Art of the Enlightenment and Neoclassical Art1730: Rococo1800: Neoclassical1830: Romanticism1837: First photograph “Enlightenment and Revolution: Head vs. Heart”
From rocaille meaning “pebble” or “shell” “Trust the body” + More is MORE! • Shift of power from monarchy (Louis XIV and Baroque) to the aristocracy (Rococo) Rococ • Royal Academy set the taste for art in Paris • Strong Satirical paintings oSometimes referred to • Epitomized by paintings that show aristocratic people enjoying leisures as Late BaroqueArchitecture: Simple exteriors, ornate interiors Painting:- Naturalistic: small stones, shells, plant forms - Small in size- Feminine – delicate, undulating - Fete galante – themes of love- Silver & gold, light - Frivolity, playful, sensual- Small relief sculptures – cupids, clouds - Pastels, delicate curves - Dainty figures
François de Cuvillièsthe AmalienburgNymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, Germanyearly 18th C.
François de CuvillièsHall of Mirrors, the AmalienburgNymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, Germanyearly 18th C.
Sculpture + Painting + Architecture in harmony François de Cuvilliès Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, Germany early 18th C.
Antoine WatteauReturn from Cythera Fête galante1717-1719 The French Academy –oil on canvas Rubenistes vs Poussinistes4 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 4 in.
Jean-Honoré FragonardThe Swing1766oil on canvas2 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.
PHILOSOPHY – two types of thinkers“To exist is to feel; our feeling is A taste for the ‘natural’undoubtedly earlier than ourintelligence, and we have hadfeelings before we had ideas.All our natural inclinations are right.Man by nature is good…he isdepraved and perverted by society.Our minds have been corrupted inproportion as the arts and sciencehave improved” - Rousseau Voltaire (1694-1778) “What is faith? Is it to believe that which is evident? No. It is perfectly evident to my mind that there exists a necessary, eternal, supreme, and intelligent being. This is no matter of faith, but of reason” - Voltaire
Élisabeth Louise Vigée-LebrunSelf-Portrait1790oil on canvas8 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 9 in.
William Hogarth Satire!Breakfast Scene from Marriage à la Mode What would the contemporary equivalent of this painting be?ca. 1745oil on canvas2 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft.
Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. RichardSir Joshua Reynolds, Lord Heathfield, Brinsley Sheridan, 1787, oil on canvas, 7 ft. 2 5/81787, oil on canvas, 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. in. x 5 ft. 5/8 in.
Benjamin WestThe Death of General Wolfe1771oil on canvasapproximately 5 x 7 ft.
John Singleton CopleyPortrait of Paul Revereca. 1768-1770oil on canvas2 ft. 11 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 4 in.
The ENLIGHTENMENT Science and Technology- Empirical reasoning and the scientific method- Sir Isaac Newton & John Locke tangible data & concrete experiences, individuality and empowerment- Diderot – the Encyclopédie
Joseph Wright of DerbyA Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orreryca. 1763-1765oil on canvas4 ft. 10 in. x 6 ft. 8 in.
- 379 tons of iron- Pieces cast separately- “made to fit” so each part is a little different- Opened New Years day 1781 The Industrial Revolution - The Steam EngineAbraham Darby III and Thomas E. Pritchard - Power of steam, coal, iron, oil, steel and electricityIron Bridge at Coalbrookdale - Building construction andCoalbrookdale, England photography!1776-1779
NEOCLASSICISM (1750-1815)• Enlightenment brought about the rejection of royal and aristocratic authority• Supported by Napoleon in order to associated himself with the successes of the Ancient Romans Empire.• Jacques-Louis David becomes First Painter• Neoclassical art was more democratic• Current events depicted have classical influencesINSPIRED by the excavation ofPompeii & Heculaneum- Grand Tour of Italy – A MUST!
Angelica KauffmannCornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures orMother of the Gracchica. 1785oil on canvas Exemplum virtutis3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 2 in.
Jacques-Louis David The French Revolution – 1789Oath of the Horatii David became Neoclassical painter-ideologist Patriotism & sacrifice!1784oil on canvasapproximately 11 x 14 ft.
Jacques-Louis DavidThe Death of Marat1793oil on canvasapproximately 5 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 1 in.
Marat = extremely powerful during the Revolution, journalist, David’s portrait is more propaganda than portraitCorday’s letter of introduction.“My great unhappiness is sufficient reason to entitleme to your kindness.”(She actually claimed to have information aboutroyalist rebels) Bloody murder weapon – Made to look like Corday fled the scene though she was arrested
NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE- Innovations: Cast ironCharacteristics: revision of classical principals on a modern framework- Inspired by: Palladio & Inigo Jones- Symmetry, balance, composition and order- Some buildings has special rooms such as the Green Room or Etruscan Room