Gamefication: Design approaches to motivate learning online


Published on

CET Seminar, 2013

Published in: Education, Technology

Gamefication: Design approaches to motivate learning online

  1. 1. Gamificationdesign approaches to motivate learning onlineAndrew DeaconCentre for Educational Technology, UCTCET Seminar, 2013
  2. 2. Gamification• What is it about?• Online learning contexts• Gameful design thinking• Software tools– Mozilla Open Badges and e-portfolios• Local example– Global Citizenship course at UCT
  3. 3. Gartner’s Hype Cycle (2011)Gamification
  4. 4. GamificationUsing game-thinking and game mechanicsin a non-game contextto engage people and solve problems- Sebastian Deterding (2011)
  5. 5. Gamification of education?• Are universities using game-like elements?– Students get “points” for completing assignments– Points translate to “badges” for passing courses– Students performing well “level up” at year end– Best performs get on the Dean’s “leaderboard”• Not really…
  6. 6. Speed Camera Lottery
  7. 7. Nike+• Shoes with– Pressure sensors– Accelerometer– Can upload data• Used to– Count steps– Track distance– Determine height of jumps
  8. 8. FarmVille28 million people harvest crops every dayOne of Time Magazine’s“50 Worst Inventions”
  9. 9. Confusion“Gamification is an inadvertent con. It trickspeople into believing that there is a simpleway to imbue their thing … with thepsychological, emotional and social powerof a great game.”- Margaret Robertson, Can’t Play, Won’t Play (2010)
  10. 10. PBLPointstrackingfeedbackBadgesgoals, rewards,achievementsLeader boardscompetition,rank
  11. 11. Online learning contexts
  12. 12. Four questions• Motivation – what is the value in doing this?• Meaningful choices – are there alternatives?• Structure – can behaviours be modelled?• Potential conflicts – are there contradictionswith other goals?
  13. 13. High profile MOOCsAll now 1-year old
  14. 14. Coursera open online course
  15. 15. MOOC participation0%20%40%60%80%100%RegistersWatchersSubmittersWritersCertificate
  16. 16. ‘Gamification’ of MOOCsMarta Pereira‘Coursera HomepageImprovement’
  17. 17. Khan Academy“one of the first thingswe did was bring in theconcept of badges andother game mechanics”BadgesProgressgiving feedback ongame mechanics
  18. 18. CodecademyStreakPointsBadgesProgressTasks
  19. 19. Gameful design thinking
  20. 20. Gamification Design Thinking• Purposive• Person centred– About the experience• Balance of analytical & creative– Abductive reasoning: inference from best availableexplanation• Iterative– Prototype and evaluation- Kevin Werbach (2012)
  21. 21. Gamification Design ThinkingGoalsMotivationProgress FeedbackExplorationCreativitySurpriseCommunityRewards
  22. 22. Social Engagement VerbsActingExpress CompeteContext PlayersExplore CollaborateInteracting- Amy Jo Kim (2012)build winlikecuratereviewratechoose comparesharecommenthelpchallengecustomisechoosevote
  23. 23. Flow: Psychology of Optimal ExperienceSkill / TimeboredomanxietyDifficultyflow- Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1990)
  24. 24. Meaningful Gamification• Design by– Providing a narrative with meaning– Rule systems to master– Including opportunities to play• Of course, be mindful of– Side effects and social contracts– Rules that undermine greater goals
  25. 25. Software tools
  26. 26. Mozilla OpenBadges• Mozilla Foundation project– Does not implement any game mechanics– Provides infrastructure for hosting badges– Offers grants to people using this infrastructure• OpenBadges– Criteria: URL and name of who issued it– Evidence: URL to thing meeting criteria
  27. 27. Mozilla OpenBadgesBadges are a visual representations of alearning, competencies, interests skill or achievements
  28. 28. Mozilla Open Badges: BackpackPortfolio collection titleEvidence (with URL)Criteria (with URL)
  29. 29. Global Citizenship course at UCT
  30. 30. Global Citizenship• Global Citizenship: Leading for Social Justice– Short course: Continuing Education certificate– Students motivated by global citizenship ideals– Completion rate: about 50%• Student feedback:– Very unlike an academic course– Time pressures make for difficult choices
  31. 31. Global Citizenship: Plans• Simplify and have fun• Feedback on progress• Badges - if sharing evidence• Students request badges(associate evidence + criteria)• Students compile a portfolio• Tutors participate in design• Might use OpenBadges
  32. 32. Global Citizenship: DashboardActivities FeedbackSessionsCommunity serviceWriting blogsReflective essays
  33. 33. Conclusion• Draws on good design principles– More than just ‘Generation G’ expectations– PBL: pathway, not the reward– Badges: visual representations of learningachievements forming a portfolio• Ideas for GC– Signaling differences (e.g., dashboard)– Making connections (e.g., badges)– Involving tutors in the design
  34. 34. Sources• Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.Harper Perennial, London.• Deterding, S, Dixon, D., Khaled, R. & Nacke, L. (2011) From game designelements to gamefulness: Defining ‘gamification’. Proc. of the 15thInternational Academic MindTrek Conference.• Kapp, K.M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction. SanFrancisco: Pfeiffer.• Kim, A. (2012) Social engagement: whos playing? How do they like toengage?• Robertson, M. (2010) Can’t Play, Won’t Play. Hide & Seek: Inventing NewKinds of Play.• Werbach, K. (2012) Gamification.