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  2. 2. SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES.  SIMPLE.  COMPOUND: consists of 2 or more clauses at the same grammatical level. Each of them: a main clause.  COMPLEX sentence: CONTAINS a subordinate clause as one of its constituents.
  3. 3. CLASSES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS CLAUSES  “… when we were drinking wine.”  “while drinking w…” “In order to drink w.”…  After some time, … 
  4. 4. CLASSES AS REGARDS FUNCTION NOMINAL CLAUSES: can have a range of functions similar to N.PH.s. RELATIVE CLAUSES: postmodify N PH.s  ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: a range of functions similar to ADV Ph.or P.P. as adverbials  COMPARATIVE CLAUSES :with more,less or as and inflection –er function as intensifiers. 
  5. 5. FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS IN DET. Non finite: a) -ing participle clause with subject: I don´t have a dog barking all day.  B) –ing part. Witho. Subject: Barking all day long, the dog was exhausted.  C) –ed With subjetct: I don´t have a dog covered with a dress.  D) –ed part. Cl witho. Sub: Covered with a dress, the dog looked ridiculous. 
  6. 6. OTHERS: To inf. With subject:  I told Mary to read the book.  To inf. With o. subject:  I ordered to march towards the sun.  Bare inf. With subject: (causative): I made them march towards the sun.  Bare inf. W.o. subject: It helps support our style of marching. 
  7. 7. VERBLESS CLAUSES:  No cars there, the street was peaceful. (with subject)  Although under subjection, streets seemed peaceful.
  8. 8. FOUR CASES: NOMINAL, RELATIVE, ADVERBIAL AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES NOMINAL CLAUSES:  FUNCTIONS:  **SUBJECT: That this is a good environment, is for sure.  Working on your own is the best way of living.  **COMPLEMENT OF A VERB: (d.o.):  He asked to be taken to the country. 
  9. 9. (NOMINAL CL): Other N.CLAUSES can function as:  **COMPLEMENT OF AN ADJECTIVE:  It is sure that her mother is safe.  (sure, prepared, surprised).  COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION:  He promised to leave as soon as he could.  COMPLEMENT OF A NOUN: the fact, the idea, the report that everything is fine. 
  10. 10. RELATIVE CLAUSES. They postmodify N.PHRASES.  They can be restrictive or non restrictive.  REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES: have a non finite verb:  Most people wearing bright colours are happier.  Most people, depressed by the notice, felt quite down the weather. 
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES DISJUNCTS:  Style disjuncts: … if you know what I mean.  Content disjuncts: Broadly speaking…  ADJUNCTS:  …while singing loud songs.  …where we used to gather before. 
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS OF COMPARATIVE CLAUSES We use a comparative clause with a preceding CORRELATIVE. (more, less, as)  With the preceding correlative, they function as intensifiers:  He should drive more rapidly than others.  “MORE THAN OTHERS” modifies the adverb rapidly and functions as intensifier.  **Less harm than it might be expected.  “LESS THAN IT M.B.E.”: intensifier of harm. 
  14. 14. SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES FINITE subordinate declarative clauses:  They are introduced by “that” They function as: complement of a verb (“he told me that”, with the pro clause “so”),  Compl. Of an adjective (sure that it is true)  Compl. Of a noun: idea, belief, concept that it is true. 
  15. 15. SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES NON FINITE:  -ING clauses.  -ed clauses.  -bare inf. Clauses (let me … ) 
  16. 16. SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES THREE TYPES: YES/NO CLAUSES: If and weather.  I don´t know if you have studied the issue.  I asked whether they knew the issue.  ALTERNATIVE CLAUSES: whether /or  … whether they knew the issue or not.  WH CLAUSES: introduced by a wh word (determiner, pronoun or adverb):  He asked Mary what would be the best thing to do. 
  17. 17. SOME DETAILS AS REGARDS INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES: IF/ WHETHER restrictions: If : more restricted than w.:  Only whether: a) with a to-inf. clause b) as complement of a preposition. (as to whether they were gathered or not) c) only whether followed by “or not”.   IF and WHETHER can be repeated in alternative clauses, if they are in full.
  18. 18. SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSES In this use, the clause is introduced by  HOW AND WHAT.  How and what are intensifiers.  He realised in amazement how much their children loved each other.  (THE “loved each other”, and “how much “ they did it, is an intensifier. ) 
  19. 19. NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES OTHER NAMES: independent relaive clauses or free relative clauses.  They resemble N. PHR.s.  Like N.Ph. They can take plural verbs.  They can have personal reference:  He speaks to whoever girl he encounters.  With plural verbs:  What he really wants to see, are girls in bikini. 
  20. 20. OTHER CONCEPTIONS: Some grammarians:  NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE is a NOUN PHRASE. (RATHER THAN A CLAUSE).  In this conception, it is a NOUN PHRASE, and the head (what, whatever, whoever) is a “fused relative” and the rest of the clause: a postmodifying relative clause.  He gave me what I needed. (head: what). 
  21. 21. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: May be finite, non finite (to-inf/ bare inf, -ing, -ed) and verbless.  FINITE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: Generally they have a subordinator: if /although, in case, when. IF IT RAINS, I´LL GO  Exceptionally, in cases of invertion, subject – operator inversion is used instead of the subordinator. HAD IT RAINED, I WOULD HAVE GONE. 
  22. 22. NON FINITE CLAUSES WITHO. A SUBJECT If the non finite or verbless clause does not have a subject: it is understood that the subject is identical with the subject of the host clause.  If the understood subject is not identical, it is said to be a dangling or unattached clause:  If under rain, the march would be terrible.  … about that illness. If severe, nerve cell death may result. 
  23. 23. VIOLATION OF IDENTIAL/SUBJECT RULE: Generally: considered to be an error.  EXCEPTIONS:  Style disjunct: Broadly speaking, the items were in good condition.  If the understood subj. Is you, we, one: It is the same thing when turning the lights on.  If the understood subject is the whole host clause: I would like it covered in red, if possible. 
  24. 24. ABSOLUTE CLAUSES Adverbial participle clauses or advebial verbless clauses  Not introduced by a subordinator  They have their own subject:  Winds having blown all night, the streed seemed to be a disaster. 
  26. 26. PLACE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES Place clauses: may refer to POSITION:  He will sit wherever he wants.  MAY REFER TO DIRECTION:  He was going TOWARDS N.Y. CITY.  Temporal clauses: The host clause may occur before, at the same time or at a later time than that of the temporal clause:  After drinking some water he felt better.  Before walking so long distance, his leg was not so bad. 
  27. 27. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. They exhibit a parallel with subordinate interrogative clauses:  Both : information is missing. For cond. clauses, the missing info is about the fulfilment of the condition.  The distinction of the three types of interrogative clauses (y/n, alternative or wh) are analogous to those in conditional clauses.  If and whether are used as subordinators.  Rhetorical quest. aralleled by rhetorical conditions. If anybody knows more, I´m dead. 
  28. 28. DIRECT AND INDIRECT CONDITION. THERE IS A POSSIBLE TRUTH OF THE HOST CLAUSE: APODOSIS.  AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE CONDITION IN THE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (IF CLAUSE): PROTASIS.  Direct conditional clauses: indicate that the truth of the host clause depends on the fulfilment of the if clause (apodosis depends on protasis) 
  29. 29. INDIRECT CONDITIONS: They are “speech acts”.”  “… if you know what I mean.”  Apodosis do not depend on protasis. 
  30. 30. DIRECT CONDITIONS: OPEN AND HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS: OPEN CONDITIONS: They leave completely open whether the condition will be fulfilled.  The speaker does not indicate if he believes the condition has been fulfilled.  HYPOTHETICAL conditions: The hypothetical cond. Will be conveyed through verb forms backshifted. They express the idea that the condition has not been fulfilled. 
  31. 31. EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS -- with idea of “present”:  I´d be happy if I could pass this exam.  -- with idea of “past”:  I would have been happy if my mother had visited me.  (the condition has not been fulfilled, or is not fulfilled).  The subjunctive WERE is used sometimes:  I would be happy if I WERE you. 
  32. 32. SUBJECT/OPERATOR INVERSION IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES  Cond. Clauses may have subject operator inversion without a subordinator.  Auxiliaries: had, were or should  HAD HE WON the prize, he would be happy now.
  33. 33. CONDITIONAL SUBORDINATORS If I were you…  Unless it is true…  Provided that…  If only it was true…  Should it rain, … 
  34. 34. CIRCUMSTANTIAL AND CONCESSIVE CLAUSES Circumstantial cl: express a general idea of place or time: … whenever he wants//  Concessive: THERE IS A HOST CLAUSE/ AND A CONCESSIVE CLAUSE.  The situation in the host cl. Is unexpected in view of what is said in the concessive clause.  Although it started as a bright sunny day, it rained heavily afterwards. 
  35. 35. REASON/ CAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Reason clauses: express notions as reason and cause  There is a host clause and a reason clause.  Sometimes the reason clause is a speech act.  … since you are a dumb. 
  36. 36. PURPOSE CLAUSE May be FINITE AND NON FINITE.  Finite purpose clause: They take a modal auxiliary: they refer to an event that has yet to take place: “… since one person can go to the front…”  Infinitival (non finite) purpose clause: They are more frequent. / To-infinitive clauses witho. A subordinator/ in order to, so as to. 
  37. 37. RESULT CLAUSE There is a host clause and a result clause.  He studied quickly, so that he was able to be on time.  You never speak aloud, so I do not hear you.  They refer to a situation that is or was in effect. 
  38. 38. MANNER CLAUSE Manner clauses refer to the manner of the action expressed by the verb.  Though treated here for convenience, they are also COMPLEMENTS OF THE VERB.  They do AS THEY ARE INSTRUCTED.  You go on, AS IF YOU HAD NOT HEARED ANYTHING.  (as, as if, as though) 
  39. 39. PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES Both prop. and similarity cl. Involve kinds of comparison.  The thinner the girl, the better she looks.  The in proportion clauses is not a definitive article: it comes from OLD ENGLISH of the instrumental case THY of the demonstrative pronoun : “by that the faster, by that the better” and it is similar to “so”. 
  40. 40. OTHER DETAILS AS REGARDS PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES  Reduced case: The simpler, the better. Similarity clauses resemble the second type of proportion clause in form:  JUST AS our fortune reduced, so our possibilities to afford his studies died.  It means that something happens in the same proportion of another process. 