Mental retardation

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Mental retardation

  1. 1. MENTAL RETARDATION<br />
  2. 2. What is Mental Retardation?<br />Mental retardation is a developmental disability that is marked by lower-than-normal intelligence and limited daily living skills. Mental retardation is normally present at birth or develops early in life. <br />
  3. 3. SPECTRUM OF MENTAL RETARDATION<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>Mild Mental Retardation </li></ul> IQ scores from 50 to 75 <br /> Includes about 85 percent of the mentally retarded population <br /> Individuals in this group can often live on their own with community support.<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Moderate Mental Retardation </li></ul> IQ scores between 35 and 50 <br /> Includes about 10 percent of the mentally retarded population <br /> Individuals in this group can often lead relatively normal lives provided they receive some level of supervision. Such individuals often live in group homes with other mentally retarded people. <br />
  6. 6. <ul><li>Severe Mental Retardation </li></ul> IQ scores between 20 and 35 <br /> Includes about 3 percent to 4 percent of the mentally retarded population <br /> Individuals in this category can often master the most basic skills of living, such as cleaning and dressing themselves. They often live in group homes. <br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>Profound Mental Retardation </li></ul> IQ scores of less than 20 <br /> Includes about 1 percent to 2 percent of the mentally retarded population <br /> Individuals at this level can often develop basic communication and self-care skills. They often have other mental disorders. <br />
  8. 8. CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION<br />Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth) <br /><ul><li>Congenital CMV
  9. 9. Congenital rubella
  10. 10. Congenital toxoplasmosis
  11. 11. Encephalitis
  12. 12. HIV infection
  13. 13. Meningitis</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Chromosomal abnormalities Chromosome deletions</li></ul>chromosome than usual)<br />Defects in the chromosome or chromosomal inheritance, fragile X syndrome, <br />Errors of chromosome numbers Down syndrome<br />
  14. 14. <ul><li>Problems during pregnancy. Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus' cells divide as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with mental disability.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Problems at birth. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins. Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate. Exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability.</li></li></ul><li>SOME TYPES OF MENTAL RETARDATION<br /><ul><li>Down's Syndrome
  15. 15. Fragile X Syndrome
  16. 16. Microcephaly
  17. 17. Phenlykketonuria
  18. 18. Hydrocephalus</li></li></ul><li>DOWN SYNDROME<br />Down's syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardation (see mental retardation entry) and malformation in newborns. It occurs because of the presence of an extra chromosome. <br />
  19. 19. FRAGILE X SYNDROME<br />Fragile X syndrome is an X chromosome defect that causes mental retardation and a wide range of associated signs and symptoms. <br />
  20. 20. HYDROCEPHALUS<br />an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological.<br />
  21. 21. MICROCEPHALY<br />Microcephaly is a neurological disorder where the distance around the largest portion of the head (the circumference) is less than should normally be the case in an infant or a child. The condition can be evident at birth, or can develop within the first few years following birth. The smaller than normal head restricts the normal growth and development of the brain.<br />
  22. 22. PHENYLKETONURIA<br />The inherited inability to metabolize (process) the essential amino acid phenylalanine due to complete or near-complete deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.<br />
  23. 23. SOME MEASURES OF PREVENTION<br />Improving the nutritional status of the community as a whole, especially the girl child in order to reduce the risk factors for mental retardation such as low birth weight, and prematurity in the offspring of these children in future.<br />
  24. 24. Universal immunization of children with BCG, polio, DPT, and MMR to prevent many disorders having the propensity to damage the brain and thereby causing mental retardation. Rubella immunization (part of MMR) can totally eradicate the occurrence of maternal rubella syndrome.<br />
  25. 25. Avoiding pregnancy before 21 years and after the age of 35 years as complications of pregnancy and labour are more common before 21 years. The risk of Downs syndrome and other chromosomal disorders increases as the maternal age at pregnancy crosses 35 years; <br />
  26. 26. THANKYOU<br />

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