GRAMMAR II- COLOQUIO
TEACHER: ANDREA ARELLANO.
STUDENT: ADELA PEREZ DEL VISO
TOPIC: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN
NOMINAL CLAUSES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.
SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX
COMPOUND: consists of 2 or more clauses
at the same grammatical level. Each of them:
a main clause.
COMPLEX sentence: CONTAINS a
subordinate clause as one of its constituents.
CLASSES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS
“… when we were drinking wine.”
“while drinking w…” “In order to drink w.”…
After some time, …
CLASSES AS REGARDS FUNCTION
NOMINAL CLAUSES: can have a range of
functions similar to N.PH.s. RELATIVE CLAUSES: postmodify N PH.s
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: a range of functions
similar to ADV Ph.or P.P. as adverbials
COMPARATIVE CLAUSES :with more,less
or as and inflection –er function as
FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS IN DET.
Non finite: a) -ing participle clause with
subject: I don´t have a dog barking all day.
B) –ing part. Witho. Subject: Barking all day
long, the dog was exhausted.
C) –ed part.cl. With subjetct: I don´t have a
dog covered with a dress.
D) –ed part. Cl witho. Sub: Covered with a
dress, the dog looked ridiculous.
To inf. With subject:
I told Mary to read the book.
To inf. With o. subject:
I ordered to march towards the sun.
Bare inf. With subject: (causative): I made
them march towards the sun.
Bare inf. W.o. subject: It helps support our
style of marching.
No cars there, the street was peaceful. (with
Although under subjection, streets
FOUR CASES: NOMINAL, RELATIVE,
ADVERBIAL AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES
**SUBJECT: That this is a good
environment, is for sure.
Working on your own is the best way of
**COMPLEMENT OF A VERB: (d.o.):
He asked to be taken to the country.
Other N.CLAUSES can function as:
**COMPLEMENT OF AN ADJECTIVE:
It is sure that her mother is safe.
(sure, prepared, surprised).
COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION:
He promised to leave as soon as he could.
COMPLEMENT OF A NOUN: the fact, the
idea, the report that everything is fine.
They postmodify N.PHRASES.
They can be restrictive or non restrictive.
REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES: have a
non finite verb:
Most people wearing bright colours are
Most people, depressed by the notice, felt
quite down the weather.
FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Style disjuncts: … if you know what I mean.
Content disjuncts: Broadly speaking…
…while singing loud songs.
…where we used to gather before.
FUNCTIONS OF COMPARATIVE CLAUSES
We use a comparative clause with a
preceding CORRELATIVE. (more, less, as)
With the preceding correlative, they function
He should drive more rapidly than others.
“MORE THAN OTHERS” modifies the
adverb rapidly and functions as intensifier.
**Less harm than it might be expected.
“LESS THAN IT M.B.E.”: intensifier of harm.
SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES
FINITE subordinate declarative clauses:
They are introduced by “that” They function as: complement of a verb (“he
told me that”, with the pro clause “so”),
Compl. Of an adjective (sure that it is true)
Compl. Of a noun: idea, belief, concept that
it is true.
SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES
YES/NO CLAUSES: If and weather.
I don´t know if you have studied the issue.
I asked whether they knew the issue.
ALTERNATIVE CLAUSES: whether /or
… whether they knew the issue or not.
WH CLAUSES: introduced by a wh word
(determiner, pronoun or adverb):
He asked Mary what would be the best thing
SOME DETAILS AS REGARDS INTERROGATIVE
IF/ WHETHER restrictions: If : more
restricted than w.:
Only whether: a) with a to-inf. clause b) as
complement of a preposition. (as to
whether they were gathered or not) c) only
whether followed by “or not”.
IF and WHETHER can be repeated in
alternative clauses, if they are in full.
SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSES
In this use, the clause is introduced by
HOW AND WHAT.
How and what are intensifiers.
He realised in amazement how much their
children loved each other.
(THE “loved each other”, and “how much “
they did it, is an intensifier. )
NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES
OTHER NAMES: independent relaive clauses
or free relative clauses.
They resemble N. PHR.s.
Like N.Ph. They can take plural verbs.
They can have personal reference:
He speaks to whoever girl he encounters.
With plural verbs:
What he really wants to see, are girls in bikini.
NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE is a NOUN
PHRASE. (RATHER THAN A CLAUSE).
In this conception, it is a NOUN
PHRASE, and the head
(what, whatever, whoever) is a “fused
relative” and the rest of the clause: a
postmodifying relative clause.
He gave me what I needed. (head: what).
May be finite, non finite (to-inf/ bare inf, -ing,
-ed) and verbless.
FINITE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: Generally
they have a subordinator: if /although, in
case, when. IF IT RAINS, I´LL GO
Exceptionally, in cases of invertion, subject –
operator inversion is used instead of the
subordinator. HAD IT RAINED, I WOULD
NON FINITE CLAUSES WITHO. A SUBJECT
If the non finite or verbless clause does not
have a subject: it is understood that the
subject is identical with the subject of the
If the understood subject is not identical, it is
said to be a dangling or unattached clause:
If under rain, the march would be terrible.
… about that illness. If severe, nerve cell
death may result.
VIOLATION OF IDENTIAL/SUBJECT RULE:
Generally: considered to be an error.
Style disjunct: Broadly speaking, the items
were in good condition.
If the understood subj. Is you, we, one: It is
the same thing when turning the lights on.
If the understood subject is the whole host
clause: I would like it covered in red, if
Adverbial participle clauses or advebial
Not introduced by a subordinator
They have their own subject:
Winds having blown all night, the streed
seemed to be a disaster.
MEANINGS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
REASON/PURPOSE/ RESULT CLAUSES.
PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES
PLACE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES
Place clauses: may refer to POSITION:
He will sit wherever he wants.
MAY REFER TO DIRECTION:
He was going TOWARDS N.Y. CITY.
Temporal clauses: The host clause may occur
before, at the same time or at a later time than
that of the temporal clause:
After drinking some water he felt better.
Before walking so long distance, his leg was
not so bad.
They exhibit a parallel with subordinate
Both : information is missing. For cond.
clauses, the missing info is about the fulfilment
of the condition.
The distinction of the three types of
interrogative clauses (y/n, alternative or wh)
are analogous to those in conditional clauses.
If and whether are used as subordinators.
Rhetorical quest. aralleled by rhetorical
conditions. If anybody knows more, I´m dead.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT CONDITION.
THERE IS A POSSIBLE TRUTH OF THE
HOST CLAUSE: APODOSIS.
AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE
CONDITION IN THE CONDITIONAL
CLAUSE (IF CLAUSE): PROTASIS.
Direct conditional clauses: indicate that the
truth of the host clause depends on the
fulfilment of the if clause (apodosis depends
They are “speech acts”.”
“… if you know what I mean.”
Apodosis do not depend on protasis.
DIRECT CONDITIONS: OPEN AND
OPEN CONDITIONS: They leave
completely open whether the condition will
The speaker does not indicate if he believes
the condition has been fulfilled.
HYPOTHETICAL conditions: The
hypothetical cond. Will be conveyed through
verb forms backshifted. They express the
idea that the condition has not been fulfilled.
EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS
-- with idea of “present”:
I´d be happy if I could pass this exam.
-- with idea of “past”:
I would have been happy if my mother had
(the condition has not been fulfilled, or is not
The subjunctive WERE is used sometimes:
I would be happy if I WERE you.
SUBJECT/OPERATOR INVERSION IN
Clauses may have subject
operator inversion without a
Auxiliaries: had, were or should
HAD HE WON the prize, he would be
If I were you…
Unless it is true…
If only it was true…
Should it rain, …
CIRCUMSTANTIAL AND CONCESSIVE CLAUSES
Circumstantial cl: express a general idea of
place or time: … whenever he wants//
Concessive: THERE IS A HOST CLAUSE/
AND A CONCESSIVE CLAUSE.
The situation in the host cl. Is unexpected in
view of what is said in the concessive clause.
Although it started as a bright sunny day,
it rained heavily afterwards.
REASON/ CAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Reason clauses: express notions as reason
There is a host clause and a reason clause.
Sometimes the reason clause is a speech
… since you are a dumb.
May be FINITE AND NON FINITE.
Finite purpose clause: They take a modal
auxiliary: they refer to an event that has yet
to take place: “… since one person can go to
Infinitival (non finite) purpose clause: They
are more frequent. / To-infinitive clauses
witho. A subordinator/ in order to, so as to.
There is a host clause and a result clause.
He studied quickly, so that he was able to be
You never speak aloud, so I do not hear
They refer to a situation that is or was in
Manner clauses refer to the manner of the
action expressed by the verb.
Though treated here for convenience, they
are also COMPLEMENTS OF THE VERB.
They do AS THEY ARE INSTRUCTED.
You go on, AS IF YOU HAD NOT HEARED
(as, as if, as though)
PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES
Both prop. and similarity cl. Involve kinds of
The thinner the girl, the better she looks.
The in proportion clauses is not a definitive
article: it comes from OLD ENGLISH of the
instrumental case THY of the demonstrative
pronoun : “by that the faster, by that the
better” and it is similar to “so”.
OTHER DETAILS AS REGARDS PROPORTION
AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES
Reduced case: The simpler, the better.
Similarity clauses resemble the second type
of proportion clause in form:
JUST AS our fortune reduced, so our
possibilities to afford his studies died.
It means that something happens in the
same proportion of another process.