Translators & Interpreters Conference
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Álvaro Degives-Más </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking different languages. Servi...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul><...
Introduction <ul><ul><li>I: Language in context </li></ul></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul><ul><li>It's wha...
Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul><ul><li>It's wha...
Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're  cultural universes </li><...
Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></...
Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></...
Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></...
Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>...
Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>...
Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>...
Language in context
Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul>
Language in context
Language in context
Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul...
Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul...
Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul...
Language in context
Interpreting in context
Interpreting in context
Interpreting in context
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul>
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </...
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </...
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </...
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </...
Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </...
Society, migration, dynamics <ul><ul><li>II: Language on the move </li></ul></ul>
Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language! </li></ul>
Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul...
Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul...
Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul...
Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock:  every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul>
Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock:  every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...someti...
Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock:  every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...someti...
Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock:  every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...someti...
Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul>
Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><...
Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><...
Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><...
Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language,  and  literacy </li><...
Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language,  and  literacy </li><...
Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language,  and  literacy </li><...
Teaching English or American? <ul><ul><li>III: Empowering parents & teachers </li></ul></ul>
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st  generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citiz...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st  generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citiz...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st  generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citiz...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st  generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citiz...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><ul><li>Language education for children of immigrants is not “just” about teaching a lan...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </l...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </l...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </l...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </l...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul>
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><...
Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><...
Makings of a court interpreter <ul><ul><li>IV: Interpreting in context </li></ul></ul>
Interpreting in context <ul><ul><li>NEWSFLASH! </li></ul></ul>
Interpreting in context
Interpreting in context
Interpreting in context
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding  doesn't  mean being bilingual </li></ul>
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding  doesn't  mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding  doesn't  mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding  doesn't  mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding  doesn't  mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul>
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation f...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation f...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation f...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul>
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No  cultural competency  assessme...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No  cultural competency  assessme...
Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No  cultural competency  assessme...
Specialized specializations V: Variations on interpretation
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul>
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo :  surprisin...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education  lingo:  surprisin...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education  lingo:  surprisin...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education  lingo:  surprisin...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education  lingo:  surprisin...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul>
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, me...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, me...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, me...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul>
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very  intense : high-paced simultaneo...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very  intense : high-paced simultaneo...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very  intense : high-paced simultaneo...
Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very  intense : high-paced simultaneo...
Beyond talking... VI: Translation in context
Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul>
Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><u...
Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><u...
Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><u...
Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: AT...
Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: AT...
Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: AT...
Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of  sworn translator  as in many other countries </li></ul>
Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of  sworn translator  as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, m...
Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of  sworn translator  as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, m...
Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of  sworn translator  as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, m...
Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of  sworn translator  as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, m...
Toward the conclusion... VII: Looking ahead
Looking ahead
Looking ahead
Looking ahead
Looking ahead <ul><li>Over  310  languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Over  310  languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Over  310  languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Over  310  languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul>
Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is o...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is o...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is o...
Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is o...
Looking ahead Language is not just “words” it's a mindset
Your questions Thank you!
 
The DG Interpreting
DG Interpretation in key figures <ul><ul><ul><li>500  staff interpreters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>300 - 400  fr...
 
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TMCC 2008 Translator Conference

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A backgrounder presentation as a broad introduction to the professional fields of translation and interpretation and related issues.

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TMCC 2008 Translator Conference

  1. 1. Translators & Interpreters Conference
  2. 2. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Álvaro Degives-Más </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking different languages. Serving one community. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language on the move </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language on the move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning language </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language on the move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation v interpreters </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language on the move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation v interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation v translators </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Language services in context <ul><ul><li>Presentation overview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language on the move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation v interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation v translators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions, Q&A </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><ul><li>I: Language in context </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul>
  11. 11. Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul><ul><li>It's what makes us homo sapiens sapiens </li></ul>
  12. 12. Language in context <ul><li>Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement </li></ul><ul><li>It's what makes us homo sapiens sapiens: </li></ul><ul><li>Highly intelligent beings, living in a highly advanced society. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul>
  14. 14. Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map... </li></ul>
  16. 16. Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map... </li></ul><ul><li>Carry and transmit all information – both known and believed known </li></ul>
  17. 17. Language in context <ul><li>Languages aren't piles of words and rules </li></ul><ul><li>They're cultural universes </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map... </li></ul><ul><li>Carry and transmit all information – both known and believed known </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts even perception! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul>
  19. 19. Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>English language is also in ongoing flux </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>English language is also in ongoing flux </li></ul><ul><li>English is not uniform; evolving, reflects regional, cultural differences </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language in context <ul><li>Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages </li></ul><ul><li>English language is also in ongoing flux </li></ul><ul><li>English is not uniform; evolving, reflects regional, cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>An interesting illustration: Amy Walker, 21 different accents in 1 ½ minutes! </li></ul>
  22. 22. Language in context
  23. 23. Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul>
  24. 24. Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul>
  25. 25. Language in context
  26. 26. Language in context
  27. 27. Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul><ul><li>There's no “difficult” language </li></ul>
  28. 28. Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul><ul><li>There's no “difficult” language </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic variety = cultural diversity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Language in context <ul><li>Accents < dialects < languages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7,300 “living” languages today </li></ul><ul><li>There's no “difficult” language </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic variety = cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, English is the 1 st global lingua franca </li></ul>
  30. 30. Language in context
  31. 31. Interpreting in context
  32. 32. Interpreting in context
  33. 33. Interpreting in context
  34. 34. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul>
  35. 35. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </li></ul>
  36. 36. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens and agents of transformation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens and agents of transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful words: lexical, social impact </li></ul>
  38. 38. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens and agents of transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful words: lexical, social impact </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (mastery) involves and implies cultural competency </li></ul>
  39. 39. Language in context <ul><li>Language doesn't exist unto itself </li></ul><ul><li>Both vehicle and ingredient in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens and agents of transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful words: lexical, social impact </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (mastery) involves and implies cultural competency </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of cultural competency: “Language on the Move” </li></ul>
  40. 40. Society, migration, dynamics <ul><ul><li>II: Language on the move </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language! </li></ul>
  42. 42. Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul><li>People can migrate for many different reasons </li></ul>
  43. 43. Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul><li>People can migrate for many different reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Different motivations: different cultural and socio economic backgrounds </li></ul>
  44. 44. Language on the move <ul><li>Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language </li></ul><ul><li>People can migrate for many different reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Different motivations: different cultural and socio economic backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Migrant population isn't necessarily representative </li></ul>
  45. 45. Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul>
  46. 46. Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation </li></ul>
  47. 47. Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>For many first-generation immigrants, native language is an anchor - not just “identity token” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Language on the move <ul><li>Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels... </li></ul><ul><li>...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>For many first-generation immigrants, native language is an anchor - not just “identity token” </li></ul><ul><li>New language, major challenge: multiple jobs, raising children, survival skills... </li></ul>
  49. 49. Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul>
  50. 50. Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds” </li></ul>
  51. 51. Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds” </li></ul><ul><li>Much attention for teaching English to children </li></ul>
  52. 52. Language on the move <ul><li>...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary” </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds” </li></ul><ul><li>Much attention for teaching English to children </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for bonding the native language/culture with the new home: fomenting ambassadors </li></ul>
  53. 53. Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy </li></ul>
  54. 54. Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Transcultural versus cross-generational </li></ul>
  55. 55. Language on the move <ul><li>Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Transcultural versus cross-generational </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching English, or empowering the American Dream? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Teaching English or American? <ul><ul><li>III: Empowering parents & teachers </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens </li></ul>
  58. 58. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children </li></ul>
  59. 59. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnects between educators and parents can create long-term problems </li></ul>
  60. 60. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnects between educators and parents can create long-term problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competence is vital in education: connect to forge effective partnerships </li></ul>
  61. 61. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><ul><li>Language education for children of immigrants is not “just” about teaching a language, but conveying the cultural universe that comes with it. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </li></ul>
  63. 63. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation </li></ul>
  64. 64. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation </li></ul><ul><li>Here the “community interpreter” really shines as culturally competent facilitator </li></ul>
  65. 65. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape” </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation </li></ul><ul><li>Here the “community interpreter” really shines as culturally competent facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>High stakes: professional development </li></ul>
  66. 66. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul>
  67. 67. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol... </li></ul>
  68. 68. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol... </li></ul><ul><li>...and highly specialized terminology </li></ul>
  69. 69. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol... </li></ul><ul><li>...and highly specialized terminology </li></ul><ul><li>No code of conduct and ethics, specific to community interpreters (yet) </li></ul>
  70. 70. Empowering parents & teachers <ul><li>No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol... </li></ul><ul><li>...and highly specialized terminology </li></ul><ul><li>No code of conduct and ethics, specific to community interpreters (yet) </li></ul><ul><li>An example of an accreditation system: certification of court interpreters </li></ul>
  71. 71. Makings of a court interpreter <ul><ul><li>IV: Interpreting in context </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Interpreting in context <ul><ul><li>NEWSFLASH! </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Interpreting in context
  74. 74. Interpreting in context
  75. 75. Interpreting in context
  76. 76. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual </li></ul>
  77. 77. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward a dominant language </li></ul>
  78. 78. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward a dominant language </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging </li></ul>
  79. 79. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward a dominant language </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Little upstream into higher education </li></ul>
  80. 80. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward a dominant language </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Little upstream into higher education </li></ul><ul><li>“Native” court interpreters often arrive with fundamentally sound language skills </li></ul>
  81. 81. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul>
  82. 82. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral competence (code of conduct, proceeding) measured during workshop </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Two accreditation levels: state, federal </li></ul><ul><li>Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral competence (code of conduct, proceeding) measured during workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamental: interpreter is a “glass sheet” - not a party at all </li></ul>
  85. 85. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul>
  86. 86. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No cultural competency assessment </li></ul>
  87. 87. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No cultural competency assessment </li></ul><ul><li>“Glass sheet:” added value is intrinsic, not applied </li></ul>
  88. 88. Interpreting in context <ul><li>Background check; officer of the court </li></ul><ul><li>No cultural competency assessment </li></ul><ul><li>“Glass sheet:” added value is intrinsic, not applied </li></ul><ul><li>Major contrast / difference with education or community type interpreters! </li></ul>
  89. 89. Specialized specializations V: Variations on interpretation
  90. 90. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul>
  91. 91. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo : surprisingly complex </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo: surprisingly complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is a driving issue </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo: surprisingly complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is a driving issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo: surprisingly complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is a driving issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very confidential information, subjects </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Community/education interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education lingo: surprisingly complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is a driving issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very confidential information, subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: no formal accreditation, emphasis on ongoing training , professional membership </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul>
  97. 97. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency vital: bridging taboos, skillful at knowing how to read a situation </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Medical interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency vital: bridging taboos, skillful at knowing how to read a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: no statewide certification process or procedure available in Nevada </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul>
  101. 101. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions (sound system, receivers, booth, console, VRS...) </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Variations on interpretation <ul><li>Conference interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions (sound system, receivers, booth, console, VRS...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation other than professional membership is hard to implement </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Beyond talking... VI: Translation in context
  106. 106. Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul>
  107. 107. Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><ul><li>Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages </li></ul>
  108. 108. Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><ul><li>Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages </li></ul><ul><li>Same documents, need to tailor and tweak to address contextual differences </li></ul>
  109. 109. Translation in context <ul><li>Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other </li></ul><ul><li>Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages </li></ul><ul><li>Same documents, need to tailor and tweak to address contextual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Oftentimes, tendency to parallelism leads to wrong solutions (e.g. false cognates) </li></ul>
  110. 110. Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA </li></ul>
  111. 111. Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA </li></ul><ul><li>Examination / certification per language pair (e.g., German  English) </li></ul>
  112. 112. Translation in context <ul><li>Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA </li></ul><ul><li>Examination / certification per language pair (e.g., German  English) </li></ul><ul><li>Membership is open, voluntary exams lead to certification: big difference! </li></ul>
  113. 113. Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries </li></ul>
  114. 114. Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal) </li></ul>
  115. 115. Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal) </li></ul><ul><li>Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.) </li></ul>
  116. 116. Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal) </li></ul><ul><li>Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple accreditation (e.g. via Apostille) </li></ul>
  117. 117. Translation in context <ul><li>No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal) </li></ul><ul><li>Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple accreditation (e.g. via Apostille) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a registry, e.g. kept by the Secretary of State (in Nevada) </li></ul>
  118. 118. Toward the conclusion... VII: Looking ahead
  119. 119. Looking ahead
  120. 120. Looking ahead
  121. 121. Looking ahead
  122. 122. Looking ahead <ul><li>Over 310 languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>149 immigrant languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73 extinct languages </li></ul></ul>
  123. 123. Looking ahead <ul><li>Over 310 languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>149 immigrant languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73 extinct languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US is surprisingly multilingual! </li></ul>
  124. 124. Looking ahead <ul><li>Over 310 languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>149 immigrant languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73 extinct languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US is surprisingly multilingual </li></ul><ul><li>In our area, near-extinct: Pomo, Serrano, Tübatulabal, Washo , Wintu, Yurok </li></ul>
  125. 125. Looking ahead <ul><li>Over 310 languages spoken in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>162 indigenous languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>149 immigrant languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73 extinct languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US is surprisingly multilingual </li></ul><ul><li>In our area, near-extinct: Pomo, Serrano, Tübatulabal, Washo , Wintu, Yurok </li></ul><ul><li>With each language, a bit of our humanity and heritage disappears... </li></ul>
  126. 126. Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul>
  127. 127. Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is often overlooked </li></ul>
  128. 128. Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is often overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool </li></ul>
  129. 129. Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is often overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development: ongoing effort </li></ul>
  130. 130. Looking ahead <ul><li>Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural competency is often overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development: ongoing effort </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the professionals: resources in education (UNR/TMCC/WCSD), community (NNIC), professional (NITA/ATA/NAJIT...) </li></ul>
  131. 131. Looking ahead Language is not just “words” it's a mindset
  132. 132. Your questions Thank you!
  133. 134. The DG Interpreting
  134. 135. DG Interpretation in key figures <ul><ul><ul><li>500 staff interpreters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>300 - 400 freelance interpreters per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,700 accredited freelance interpreters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 - 60 meetings per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 – 11,000 meeting days per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>± 135,000 interpreter days per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40 major Commission conferences organized per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total operating cost 2005: €100,000,000 ( $155,000,000 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost: €0.21 ( $0.33 ) /European citizen/year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After the 2004 enlargement, DG Interpretation needs 15-40 interpreters/day per new language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of interpreting is likely to increase by 20-40% , when full capacity is reached in the new Member State languages </li></ul></ul></ul>

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