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Marshall TESOL 2012 Perspectives on culture and learning


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Part 2 of the TESOL 2012 Colloquium on Promoting Excellence: Perspectives on ELLs with Limited/Interrupted Schooling.
Marshall proposes a continuum of ways of learning based on the cultural assumptions of learners and teachers in different settings and describe a mutually adaptive approach to assist this population to adjust to Western-style formal education.

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Marshall TESOL 2012 Perspectives on culture and learning

  1. 1. Helaine W. MarshallLong Island University
  2. 2. I never care about reading untilI come here In my countrynothing to read but here,everywhere print, words andsigns and books and you haveto read
  3. 3. “Culture acts as a filter or set of lenses through which we view and interpret the world around us.”DeCapua, A, & Wintergerst, W. 2004. Crossing cultures in thelanguage classroom. Ann Arbor, MI: University of MichiganPress.
  4. 4. Western-Style Formal Education • Abstract knowledge • Scientific reasoning • Logical deduction • Formal school settings • Literacy as central(Anderson-Levitt, 2003; Flynn, 2007; Grigorenko, 2007; Ozmon & Carver, 2008)
  5. 5. Informal Ways of Learning• Revolves around immediate needs of family and community• Grounded in observation, participation in sociocultural practices of family and community• Has immediate relevance• Centered on orality(Faulstich Orellana, 2001; Gahunga, Gahunga, & Luseno, 2011; Paradise & Rogoff, 2009)
  6. 6. Ways of Learning Continuum Informal Ways SLIFE Western-style of Learning Formal Education
  7. 7. Sample Task(Luria, 1976)
  8. 8. Academic Tasks• Definitions • What is a tree?• True/False • Philadelphia is the capital of Pennsylvania. • New York City is the capital of New York State.
  9. 9. Individualism vs. Collectivism
  10. 10. Assumptions of North American Teachers and Learners 1. The goals of instruction are a) to produce independent learners b) to prepare the learners for their future 2. The learner brings along a) preparation for academic tasks b) an urge to compete and excel as an individual(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2011)
  11. 11. (Ibarra, 2001)
  12. 12. Two Different Learning Paradigms Aspects of North American SLIFE Learning Classrooms Immediate FutureCONDITIONS Relevance Relevance Interconnectedness Independence Shared IndividualPROCESSES Responsibility Accountability Oral Transmission Written Word Pragmatic Tasks Academic TasksACTIVITIES(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2011; Marshall, 1994,1998)
  13. 13. MALP SLIFE North American Classrooms Immediate FutureAccept SLIFE Relevance Relevanceconditions Interconnectedness IndependenceCombine SLIFE &North American Shared Individualprocesses Responsibility Accountability with Oral Transmission Written WordFocus on newactivities with Pragmatic Academicfamiliar language Tasks& content Tasks(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2010; Marshall 1994, 1998)
  14. 14. Crossing the Mekong
  15. 15. Paj Ntaub
  16. 16. More about MALP?• Visit:• Contact us: