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  1. 1. Chap 3: Managing Healthcare: Case studies of Singapore and Britain 3.2 Healthcare In Britain
  2. 2. Lesson Outline <ul><li>Britain’s Welfare System </li></ul><ul><li>Britain’s Approach in Managing Healthcare – Free Healthcare at the Point of Need </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the effectiveness of Britain’s Healthcare Approach </li></ul>
  3. 3. Healthcare in Britain <ul><li>In Britain, healthcare is a public good that is provided by the National Health Services (NHS). </li></ul><ul><li>People in Britain receive free healthcare services from their government. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Britain’s Welfare State <ul><li>In the 1940s, the government felt that it was their responsibility to look after its citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1942, a senior government official, William Beveridge, delivered the ‘ Beveridge Report ’ and recommended that the government put an end to poverty, disease and unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>The government accepted the report and created a welfare system for the people of Britain. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Britain’s Welfare State <ul><li>In a welfare state, the government looks after its citizens from ‘ cradle-to-grave ’. </li></ul><ul><li>This is to ensure that every citizen would have a minimum standard of welfare for a decent life – a job, a home and healthcare. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Britain need to contribute to a national fund in order for the system to work. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cradle-to-grave benefits provided by the welfare state
  7. 7. Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) <ul><li>The National Health Services (NHS) was set up as part of the welfare system to provide free healthcare for its people at the point of need. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that people do not have to pay for the medical treatments that they receive when they are attended to by doctors at clinics or hospitals. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) <ul><li>When the NHS started in 1948 , it was very popular with the people. </li></ul><ul><li>The government provided free basic medical service for all citizens . </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that all medical services, dental and even optical treatments were free of charge. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) <ul><li>However, the NHS was not very successful . </li></ul><ul><li>There were too many people who wanted to use the free medical care. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors used or recommend treatment freely without much consideration for cost. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1951, medical treatment was no longer free . NHS had to charge a small fee for medicine and dental treatment was also chargeable. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Britain’s Approach: Free Healthcare At the Point of Need Managing Government Spending Increasing Efficiency Providing Quality Service
  11. 11. (1) Managing Government Spending <ul><li>Under the welfare system, the government is expected to make healthcare free to people . </li></ul><ul><li>The money to pay for healthcare comes from the people . </li></ul><ul><li>If healthcare costs increase, the government has to collect more taxes to pay for healthcare and other expenditure. </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  12. 12. (1) Managing Government Spending <ul><li>The government manage government spending by balancing spending and increasing taxes . </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in spending by the government in healthcare was accompanied by increases in the National Insurance Contributions . </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  13. 13. (2) Increasing Efficiency <ul><li>In the 1980s, then prime minister, Margaret Thatcher introduced the policy of privatisation within the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>The aims of privatisation were to reduce government subsidies , save cost and make NHS more efficient . </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  14. 14. (2) Increasing Efficiency <ul><li>One example of privatisation was for NHS hospitals to contract out non-medical services. </li></ul><ul><li>This involved using private contractors to provide services such as laundry, cleaning and catering in hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>This would allow hospitals to concentrate on providing medical services . </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  15. 15. Non-medical services provided by private contractors.
  16. 16. (2) Increasing Efficiency <ul><li>British citizens were encouraged to take responsibility for their own welfare and health. </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine, dental treatment and optical services were no longer free, except for students, expectant mothers and mothers with children below 1 year old . </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  17. 17. (3) Providing Quality Service <ul><li>By the late 1980s , people felt that there were poor standards within the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, the British government aimed to improve the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the improvements made to the NHS was to focus on providing quality service for patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients were given more information to help them decide on their own treatment and care . </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  18. 18. (3) Providing Quality Service <ul><li>The government introduced two plans to deliver quality service by putting the needs of the patients as the top priority . </li></ul><ul><li>One was the NHS Plan (2000) which made changes based on feedback from staff, patient and all those involved in healthcare. </li></ul><ul><li>It planned to work towards offering patients faster and more convenient services. </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  19. 19. (3) Providing Quality Service <ul><li>One way was to let the NHS make use of facilities in private hospitals without having the patient to pay for it . </li></ul><ul><li>The second plan was the NHS Improvement Plan (2004 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Under this plan, patients would have the right to choose from four different healthcare providers and the NHS would pay for the treatment. </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  20. 20. (3) Providing Quality Service <ul><li>Every patient would also have access to their own personal HealthSpace on the Internet where they can see their care records. </li></ul><ul><li>NHS Direct was also introduced to provide medical advice over the phone to patients with minor illnesses so that they can save a visit to the doctor. </li></ul>Approach to healthcare in Britain
  21. 21. <ul><li>How successful do you think Britain ’ s healthcare policies are? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Effectiveness of healthcare policies in meeting the people ’ s needs <ul><li>The NHS has been a public service that the people in Britain identify themselves with and feel strongly about. </li></ul><ul><li>The NHS has been used as a model for countries like Sweden, Italy and Spain which also have welfare systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years, many changes have been made to improve the NHS. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Effectiveness of healthcare policies in meeting the people ’ s needs <ul><li>Many groups of people have expressed different views about the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Britons are thankful for the NHS and feel safe knowing that they can have medical services when they need them. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also doctors who feel that the NHS has improved over the years while others feel that there has been no real improvement . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Effectiveness of healthcare policies in meeting the people ’ s needs <ul><li>For the past 50 years, the British government has tried to keep up with the changing needs of the people in healthcare through the reforms in the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>It shows how difficult it is to make and implement government policies to meet the needs and expectations of people. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary Britain’s approaches in healthcare Managing Government Spending by Balancing Spending and Increasing Taxes Increasing Efficiency by Privatising Some Areas in the NHS. Providing Quality Service by Reducing Waiting Time and Giving Choices to Patients