When	
  Assump+ons	
  and	
  
Priori+es	
  Collide:	
  Exploring	
  
Intercultural	
  Communica+on	
  
and	
  Schooling	
 ...
Ways  of  thinking  and  lear2ing    
are  shaped  by    
prior  lear2ing  ex6eriences  
North	
  American	
  teachers	
  and	
  learners	
  
assume	
  that:	
  
1.  the	
  goals	
  of	
  K-­‐12	
  instruc,on	
 ...
Three	
  Cultural	
  Differences	
  
•  Literacy	
  
	
  
•  Collec,vism	
  and	
  Individualism	
  
	
  
•  Ways	
  of	
  ...
I	
  never	
  care	
  about	
  reading	
  un,l	
  	
  I	
  come	
  
here	
  	
  In	
  my	
  country	
  nothing	
  to	
  re...
Collec+vis+c	
  	
  vs.	
  Individualis+c	
  
Cultures	
  
Informal	
  Ways	
  of	
  Learning	
  
•  Revolves around
immediate needs of
family and community
•  Grounded in
observati...
Formal	
  Western-­‐Style	
  Educa+on	
  
•  Abstract	
  knowledge	
  
•  Scien,fic	
  reasoning	
  
•  Logical	
  deduc,on...
Academic Tasks
•  Definitions
Ø What is a tree?
•  True/False
Ø New York City is the capital of New York State
Ø Boston...
(Adapted	
  from	
  Luria,	
  1976)	
  
Sample	
  Academic	
  Task	
  
North	
  American	
  teachers	
  and	
  learners	
  
assume	
  that:	
  
1.  the	
  goals	
  of	
  K-­‐12	
  instruc,on	
 ...
(Ibarra, 2001)
Intercultural Communication
Framework (ICF)
Ø  Establish and maintain a relationship
Ø  Iden+fy	
  priori+es	
  in	
  bo...
Who Am I?	
  
Keep Your Eye on The Ball	
  
Spillach,	
  1979	
  
“It’s a small world, after all.”
Two Learning Activities
	
  	
  	
  FAMILIAR	
  
	
  	
  SCHEMATA	
  
	
  
	
  	
  UNFAMILIAR	
  
	
  	
  	
  SCHEMATA	
  ...
Intercultural Communication
Framework
Step	
  1:	
  	
  	
  	
  Establish and maintain a relationship
•  Infuse instructio...
Strategies	
  
•  Ensure	
  two-­‐way	
  communica,on	
  
•  Use	
  cultural	
  brokers	
  
•  Engage	
  in	
  peer	
  obs...
 A	
  Con+nuum	
  of	
  Ways	
  of	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
Thinking	
  &	
  Learning	
  	
...
More	
  Informa+on?	
  
Email:	
  drandreadecapua@gmail.com	
  
	
  
Books:	
  
Marshall,	
  H.W.	
  &	
  DeCapua,	
  A.	
...
Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm – MALPtm
Instructional Model
Students with Limited/
Interrupted Education
U.S. Classro...
When Assumptions and Priorities Collide TESOL 2014 DeCapua
When Assumptions and Priorities Collide TESOL 2014 DeCapua
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When Assumptions and Priorities Collide TESOL 2014 DeCapua

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This presentation introduces the Intercultural Communication Framework as a means to address conflicts in cultural orientations to learning and teaching, resulting in cultural dissonance for struggling language learners. By applying the Framework’s three guidelines, educators can greatly improve their effectiveness in classroom communication and instructional delivery for this population.

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When Assumptions and Priorities Collide TESOL 2014 DeCapua

  1. 1. When  Assump+ons  and   Priori+es  Collide:  Exploring   Intercultural  Communica+on   and  Schooling   TESOL  Conven,on  2014   Portland,  Oregon   Andrea  DeCapua,  Ed.D.   New  York  University   drandreadecapua@gmail.com    ©2014  MALP,  LLC.    For  terms  and  condi,ons  of  use,  contact  informa,on@malpeduca,on.com  
  2. 2. Ways  of  thinking  and  lear2ing     are  shaped  by     prior  lear2ing  ex6eriences  
  3. 3. North  American  teachers  and  learners   assume  that:   1.  the  goals  of  K-­‐12  instruc,on  are     a)  to  produce  an  independent  learner   b)  to  prepare  that  learner  for  life  aRer  schooling   2.  the  learner  brings  along   a)  an  urge  to  par,cipate  as  an  individual   b)  age-­‐appropriate  prepara,on  for   i.      literacy  development   ii.    academic  tasks             (Marshall, 1998; DeCapua & Marshall, 2011)  
  4. 4. Three  Cultural  Differences   •  Literacy     •  Collec,vism  and  Individualism     •  Ways  of  thinking  and  learning  
  5. 5. I  never  care  about  reading  un,l    I  come   here    In  my  country  nothing  to  read  but   here,  everywhere  print,  words  and   signs  and  books  and  you  have  to  read.   The  most  importants  I  have   learned  about  the  United  States   that  is  a  book,  newspapers,  or   notebook  and  pens.    These  things   are  always  let  me  know  how  to  live   here.        
  6. 6. Collec+vis+c    vs.  Individualis+c   Cultures  
  7. 7. Informal  Ways  of  Learning   •  Revolves around immediate needs of family and community •  Grounded in observation, participation in sociocultural practices of family and community •  Has immediate relevance •  Centered on orality (Gahunga,  Gahunga,  &  Luseno,  2011;  Paradise  &  Rogoff,  2009)  
  8. 8. Formal  Western-­‐Style  Educa+on   •  Abstract  knowledge   •  Scien,fic  reasoning   •  Logical  deduc,on   •  Formal  school  se]ngs   •  Literacy  is  central     (Anderson-­‐Levi^,  2003;  Flynn,  2007;  Grigorenko,   2007;    Ozmon  &  Carver,  2008  )  
  9. 9. Academic Tasks •  Definitions Ø What is a tree? •  True/False Ø New York City is the capital of New York State Ø Boston is the capital of Massachusetts •  Classification Ø Categorize these objects (see next slide)
  10. 10. (Adapted  from  Luria,  1976)   Sample  Academic  Task  
  11. 11. North  American  teachers  and  learners   assume  that:   1.  the  goals  of  K-­‐12  instruc,on  are     a)  to  produce  an  independent  learner   b)  to  prepare  that  learner  for  life  aRer  schooling   2.  the  learner  brings  along   a)  an  urge  to  par,cipate  as  an  individual   b)  age-­‐appropriate  prepara,on  for   i.      literacy  development   ii.    academic  tasks             (Marshall, 1998; DeCapua & Marshall, 2011)  
  12. 12. (Ibarra, 2001)
  13. 13. Intercultural Communication Framework (ICF) Ø  Establish and maintain a relationship Ø  Iden+fy  priori+es  in  both  cultures         Ø  Make  associa+ons  between  familiar  and  unfamiliar   (Marshall,    1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)  
  14. 14. Who Am I?  
  15. 15. Keep Your Eye on The Ball   Spillach,  1979  
  16. 16. “It’s a small world, after all.”
  17. 17. Two Learning Activities      FAMILIAR      SCHEMATA        UNFAMILIAR        SCHEMATA     Describing your favorite game in your first language or dialect Writing a science lab report in academic English
  18. 18. Intercultural Communication Framework Step  1:        Establish and maintain a relationship •  Infuse instruction with interpersonal elements Ø Teacher and students Ø Students together Ø Teacher and student families Step  2:        Iden+fy  priori+es  in  both  cultures   •  Adapt instruction to accommodate learner priorities •  Develop learner awareness of community priorities Step  3:        Make  associa+ons  between  familiar  and  unfamiliar   •  Move from familiar to unfamiliar schemata Linguistic Content  Formal •  Build associations between familiar/unfamiliar concepts (Marshall,    1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)  
  19. 19. Strategies   •  Ensure  two-­‐way  communica,on   •  Use  cultural  brokers   •  Engage  in  peer  observa,on   •  Become  an  observer   •  Control  tasks   – Linguis,c,  content,  formal   •  Model  explicitly  &  repeatedly     •  Allow  focused  NL  use  
  20. 20.  A  Con+nuum  of  Ways  of                             Thinking  &  Learning                               Informal Ways Learning Western-style Formal Education Struggling   ELs   Collectivism Oral Print Individualism
  21. 21. More  Informa+on?   Email:  drandreadecapua@gmail.com     Books:   Marshall,  H.W.  &  DeCapua,  A.  (2013).  Making  the  Transi0on:  Culturally  Responsive   Teaching  for  Struggling  Language  Learners.  Ann  Arbor:    University  of  Michigan  Press.     DeCapua,  A.  &  Marshall,  H.  W.  (2011).    Breaking  New  Ground:    Teaching  Students  with   Limited  or  Interrupted  Formal  Educa0on  in  U.  S.  Secondary  Schools.    Ann  Arbor:     University  of  Michigan  Press.     DeCapua,  A.,  Smathers,  W.,  &  Tang,  F.  (2009).  Mee0ng  the  Needs  of  Students  with   Limited  or  Interrupted  Formal  Schooling:    A  Guide  for  Educators.  .    Ann  Arbor:     University  of  Michigan  Press.     Websites:   www.malpeduca,on.com   h^p://malp.pbworks.com     ©2014  MALP,  LLC.    For  terms  and  condi,ons  of  use,  contact  informa,on@malpeduca,on.com      
  22. 22. Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm – MALPtm Instructional Model Students with Limited/ Interrupted Education U.S. Classrooms Interconnectedness Independence Shared Responsibility Individual Accountability Pragmatic Tasks Academic Tasks ACCEPT    SLIFE   CONDITIONS   COMBINE  SLIFE                       &  U.S.   PROCESSES   FOCUS  on  U.S.   ACTIVITIES  with   familiar  language     &  content   Immediate Relevance Oral Transmission Written Word with (DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2010; Marshall 1994, 1998) Future Relevance

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