Framework for Designing Smart Cities Initiatives - SCID


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Presentation given at ECIS2014 on how to design Smart Cities Initiatives. See full paper at:

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Framework for Designing Smart Cities Initiatives - SCID

  1. 1. Designing Next Generation Smart City Initiatives: Harnessing Findings And Lessons From A Study Of Ten Smart City Programs Adegboyega Ojo1, Edward Curry1, Tomasz Janowski2 1INSIGHT @ NUI Galway 2United Nations University Twenty Second European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2014 ) 1
  2. 2. Rational for Smart Cities MOBILITY CHALLENGES •  Transportation systems are inadequate to serve the needs of the 21st century RESOURCE CHALLENGES •  Freshwater use to rise 25% by 2030 •  Energy demand by emerging countries will rise by 73% ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGES •  Increase in environmental issues (global warming or better Friedman's "global weirding” phenomenon) or exacerbation of warming induced disasters and related health problems [Forester 2010]
  3. 3. 2-year research on state of research and practice of smart cities to inform Smart City related Policy for the Macao SAR Government Some Background Part of an International Smart Cities Research/Practice Consortium composed of international research teams from the US, Canada, Mexico, Colombia, China and Ireland.  
  4. 4. What is a Smart City? Several definitions emerged in last few years describing the concept. One definition attempting to capture emerging dimensions of the concept is : A city in which investments in human and social capital and modern ICT infrastructure and e-services fuel sustainable growth and quality of life, enabled by a wise management of natural resources and through participative government [Caragliu et al., 2009]
  5. 5. Framework Design Goals Support knowledge and decision needs of Smart City policymakers in City Governments responsible for planning Smart City initiatives Q1: What kinds of outcomes could city residents and other stakeholders desire with regards to transformation of the City? Q2: What aspects of City life should be transformed to achieve the desired outcomes? Q3: What types of Initiatives can achieve these outcomes? Q4: What types of concrete objectives can be set for the initiatives? Q5: What factors contribute to successful Smart City initiatives? Q6: What are common difficulties faced by managers of Smart City initiatives? Q7: What are the typical mechanisms deployed to address success factors and challenges in Smart City initiatives?
  6. 6. Research Approach ! Design Process follows DSR guidelines by (Hevner et al., 2004) 1)  Identification and motivation of problem 2)  Definition of objectives for the framework 3)  Design and development of the SCID Framework 4)  Demonstration of use of the Framework 5)  Evaluation of framework 6)  Communication of the framework At least one iteration has been carried out in each step of the process.
  7. 7. 10 Smart City Cases Selected Smart Cities initiatives which were considered as good practices in different policy domains
  8. 8. Conceptual Model for Smart City Initiative Analysis
  10. 10. SCID Elements Q1: What kinds of outcomes could city residents and other stakeholders desire with regards to transformation of the City? Q2: What aspects of the City life should be transformed to achieve the desired outcomes? Q3: What types of Initiatives can be pursued towards achieving these outcomes? Q4: What types of concrete objectives can be set for these initiatives? Q5: What factors contribute to successful Smart City initiatives Q6: What are the common difficulties faced by managers of Smart City initiatives? Q7: What are the typical mechanisms deployed to address success factors and challenges in Smart City initiatives?
  11. 11. (Q1) Desired Outcomes Environment Energy •  Aesthetic value •  Recycling take-up by residents and businesses •  Green space per residential unit •  Recognition - ranking and designation as best practice exemplar •  Adoption of organic food •  E-Vehicle adoption •  Level of biogas production •  Use of wind energy •  Energy usage reduction •  Petrol usage reduction Transportation Economy •  Less congestion •  Less CO2 emission •  Self-sustainability •  Recognition – ranking and designation as best practice exemplar •  Standard of living •  GDP contribution •  Unemployment rate •  Investment friendly environment •  Recognition – including competitiveness •  Employment and job creation •  Foreign Direct Investment •  Startups
  12. 12. (Q2) City Policy Domains Economy Energy Environment Technology Lifestyle People Mobility Grovenance
  13. 13. (Q2) City Policy Domains
  14. 14. (Q3) Objectives of Initiatives 1.  Carbon or O2 reduction and neutrality 2.  Achieving energy efficiency 3.  Leveraging ICT to develop niche industries 4.  Attaining highest quality living environment for residents 5.  Developing green areas within the city 6.  Developing state-of-the-art information infrastructure accessible to all 7.  Achieving economic growth and quality of life simultaneously 8.  Developing sustainable communities 9.  Ensuring social harmony among different groups of residents 10. Evolving city as living laboratory to foster continued improvements
  15. 15. (Q3) Objectives of Initiatives
  16. 16. (Q4) Strategies for Initiatives Exemplar Strategies for major dimensions Environment Energy Transportation 1.  Water management 2.  Open and green space development 3.  Material flow and recycling 4.  Sustainable city operations 5.  Land use planning 6.  Sustainable agriculture and natural resource management 7.  Waste management. 1.  Adoption of energy efficient practices particularly in building designs 2.  Use of renewable energy such as biogas and wind energy by households 3.  Use of smart grid technologies and deployment of energy management system at the community 4.  Education of children through projects on how to save energy 5.  Promotion of the use of e- vehicles and hybrids 1.  Accessibility rather than mobility in trans. planning 2.  Provision of networks for non- motorized transportation (bicycles and walking) 3.  Prioritization parking for fuel- efficient and low emitting vehicles in public places 4.  Use of e-vehicles for public transport with charging stations across the city 5.  Integration of land-use and public fare collection 6.  Adoption of transit-oriented development in urban planning.
  17. 17. (Q4) Strategies for Environment Dimension Initiative Strategies Waste Management 1 Waste separation into dry recyclables; wet recyclable, residuals & solid waste. (Masdar) (Curitiba) 2 Designed to encourage recycling in low-income areas where it was more difficult to reach by the conventional waste management system. (Curitiba) 3 Involved children in the program by exchanging recyclable garbage for school supplies, chocolates, and food parcel. (Curitiba) 4 Hired retired and unemployed residents temporarily to clean up specific areas of the city where litter has accumulated. (Masdar) 5 Minimize the amount of waste, make reuse and recycling possible and enable the use of waste and sewage as an energy source. (Malmo) 6 Construction of waste separation system in buildings. (Malmo) 7 Food waste is primarily collected to produce bio-gas for vehicle fuel. (Malmo)
  18. 18. (Q5) Critical Success Factors Program Success Factor Keyword Curitiba Leadership and adherence to smart transportation planning has helped Curitiba strive towards becoming a sustainable city while gaining a strong reputation as a great example of successful urban planning. Leadership and adherence to implementation IPPUC’s creation was an essential to ensure long-term implementation of city plans. IPPUC was effective in ensuring planning continuity and success regardless of political, economic, and social challenges, and made substantial contributions as a laboratory for finding creative, integrated solutions to urban planning problems. Creation of research and Think-tank Institution 1.  Political leadership 2.  Adoption of integrated, holistic and whole of government approach to smart city development 3.  Creation of dedicated research and think-tank institution to support program 4.  Non-compromising on core values 5.  Ensuring creativity but affordability of solutions 6.  Comprehensive master-planning 7.  Regulations and standards for stakeholders 8.  Build stakeholder collaboration, industry partnerships and citizens’ participation
  19. 19. (Q6) Challenges 1.  Obtaining buy-in from stakeholders, particularly the private sector 2.  Ensuring inclusion of poor areas in the program 3.  Sustaining stakeholders’ interests and participation 4.  Resourcing and funding the program considering high development cost 5.  Obtaining residents' participation
  20. 20. (Q7) Enablers - Partnerships o  Academia (university & research centers) o  State-owned enterprises o  Real estate firms o  Architectural practice firms o  Investment firms o  Engineering construction firms o  Technology firms o  International consulting firms o  Etc. Program Partner Partner Type Partner Role Songdo Gale International Real estate Main developer Cisco Private Sector Create advanced community connected by IT Songdo U- Life Quasi Private Sector Building of ubiquitous infrastructures & ubiquitous environment for u-services
  21. 21. (Q7) Enablers - Goverance Coordination And Integration o  Human centered approach o  Identification of agreed core set of projects o  Stakeholder involvement o  Use of administrative and legal instruments o  Integration of policy implementation in multiple dimensions - transport, land use, … Service Integration o  Integrated utility management o  Integrated land use and transport services o  Operating System or Control System for integrating and managing urban services Participation And Co-production o  Building multi-stakeholder partnerships with industry, academia and residents o  Information exchange o  Citizen or resident participation o  Local and international firm participation o  Agency collaboration Policy And Regulations o  Visioning and Master-planning o  Providing certifications for different types of practices or activities o  Institutional development o  License regulations (e.g. in transportation) o  Promotional activities, e.g. adopting like low-carbon growth policies o  Design and engineering standards
  22. 22. Evaluation Initial user feedback was positive •  Enables clear process for planning smart city initiatives for targeted users’ decision making needs •  Options provided are useful •  Framework aligned with their IT Management practices in areas such as portfolio management, strategic alignment, and benefits management •  More support needed for specific choices with respect to critical success factors and challenges
  23. 23. Conclusion The Smart City Initiative Design (SCID) Framework is a design tool to assist Smart City policymakers and practitioners in making planning decisions for Smart City initiatives Limitations & Future Work •  Utility of the tool is partly related to the richness and freshness of its knowledge base. •  Continue work on dissemination of the tool, monitoring, and evaluation of its use in more diverse environments and its periodic update