Ch4: northern ireland

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  • Citizenship rights ‘ Sinhala only’ policy University admission criteria Resettlement
  • Citizenship rights ‘ Sinhala only’ policy University admission criteria Resettlement
  • Ch4: northern ireland

    1. 1. Chapter 4 Conflict in Multi-ethnic Societies <ul><li>Case Study of Northern Ireland </li></ul>
    2. 2. Chapter Breakdown <ul><li>Introduction on N. Ireland and Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Consequences of Conflict in Northern Ireland </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>You have looked at the case study of Sri Lanka where the Tamils and Sinhalese were in conflict for decades due to the differences in ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case-study of N. Ireland , you will be looking at another example of conflicts between two groups of people – the Protestants and Catholics . </li></ul><ul><li>They were in conflict for over 30 years due to the differences in religious beliefs . </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The war in Northern Ireland is another example of a civil war (war between groups of people within a country) that lasted for over 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3600 people died and more than 40 000 people have been injured due to this conflict. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Where is Northern Ireland?
    6. 6. History of Northern Ireland <ul><li>Before 12thC : 1 country – Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>12thC : Ireland conquered by England – English Protestant settlers push out Irish Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part of Ireland mainly Protestant </li></ul>Movement of British Protestants into N. Ireland, 1654-1801
    7. 7. History of Northern Ireland <ul><li>Protestants implemented Penal Laws against Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot buy land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot join the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No access to higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1800 : Ireland became part of UK </li></ul><ul><li>Local Irish Catholics sought limited self-government, did not want to be part of UK </li></ul>
    8. 8. History of Northern Ireland <ul><li>1900s : British government lost control of Southern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>1921 : Ireland divided into 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South – Irish Free state – largely Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North – largely Protestant – Catholics still treated unfairly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1949 : Irish Free State  Republic of Ireland </li></ul>
    9. 9. Northern Ireland <ul><li>Capital at Belfast </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants 58.8%, </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics 41.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Britain handles foreign affairs & defence matters </li></ul><ul><li>N.Ireland handles commerce, health & education </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of ministers are Protestants </li></ul>
    10. 10. Conflict in Northern Ireland <ul><li>The Protestants are mostly Scottish and English while the Catholics are mostly descendents of the local Irish inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>This lack of common identity has prevented understanding and cooperation between the Protestants and Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>The religious differences between the two groups have also created tension between them. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4.3 Causes of Conflict in N. Ireland <ul><li>Divided Loyalties </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal allocation of housing </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of opportunities for social interaction </li></ul>
    12. 12. 1. Divided Loyalties <ul><li>The difference in political beliefs between the Protestants and Catholics has contributed to the conflict in N. Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Protestants see themselves as British and wish to see the country remain as part of UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of them do not want a union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country. They fear that a Catholic government may not be tolerant of their Protestant beliefs. </li></ul>
    13. 13. 1. Divided Loyalties <ul><li>The Catholics see themselves as Irish , and want to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>They still resent the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. </li></ul><ul><li>This loyalty to different countries makes the Protestants and Catholics intolerant of each other. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 2. Unequal allocation of housing <ul><li>The unfair allocation of public housing by the city councils has contributed to the conflict in N. Ireland. The city councils consist largely of Protestants. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholics find the allocation of public housing by the government to be unfair . </li></ul><ul><li>Very often, the large Catholics families in need of housing have to wait a long time to get the house. In some towns, more houses would be given to the Protestants than the Catholics. </li></ul>
    15. 15. 3. Unequal employment opportunities <ul><li>Another cause of conflict between the Protestants and Catholics in N. Ireland is the competition for jobs . </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally more difficult for Catholics in N. Ireland to find jobs , especially in the government sector. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholics feel that although they may have the same qualifications as the Protestants, they do not have the same opportunities in getting the job they want. </li></ul>
    16. 16. 4. Lack of voting rights <ul><li>Before 1969, voting rights was an issue between the Protestants and the Catholic. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, only those who owned houses and businesses were entitled to vote in the local government elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Each household is entitled 2 votes while companies were entitled to more votes depending on their size. Since many companies were owned by the richer Protestants , they ended up with more votes . </li></ul>
    17. 17. 4. Lack of voting rights <ul><li>The voting system was unfair to the poorer Catholics . </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1969, everyone is entitled to one vote as long as he/she is a British citizen above 18 years old. He/she has to be born in N. Ireland or has lived in the UK for 7 years.   </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>In the education system of N. Ireland, the Protestants and Catholics do not study together in the same schools . </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants attend the fully-funded public schools while the Catholics attend the private schools. The private schools for the Catholics are partly funded by the government. </li></ul>5. Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction
    19. 19. <ul><li>Since the 17th century, the Protestants and Catholics have been living in separate residential areas . </li></ul><ul><li>The 1991 census showed that in Belfast, 63% of the population lived in areas that are either mainly Protestants or Catholics. By 2001, this has risen to 66% (worsening the segregation). This has greatly reduced the opportunity for social interaction . </li></ul>5. Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction
    20. 20. How conflicts lead to violence in N. Ireland? <ul><li>In 1967, the Catholics set up N. Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) to bring about changes within N. Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>It was formed by a group of well-educated, middle-class Catholics in N. Ireland who wanted to end discrimination against Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>NICRA adopts non-violent methods to protest against discrimination against Catholics. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Civil Rights Marches to Violence <ul><li>1968 marked the beginning of a period known as ‘ The Troubles ’ in N. Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>It was during these peaceful marches that fighting first broke out between the Protestants, Catholics and police. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969, the British government sent troops to keep order, welcome by Catholics initially. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Civil rights marches and violence <ul><li>In 1971, the N. Ireland government introduced the Internment Laws . This gave the British army the power to arrest, interrogate and detain anyone without trial . The Catholics lose faith in the British Army when the army began searching their homes and arresting those suspected of terrorist activities. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Bloody Sunday <ul><li>On 30 January 1972 – Bloody Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>15 000 people participated in an illegal, peaceful civil rights march in the Catholic-dominated area of Londonderry. </li></ul><ul><li>The march was organized by NICRA and was a protest against internment & the ban on the right to march. </li></ul><ul><li>The British soldiers shot at protestors, leaving 13 civilians dead and many wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>The deaths on Bloody Sunday led to a great outburst of catholic anger. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to more violence. </li></ul>
    24. 24. More Violence <ul><li>After 1972, the country saw more violence between Protestants, Catholics and British Army . Catholic homes & businesses are targeted by Protestants & British army. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholics turned to Irish Republican Army (IRA) for help. The IRA attacked British soldiers and bombed Protestants’ properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1969 and 1993, more than 3500 people were killed in the conflict in the country. The IRA was responsible for two-thirds of the deaths. </li></ul>
    25. 25. 4.4 Consequences of Conflict in Northern Ireland <ul><li>Beside human casualties, the violence in N.Ireland has also affected the country socially economically and politically. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Consequence: Social Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Consequences: Declining Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Political Consequences: Political Reform </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Social Consequences: Social Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>The Protestants and Catholics have been segregated socially , in the way they live, work and play. This has led to the lack of understanding between the two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>In the education system of N. Ireland, the Protestants and Catholics do not study together in the same schools . Protestants attend the fully-funded public schools while the Catholics attend the private schools. </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Social Consequences: Social Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Since the 17th century, the Protestants and Catholics have been living in separate residential areas . The 1991 census showed that in Belfast, 63% of the population lived in areas that are either mainly Protestants or Catholics. By 2001, this has risen to 66% (worsening the segregation). </li></ul><ul><li>This social segregation results in the lack of social interaction and hence the lack of understanding between the two groups. </li></ul>
    28. 28. 2. Economic Consequences: Declining Economy <ul><li>The economy of N. Ireland has been affected by the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>It has also discouraged domestic and foreign investments in the country. The foreign owned factories closed down when violence increased the operating costs in N. Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The constant threat of bombings and high cost of security drove away large manufacturers in great numbers. </li></ul>
    29. 29. 3. Political Consequences: Political Reform <ul><li>The civil rights marches put pressure on the N. Ireland government to pass anti-discrimination measures in N. Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Following further civil rights demonstrations and pressure from Britain, the government announced sweeping reforms of local government in N. Ireland : </li></ul>
    30. 30. 3. Political Consequences: Political Reform <ul><li>1972: Following Bloody Sunday in January, the N. Ireland government was suspended in March. </li></ul><ul><li>1973: An agreement was reached to introduce power sharing (means spreading the power to govern the country) between the Protestants and Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>1974: The agreement on power sharing was removed through a Protestant workers’ strike. </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Another agreement was reached to re-introduce power sharing but has not been fully implemented as the different political parties refused to share power. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Hope For Peace <ul><li>From the 1970s to 1990s, the British government had made attempts to bring peace back to N. Ireland. However, the Protestants and Catholics failed to come to an agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1990s, the British government, the government of the Irish Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland community leaders actively discussed the Northern Ireland peace process. The Good Friday Peace Agreement was reached in 1998. However, the peace agreement was not successful. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hope For Peace <ul><li>Since the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, many problems still remain. Violence has flared up again and again. </li></ul><ul><li>However, steps towards arms decommissioning and increased sensitivity are positive developments. </li></ul><ul><li>It seems clear that the majority of people are ready to take on the challenge in return for peace. </li></ul>

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