure- Openings.  A VIDEO: Jim Knight and his recommendations.  “Pace and structure in Lesson Planning”.  (from “Teaching Channel” in you tube:  http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=pace+and+structu re+of+a+class&vid=716eb07f9fd670c018cbb11fe3b5d2fc&l=1 4%3A59&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fts2.mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid %3DVN.608016053226311213%26pid%3D15.1&rurl=http%3A %2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D65U1FFULh3 U&tit=Pace+and+Structure+in+Lesson+Planning&c=0&sigr=11 ag2isa8&sigt=115kpkko8&ct=p&pstcat=travel&age=0&hsimp= yhs- yhsifmclone1&hspart=Babylon&type=br112dm1bs01ts604ts60 8ts913af120524&tt=b
  8. 8.  Analysis of the overall goals and the content of a lesson.  Plan a sequence of activities to attain those goals.  Stablish a kind of format or script for the lesson which represents the sequence of activities that make up the lesson. Sequencing
  9. 9. According to Wong – Fillmore (1985) a typical lesson format is… Taking turns to read
  10. 10. Principles for second and foreign language teaching From To Simple activities Complex activities Receptive skills Productive skills Study and practice a grammar rule Use it Accuracy-focused activities Fluency-focused activities Mechanical or form-based activities Meaningful-based activities
  11. 11. Situational Language Teaching (Hubbard et al. 1983) 1 – Presentation 2 – Controlled practice 3 – Free practice 4 – Checking 5 – Furthur practice Communicative Language Teaching (Littlewood, 1986) 1 – Pre-communicative activities. (Accuracy- based) 2 – Comminicative activities. (Fluency- based)
  12. 12. Example  A dialogue which introduces the functions and vocabulary to be practiced in the class.  Then, we focus on the functional expressions.  Fluency-based activities as practice.
  13. 13. As regards the skills… Receptive: Reading 1 – Pre-reading activities 2 - While-reading activities 3 – Post-reading activities  Productive: Writing  Process Approach 1 – Pre-writing activities 2 – Drafting activities 3 – Revising activities
  14. 14. Transitions  Over thirty major transitions occur per day in such classes.  Skilled teachers clear transitions and minimize the loss of time.  Less effective teachers blend activities together, fail to monitor.  Effective transitions maintain students’ attention and establish a link between one activity and the next.
  15. 15. Pacing “It is the extent to which a lesson maintains its momentum and comunicates a sense of development ” It is one of the significant features of the teacher s lesson and a necessary skill. The teacher needs to get the timing right: Activities should not be too long or too short.
  16. 16. Some strategies  Avoid needless or over-lenghty explanations or instructions.  Use variety.  Avoid predictable and repetitive activities.  Select activities of a appropriate level of difficulty.  Set a goal and time limit.  Monitor performance to ensure the time provided is the adequate .
  17. 17. It is made by the concluding parts that serve to: • Reinforce • Integrate and review • Prepare for further learning Closure
  18. 18.  Summarize what has been seen.  Review key points.  Relate the lesson to certain goals.  Point out links between lessons.  Relate to real-world needs.  Make links to new knowledge.  Praise students for their acomplishments Some strategies
  19. 19. These can be used as reinforcement activities or as an assessment of student learning. Follow-up activities
  20. 20. Sources  Richards and Lockhart. (2007). Reflective Teaching Second Language Classrooms.  Youtube: Pace and structure in Lesson Planning. Teaching Channel. Retrieved from: http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=pace+and+ structure+of+a+class&vid=716eb07f9fd670c018cbb11fe3b5 d2fc&l=14%3A59&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fts2.mm.bing.net%2Ft h%3Fid%3DVN.608016053226311213%26pid%3D15.1&rurl=htt p%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D65U1FF ULh3U&tit=Pace+and+Structure+in+Lesson+Planning&c=0&s igr=11ag2isa8&sigt=115kpkko8&ct=p&pstcat=travel&age=0 &hsimp=yhs- yhsifmclone1&hspart=Babylon&type=br112dm1bs01ts604ts6 08ts913af120524&tt=b

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