Transi(oning	
  to	
  schooling:	
  	
  
Reducing	
  cultural	
  dissonance	
  in	
  a	
  
community-­‐based	
  lit...
§ Cultural	
  competence	
  
§ Relevant	
  curriculum	
  
§ SupporHve	
  learning	
  community	
  
§ Cultural	
  congr...
SLIFE	
  
Students	
  with	
  Limited	
  or	
  
Interrupted	
  Formal	
  EducaHon	
  
	
  
Western-­‐style	
  
	
  Classro...
SLIFE	
  
Students	
  with	
  Limited	
  or	
  
Interrupted	
  Formal	
  EducaHon	
  
	
  
Western-­‐style	
  
Classrooms	...
1.  Develop	
  English	
  language	
  and	
  literacy	
  skills	
  
2.  Create	
  posiHve	
  learning	
  experience	
  
3....
§  Community-­‐Based	
  OrganizaHon	
  
(CBO)	
  
§  Urban/suburban	
  
§  All	
  volunteer	
  staff	
  &	
  teachers,	
...
§  Volunteer	
  
§  TESOL	
  Graduate	
  Student	
  
§  Teacher	
  CerHficaHons:	
  
§  Students	
  with	
  disabiliHes...
Students	
  
§  Very	
  low	
  beginner	
  to	
  advanced	
  beginner	
  
§  Alphabet	
  recogniHon	
  to	
  sentence	
 ...
 Interven(on	
  
§  Once	
  weekly,	
  for	
  total	
  of	
  5	
  months’	
  instrucHon	
  	
  
§  Class	
  ranged	
  in...
Mutually'Adaptive'Learning'Paradigm'–'MALP'©!
Teacher'Planning'Checklist!
A.''Accept'Conditions'for'Learning!
A1.''I'am'ma...
Ka(e’s	
  Projects	
  
Family	
  
	
  	
  Familiar	
  places	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Food	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  ...
Component	
  A	
  
Accept	
  Condi(ons	
  for	
  Learning	
  
A1.	
  	
  I	
  am	
  making	
  this	
  lesson/project	
  im...
 
Component	
  B	
  
Combine	
  Process	
  for	
  Learning	
  
	
  B1.	
  I	
  am	
  incorpora(ng	
  shared	
  responsibil...
Component	
  C	
  
Focus	
  on	
  New	
  Ac(vi(es	
  
C1.	
  I	
  am	
  focusing	
  on	
  tasks	
  required	
  for	
  lear...
Preliminary	
  Results	
  
§  Underscored	
  importance	
  of	
  immediate	
  relevance	
  
§  Validated	
  necessity	
 ...
Limita(ons	
  of	
  Study	
  
§  Only	
  one	
  teacher	
  
§  Small	
  sample	
  size	
  
§  Lack	
  of	
  consistent	...
Controlled	
  Studies	
  in	
  CBOs	
  
§  Loosely	
  structured	
  programs	
  
§  Funding	
  issues	
  
§  Lack	
  of...
Ques(ons	
  for	
  Researchers	
  
§  Should	
  such	
  research	
  be	
  disqualified?	
  
§  Is	
  it	
  valuable	
  if...
MALP	
  Resources	
  
§  Website:	
  	
  hp://malpeducaHon.com	
  
§  Wiki:	
  	
  hp://malp.pbworks.com	
  	
  
	
  
Br...
Contact	
  Us!	
  
•  drandreadecapua@gmail.com	
  
	
  
•  Helaine.Marshall@liu.edu	
  
•  ktmecu@aol.com	
  
Making the Transition to Schooling: Reducing Cultural Dissonance in a Community-­‐Based Literacy Program
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Making the Transition to Schooling: Reducing Cultural Dissonance in a Community-­‐Based Literacy Program

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LESLLA symposium presentation on an intervention for adult ESL learners with limited/interrupted education at a Community-Based Organization (CBO) .

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Making the Transition to Schooling: Reducing Cultural Dissonance in a Community-­‐Based Literacy Program

  1. 1.     Transi(oning  to  schooling:     Reducing  cultural  dissonance  in  a   community-­‐based  literacy  program     Andrea  DeCapua,  Ed.D.  -­‐  New  York  University   Helaine  W.  Marshall,  Ph.D.  -­‐  LIU  Hudson   Kathryn  Mercury,  M.Ed.        
  2. 2. § Cultural  competence   § Relevant  curriculum   § SupporHve  learning  community   § Cultural  congruity   § EffecHve  classroom  interacHon                      (DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2010,  2011;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013;  Gay,  2000;  2001;  Ladson-­‐Billings,  1995)   Culturally  Responsive  Teaching  
  3. 3. SLIFE   Students  with  Limited  or   Interrupted  Formal  EducaHon     Western-­‐style    Classrooms   Immediate        Relevance   Future              Relevance   Shared   Responsibility   Individual    Accountability   PragmaHc  Tasks   Academic  Tasks   CONDITIONS       PROCESSES     ACTIVITIES     Interconnectedness   Oral  Transmission   Independence   Wrien  Word     (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2010;  Marshall,  1994,1998)   Aspects  of     Learning     Two  Different  Learning  Paradigms      
  4. 4. SLIFE   Students  with  Limited  or   Interrupted  Formal  EducaHon     Western-­‐style   Classrooms     Interconnectedness   Independence    Shared              Responsibility   Individual    Accountability    PragmaHc            Tasks        Academic                    Tasks   Accept    learner   condiHons   Combine  learner                             &  North  American   processes   Focus  on  new   acHviHes  with   familiar  language     &  content      Immediate          Relevance    Oral              Transmission   Future              Relevance    Wrien  Word   with     (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2010,  2011;  Marshall  1994,  1998)     Mutually  Adap(ve  Learning  Paradigm  (MALP)  
  5. 5. 1.  Develop  English  language  and  literacy  skills   2.  Create  posiHve  learning  experience   3.  Establish  warm  classroom  climate   4.  Build  relaHonships     5.  Improve  aendance     Goals  of  Interven(on       §  To  transi(on  low-­‐educated  learners  to  formal  educa(on   §  To  reduce  cultural  dissonance  
  6. 6. §  Community-­‐Based  OrganizaHon   (CBO)   §  Urban/suburban   §  All  volunteer  staff  &  teachers,   except  director   §  High  demand  for  English  language   &  literacy  classes   §  Limited  resources  &  materials   Hai(an  Adult  Learning  Center  
  7. 7. §  Volunteer   §  TESOL  Graduate  Student   §  Teacher  CerHficaHons:   §  Students  with  disabiliHes   §  Childhood  educaHon   §  5  years’  teaching  experience  with   diverse  student  populaHons   §  MALP-­‐trained   Teacher     Ka(e  
  8. 8. Students   §  Very  low  beginner  to  advanced  beginner   §  Alphabet  recogniHon  to  sentence  formaHon   §  Creole-­‐dominant  speakers   §  2  –  14  years  of  schooling   §  16  -­‐77  years  old   §  3  months  –  7  years  in  U.S.   §  Nearly  all  female  
  9. 9.  Interven(on   §  Once  weekly,  for  total  of  5  months’  instrucHon     §  Class  ranged  in  size  from  12  to  32   §  Intake  assessment   §  Informal  interviews   §  Classroom  observaHons   §  Journaling   §  MALP  Checklist  
  10. 10. Mutually'Adaptive'Learning'Paradigm'–'MALP'©! Teacher'Planning'Checklist! A.''Accept'Conditions'for'Learning! A1.''I'am'making'this'lesson/project'immediately' relevant'to'students.''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' A2.''I'am'helping'students'develop'and'maintain' interconnectedness.'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' B.''Combine'Processes'for'Learning! B1.''''I'am'incorporating'shared'responsibility'and' individual'accountability.''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' B2.''''I'am'scaffolding'the'written'word'through'oral' interaction.'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' C.'Focus'on'New'Activities'for'Learning! C1.'''I'am'focusing'on'tasks'required'for'learning'in'the' classroom.'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''! C2.''I'am'making'these'tasks'accessible'with'familiar' language'and'content.' ! !
  11. 11. Ka(e’s  Projects   Family      Familiar  places            Food                  Shopping  
  12. 12. Component  A   Accept  Condi(ons  for  Learning   A1.    I  am  making  this  lesson/project  immediately  relevant  to  my  students.     I  facilitated  discussions  where  students  chose  topics  based  on  what  was  actually   taking  place  in  their  lives  and  on  what  they  wanted  to  share,  e.g.  food,  family,                                 work,  shopping.     A2.    I  am  helping  students  develop  and  maintain  interconnectedness.     I  permied  and  encouraged  students  to  help  each  other.    I  frequently  shared  photos   and  stories  about  my  own  personal  experiences,  including  family    and  personal  life.    
  13. 13.   Component  B   Combine  Process  for  Learning    B1.  I  am  incorpora(ng  shared  responsibility  and  individual  accountability.     I  held  students  individually  accountable  when  I  called  them  to  the  board  to  share  a   thought  in  the  form  of  a  sentence.  Students  returned  to  their  desk  to  copy  their   sentence  into  their  notebook,  taking  ownership  of  that  sentence.       B2.  I  am  scaffolding  the  wrien  word  through  oral  interac(on.     I  provided  sentence  frames,  model  sentence  structures.  Students  completed   sentences  or  provided  sentence  similar  to  the  model.  I  wrote  what  student  said,   modeled,  asked  students  to  re-­‐read  their  sentences,  then  to  copy  their  sentences   into  their  notebooks.    
  14. 14. Component  C   Focus  on  New  Ac(vi(es   C1.  I  am  focusing  on  tasks  required  for  learning  in  the  classroom.     I  created  class  scenarios  where  students  had  to  make  choices  when  given                                       mulHple  opHons.     C2.  I  am  making  these  tasks  accessible  with  familiar  language  and  content.     Vocabulary  came  from  the  students.  All  tasks,  acHviHes  and  sentences  modeled   provided  by  students  and  reflecHon  of  what  was  happening  in  their  lives.        
  15. 15. Preliminary  Results   §  Underscored  importance  of  immediate  relevance   §  Validated  necessity  of  using  familiar  language  &   content  to  focus  on  new  classroom  behaviors  &  tasks   §  Successfully  scaffolded  classroom  learning  tasks   §  Developed  literacy  skills   §  Created  posi(ve  learning  experience    
  16. 16. Limita(ons  of  Study   §  Only  one  teacher   §  Small  sample  size   §  Lack  of  consistent  study  parHcipants   §  Interrupted  Hmeframe;  variable  contact  Hme   §  No  formal  assessments   §  Observer  bias  
  17. 17. Controlled  Studies  in  CBOs   §  Loosely  structured  programs   §  Funding  issues   §  Lack  of  consistent  aendance     §  Volunteer  teachers   §  Lack  of  consistent  training,  pedagogical  support  
  18. 18. Ques(ons  for  Researchers   §  Should  such  research  be  disqualified?   §  Is  it  valuable  if  it  is  not  controlled  or  “scienHfic?”   §  How  do  we  draw  the  line  between  anecdotal  and   research?   §  What  can  we  do  to  improve  the  quality  of  research   given  the  realiHes  of  CBO’s?  
  19. 19. MALP  Resources   §  Website:    hp://malpeducaHon.com   §  Wiki:    hp://malp.pbworks.com       Breaking  New  Ground:  Teaching  Students   with  Limited  or  Interrupted  Formal   Educa>on  in  U.S.  Secondary  Schools                                                     U.  of  Michigan  Press,  2011     Making  the  Transi>on  to  Classroom  Success:   Culturally  Responsive  Teaching  for  Struggling   Language  Learners                                                                                                         U.  of  Michigan  Press,  2013      
  20. 20. Contact  Us!   •  drandreadecapua@gmail.com     •  Helaine.Marshall@liu.edu   •  ktmecu@aol.com  

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