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Addressing	  the	  Needs	  of	  Students	    with	  Limited	  or	  Interrupted	  	      Formal	  Educa;on	  (SLIFE)	      ...
Ques;on	  #2	  What	  do	  rabbits	  and	  dogs	  have	  in	  common?	  
Ques;on	  #3	  	  a.  New	  York	  is	  the	  capital	  of	  the	  United	  States.	  	       	   	   	  ___True	   	  ___...
To	  think	  about:	  Ways  of  thinking  and  lear2ing             are  shaped  by     prior  lear2ing  ex6eriences  
Western-­‐style	  Formal	  Educa;on	  
Western-­‐Style	  Formal	  Educa;on	  
Informal	  Ways	  of	  Learning	  
Rural	  Primary	  Educa;on	   ©	  	  Used	  by	  permission.	  	   	  
To	  Define	  is	  to	  Know	                   	  What	  is	  an	  owl	  pellet?	                   	  
Different	  Ways	  of	  Thinking	  	                      and	  Learning	  Academic	    	  	  	  	      Classroom	  based,	...
Ways	  of	  Thinking	  &	  Learning	  Con;nuum	  	  	                           SLIFE	     Informal                       ...
Needs	  of	  SLIFE	  •  Develop	  basic	  literacy	  skills	  •  Learn	  basic	  and	  grade-­‐level	  subject	  area	    ...
(Ibarra,	  2001)	  
Culturally	  Responsive	  Teaching	  	  (CRT)	     	     CRT	  “encourages	  us	  to	  ques-on	  the	     rela-onships	  a...
Teachers	  and	  learners	  assume	  that	   1.	  the	  learner	  brings	  along	          a)  an	  urge	  to	  compete	  ...
There	  is	  a	  solu;on	  .	  .	  .	                      	  Example:	  	  Scaffolding	  True/False	  
Scaffolding:	  	  True	  False	  
Scaffolding:	  	  True	  or	  False	  _______	  	  	  has	  a	  sister.	   	   	  	  	  	  	  True___	  	  False	  ___	  	 ...
Mutually	  Adap;ve	  Learning	  Paradigm	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	  	  
Mutually	  Adap;ve	  Learning	  Paradigm	                  M A L P 	  •  Instruc;onal	  model	  •  Elements	  from	  stude...
Learning	  Paradigm	  •  Condi;ons	  for	  Learning	  •  Processes	  for	  Learning	  •  Ac;vi;es	  for	  Learning	  
M A L P 	   	   	                                                                    S L I F E 	                          ...
Linguis;c	  Schema	             	    F	  M	  J	  E	  O	  T	  P	  Y	  X	  A 	   B 	   C 	   D 	   E 	   F 	   G 	   H 	   I...
Content	  Schema	  “I	  pledge	  a	  lesson	  to	  the	  frog	  of	  the	  United	       States	  of	  America,	  and	  to...
Formal	  Schema	  _____________	  	  ____________	  ____________	  ____________	  	  __________,	  _______________________...
Types	  of	  Schemata	  •  	  LinguisPc	  Schemata	  •  Content	  Schemata	  	  •  	  Formal	  Schemata	  
Two	  Learning	  Ac;vi;es	  	  	  	  FAMILIAR	       	  	  UNFAMILIAR	  	  	  SCHEMATA	           	  	  	  SCHEMATA	  	   ...
MALP	  Checklist	                                    Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm – MALP ©                         ...
Implemen;ng	  MALP	  •  Carol’s	  Social	  Studies	  Class	  –	  Unit	  Design	  •  Gloria’s	  Math	  Class	  –	  Classroo...
Carol’s	  	  Class	  Ages:	  	  	     	  15	  –	  21	  Educa;on:	  	  	          3rd	  grade	  to	  8th	  grade	  Classes:...
Carols	  	  Social	  Studies	  Unit	  Objec;ves:	  	  Students	  will	  be	  able	  to	  	  (1)  describe	  the	  everyday...
How	  am	  I	  helping	  students	  develop	  and	       maintain	  social	  rela;onships?	  
 How	  am	  I	  making	  this	  lesson	  immediately	            relevant	  to	  my	  students?	                          ...
How	  am	  I	  incorpora;ng	  both	  group	  responsibility	  and	  individual	  accountability?	  
How	  am	  I	  scaffolding	  the	  wrigen	  word	  	          through	  oral	  interac;on?	  
What	  new	  academic	  tasks	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	     am	  I	  introducing?	  
What	  am	  I	  doing	  to	  make	  the	  new	  tasks	          accessible	  to	  my	  students?	  	  
And	  now	  on	  to	  math	  .	  .	  .	  
Gloria’s	  Math	  Class	  •  Ages:	  	  14	  -­‐	  18	  •  Educa;on:	  	  	          –  5th	  grade	  –	  9th	  grade	  • ...
Gloria’s	  Math	  Learning	  Environment	   Objec;ves:	  	  Students	  will	  be	  able	  to	   	   (1)  Use	  wall	  post...
 What	  does	  a	  MALP	  Classroom	  Look	  Like?	   •  Word	  wall	   •  Calendar	   •  Sentence	  frames	   •  Teacher-...
Word	  Wall	  
Sentence	  Frames	  
Teacher-­‐made	  Concept	  Poster	  
Number	  Lines	  
Bar	  Graph	  Posters	  
Like	  and	  Unlike	  Terms	  Posters	  
MALP	  meets	  the	  FLIP	  click	  
The	  Flipped	  Classroom	  Turn	  teaching	  inside	  out:	  •  Direct	  instruc;on	  takes	  place	  outside	  of	  clas...
FLIP Components	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  1.  Instruc;onal	  Video	  2.  In-­‐class	  Collabora;on	  ...
Aaron’s	  Chemistry	  Lesson	  Objec;ves:	  	  Students	  will	  be	  able	  to	  	  (1)  Explain	  Boyle’s	  Law	  (2)  S...
Boyle’s	  Law	                                  	                                  	                                  	  P...
Problem	     	  Solve	  this	  problem	  using	  Boyle’s	  Law	  	  	  	  	  	  	  When	  a	  tank	  with	  eight	  liters...
Mathema;cal	  Formula	  for	  Boyle’s	  Law	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  PV	  =	  k	  
Chemistry	  Lecture	  Hall:	  A	  Virtual	  Classroom	  Experience	                                                Play	  
Boyles	  Law	  Animated	  
Circle	  Forma;on	  
In-­‐Class Collabora;on	  
Aaron’s	  Chemistry	  Class	         	  In	  class,	  collabora;ng	  with	  immediate	  feedback	  from	  peers	  based	  ...
Three	  Reasons	  to	  Flip	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	       1.  	  Increase	  	  comprehension	    ...
M A L P 	  	  	                                                                  S L I F E 	                            No...
.	  .	  .	  and	  thus	  .	  .	  .	         Culturally	  Responsive	  Teaching	  +	  MALP	  =	  	          	   	   	   	  ...
More	  about	  MALP?	  •  Our	  books	  (University	  of	  Michigan	  Press):	        Mee-ng	  the	  needs	  of	  students...
Addressing the Needs of Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE)
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Addressing the Needs of Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE)


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CoTESOL 2012 presentation on students with limited/interrupted formal education. Includes overview of our instructional model, Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm (MALP) and innovative teaching approaches, including the flipped classroom

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Addressing the Needs of Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE)

  1. 1. Addressing  the  Needs  of  Students   with  Limited  or  Interrupted     Formal  Educa;on  (SLIFE)   Andrea  DeCapua   The  College  of  New  Rochelle     Helaine  W.  Marshall   LIU  Hudson  
  2. 2.                                                                 Ques;on  #1   (Luria,  1976)  
  3. 3. Ques;on  #2  What  do  rabbits  and  dogs  have  in  common?  
  4. 4. Ques;on  #3    a.  New  York  is  the  capital  of  the  United  States.          ___True    ___False    b.  Denver  is  the  capital  of  Colorado.          ___True    ___False    
  5. 5. To  think  about:  Ways  of  thinking  and  lear2ing     are  shaped  by     prior  lear2ing  ex6eriences  
  6. 6. Western-­‐style  Formal  Educa;on  
  7. 7. Western-­‐Style  Formal  Educa;on  
  8. 8. Informal  Ways  of  Learning  
  9. 9. Rural  Primary  Educa;on   ©    Used  by  permission.      
  10. 10. To  Define  is  to  Know    What  is  an  owl  pellet?    
  11. 11. Different  Ways  of  Thinking     and  Learning  Academic           Classroom  based,  “scien;fic  spectacles”                                                                                                                                                                                          (Flynn,  2007)      Pragma;c        Real  world,  life  experiences  
  12. 12. Ways  of  Thinking  &  Learning  Con;nuum       SLIFE   Informal Western-style Learning Formal Education
  13. 13. Needs  of  SLIFE  •  Develop  basic  literacy  skills  •  Learn  basic  and  grade-­‐level  subject  area   concepts  •  Develop  academic  ways  of  thinking  •  Adapt  to  cultural  differences  in  learning  and   teaching  
  14. 14. (Ibarra,  2001)  
  15. 15. Culturally  Responsive  Teaching    (CRT)     CRT  “encourages  us  to  ques-on  the   rela-onships  among  the  students,  ourselves   as  teachers,  the  school  curriculum,  the  school   and  society  as  a  whole”                                                                            (Ladson-­‐Billings,  1995)  
  16. 16. Teachers  and  learners  assume  that   1.  the  learner  brings  along   a)  an  urge  to  compete  and  excel  as  an  individual   b)  age-­‐appropriate  prepara;on  for   (i)   literacy  development   (ii)   academic  tasks   2.  the  goals  of  K-­‐12  instruc;on  are     a)  to  produce  an  independent  learner   b)  to  prepare  that  learner  for  life  aeer                        schooling    
  17. 17. There  is  a  solu;on  .  .  .    Example:    Scaffolding  True/False  
  18. 18. Scaffolding:    True  False  
  19. 19. Scaffolding:    True  or  False  _______      has  a  sister.              True___    False  ___        _______      has  a  brother.                    True___    False  ___        _______      has  a  cell  phone.          True___    False  ___            
  20. 20. Mutually  Adap;ve  Learning  Paradigm                    
  21. 21. Mutually  Adap;ve  Learning  Paradigm   M A L P  •  Instruc;onal  model  •  Elements  from  students’learning  paradigm  •  Elements  from  Western-­‐style  educa;on  •  Transi;onal  approach  to  achievement  gap  by   addressing  cultural  dissonance  
  22. 22. Learning  Paradigm  •  Condi;ons  for  Learning  •  Processes  for  Learning  •  Ac;vi;es  for  Learning  
  23. 23. M A L P       S L I F E   North  American  Classrooms      Immediate   Future        Accept    SLIFE          Relevance        Relevance  condi;ons   Interconnectedness   Independence  Combine  SLIFE  &    Shared   Individual  North  American              Responsibility    Accountability  processes   with    Oral              Transmission      Wrigen  Word  Focus  on  new  ac;vi;es  with    Pragma;c          Academic        familiar  language            Tasks              Tasks  &  content  (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2010,  2011;  Marshall  1994,  1998)    
  24. 24. Linguis;c  Schema     F  M  J  E  O  T  P  Y  X  A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   (James, 1987)
  25. 25. Content  Schema  “I  pledge  a  lesson  to  the  frog  of  the  United   States  of  America,  and  to  the  wee  puppets  for   witches’  hands;  one  Asian  in  the  vesPbule,   with  liRle  rice  and  just  tee  for  all.”   (Betty Bao Lord’s childhood understanding of the Pledge of Allegiance)
  26. 26. Formal  Schema  _____________    ____________  ____________  ____________    __________,  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  _________.  Ασδφγηκκ Adapted  from  Peregoy  &  Boyle  (2005)  
  27. 27. Types  of  Schemata  •   LinguisPc  Schemata  •  Content  Schemata    •   Formal  Schemata  
  28. 28. Two  Learning  Ac;vi;es        FAMILIAR      UNFAMILIAR      SCHEMATA        SCHEMATA     Telling     Explaining    a  folktale   steps  used  to    in  the   solve  a  math   naPve   problem   language   in  English    
  29. 29. MALP  Checklist   Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm – MALP © Teacher Planning Checklist A. Accept Conditions for Learning A1. I am making this lesson/project immediately relevant to students. A2. I am helping students develop and maintain interconnectedness. B. Combine Processes for Learning B1. I am incorporating shared responsibility and individual accountability. B2. I am scaffolding the written word through oral interaction. C. Focus on New Activities for Learning C1. I am focusing on tasks requiring academic ways of thinking. C2. I am making these tasks accessible with familiar language and content.DeCapua,  A.  &  Marshall.  H.  W.  (2011).  Breaking  new  ground:  Teaching  English  learners  with  limited  or  interrupted  formal  educa-on  in    US  secondary  schools.  Ann  Arbor,  MI:  University  of  Michigan  Press.    
  30. 30. Implemen;ng  MALP  •  Carol’s  Social  Studies  Class  –  Unit  Design  •  Gloria’s  Math  Class  –  Classroom  Posters  •  Aaron’s  Chemistry  Class  –  Flipping  the  Classroom  
  31. 31. Carol’s    Class  Ages:        15  –  21  Educa;on:       3rd  grade  to  8th  grade  Classes:    Self-­‐contained   –  English     –  Social  Studies   –  Math   –  Science  Countries  of  origin:     Hai;,  Dominican  Republic,                               El  Salvador,  Guatemala    
  32. 32. Carols    Social  Studies  Unit  Objec;ves:    Students  will  be  able  to    (1)  describe  the  everyday  life  of  a  Civil  War  soldier  (2)  compare/contrast  it  with  their  own  lives  today  
  33. 33. How  am  I  helping  students  develop  and   maintain  social  rela;onships?  
  34. 34.  How  am  I  making  this  lesson  immediately   relevant  to  my  students?     Bagling  Boredom  
  35. 35. How  am  I  incorpora;ng  both  group  responsibility  and  individual  accountability?  
  36. 36. How  am  I  scaffolding  the  wrigen  word     through  oral  interac;on?  
  37. 37. What  new  academic  tasks                                   am  I  introducing?  
  38. 38. What  am  I  doing  to  make  the  new  tasks   accessible  to  my  students?    
  39. 39. And  now  on  to  math  .  .  .  
  40. 40. Gloria’s  Math  Class  •  Ages:    14  -­‐  18  •  Educa;on:       –  5th  grade  –  9th  grade  •  Class:         –  Integrated  Algebra   –  Low-­‐proficiency  ELLs  and  SLIFE  •  Origin:   –  Dominican  Republic,  Ecuador,   Mexico,  Puerto  Rico  and  Albania  
  41. 41. Gloria’s  Math  Learning  Environment   Objec;ves:    Students  will  be  able  to     (1)  Use  wall  posters  as  supports  to  solve  problems   and  provide  sentence  level  solu;ons   (2)  Create  partner  posters  to  illustrate   mathema;cal  concepts,  including:   a.  Number  lines   b.  Bar  graphs   c.  Like  and  unlike  terms  
  42. 42.  What  does  a  MALP  Classroom  Look  Like?   •  Word  wall   •  Calendar   •  Sentence  frames   •  Teacher-­‐made  concept   posters   •  Student–produced   posters  
  43. 43. Word  Wall  
  44. 44. Sentence  Frames  
  45. 45. Teacher-­‐made  Concept  Poster  
  46. 46. Number  Lines  
  47. 47. Bar  Graph  Posters  
  48. 48. Like  and  Unlike  Terms  Posters  
  49. 49. MALP  meets  the  FLIP  click  
  50. 50. The  Flipped  Classroom  Turn  teaching  inside  out:  •  Direct  instruc;on  takes  place  outside  of  class    (Bloom  –  understanding/remembering)  •  Prac;ce  and  applica;on  take  place  in  class    (Bloom  –  applying/analyzing/crea;ng)  
  51. 51. FLIP Components                                1.  Instruc;onal  Video  2.  In-­‐class  Collabora;on  3.  Just-­‐in-­‐;me  Feedback      
  52. 52. Aaron’s  Chemistry  Lesson  Objec;ves:    Students  will  be  able  to    (1)  Explain  Boyle’s  Law  (2)  Solve  problems  using  Boyle’s  Law  
  53. 53. Boyle’s  Law        Pressure  is  inversely  propor-onal  to  volume  
  54. 54. Problem    Solve  this  problem  using  Boyle’s  Law              When  a  tank  with  eight  liters  of  gas  under  760   torr  of  pressure  is  subjected  to  1520  torr,  what   will  the  resul-ng  volume  of  the  gas  be?    ANSWER:  ______________________  
  55. 55. Mathema;cal  Formula  for  Boyle’s  Law                                          PV  =  k  
  56. 56. Chemistry  Lecture  Hall:  A  Virtual  Classroom  Experience   Play  
  57. 57. Boyles  Law  Animated  
  58. 58. Circle  Forma;on  
  59. 59. In-­‐Class Collabora;on  
  60. 60. Aaron’s  Chemistry  Class    In  class,  collabora;ng  with  immediate  feedback  from  peers  based   on  the  instruc;onal  video,  solve  the  problem  using  Boyle’s  Law            When  a  tank  with  eight  liters  of  gas  under  760  torr  of  pressure  is   subjected  to  1520  torr,  what  will  the  resul-ng  volume  of  the  gas  be?                      ANSWER:  ______________________       Academic  language  is  scaffolded  prior  to  presen;ng  the  problem         See  “Scaffolding  Academic  Ways  of  Thinking  and  Responding,”  in  Making  the  Transi-on:  Culturally  Responsive  Teaching                                             for  Struggling  Second  Language  Learners  (Marshall  &  DeCapua,  forthcoming)    
  61. 61. Three  Reasons  to  Flip                                   1.   Increase    comprehension   2.   Increase    interac;on     3.   Increase    thinking  skills                                              While  implemen-ng  the  elements  of  MALP     for  struggling  L2  learners  
  62. 62. M A L P       S L I F E   North  American  Classrooms      Immediate   Future        Accept    SLIFE          Relevance        Relevance  condi;ons   Interconnectedness   Independence  Combine  SLIFE  &  North  American    Shared   Individual  processes              Responsibility    Accountability   with    Oral              Transmission      Wrigen  Word  Focus  on  new  ac;vi;es  with    Pragma;c          Academic        familiar  language            Tasks  &  content              Tasks  (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2010,  2011;  Marshall  1994,  1998)    
  63. 63. .  .  .  and  thus  .  .  .   Culturally  Responsive  Teaching  +  MALP  =              less  cultural  dissonance    •  Recogni;on  of  the  value  and  priori;es  of  different     ways  of  learning  •  Mutual  adapta;on  to  move  learners  along  the   Con;nuum  of  Ways  of  Learning  
  64. 64.      
  65. 65. More  about  MALP?  •  Our  books  (University  of  Michigan  Press):   Mee-ng  the  needs  of  students  with  limited  or  interrupted  formal  educa-on  (2009)   Breaking  new  ground:  Teaching  students  with  limited  or  interrupted  formal  educa-on  in   U.  S.  secondary  schools  (2011)   Making  the  transi-on:  Culturally  Responsive  Teaching  for  struggling  second  language   learners    (summer  2013)    •  Our  websites:       hgp://malpeduca;   hgp://  •  Our  ar;cles:                              TESOL  Journal,  ELT  Journal,  Preven-ng  School  Failure,  Urban  Review  and  more  •  Our  email: