Presentation notes early medieval carolingian, ottonian


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Presentation notes early medieval carolingian, ottonian

  1. 1. CAROLINGIAN ART Art of Charlemagne and his times o Charlemagne was first Holy Roman Emperor, united Europe Revival of classical art beyond the ancient world Charlemagne wanted to be emperor of “New Rome”  bath houses, theatres, a forum for his new capital in Aachen o Everything from coins to architecture Churches are characterized by westworks o Sometimes accompanied by monastic buildings o Cloisters – open air courtyards, monks and nuns ate, slept and worked around Continued medieval tradition of manuscript paintings o Inspiration form Roman sources and contemporary Byzantine iconography Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne o Modeled after Theodoric bronze statue, greatly admired Theodoric o Ultimate model was Marcus Aurelius Mistaken for Constantine in the Middle Ages Overly large, ruler, not horse, is center of attention o Unlike Marcus Aurelius, Charlemagne is on parade o Wears imperial roles, crown, holds globe (world domination) Proclaims “renovation imperii Romani” – Renewal of the Roman Empire Coronation Gospels, purple vellum Charlemagne was an admirer of learning, the arts, classical culture Loved books, had many made Saint Matthew page illumination o Illusionistic brushwork o Folds of drapery around formed body o Modeling o Roman accessories (toga, chairs) Classically inspired painting was part of Charlemagne’s program to establish Aachen as the capital of a renewed Christian Roman Empire Ebbo Gospels May have used Coronation Gospels as a model (manuscripts were always copied, inspired by many Antique styles) Frenzied energy, writing frantically o Hair stands on end, eyes wide, frenetic drapery, alive landscape o Movement, very different than Coronation Gospels o Classical prototype with new Carolingian features
  2. 2. Utrecht Psalter Richly illustrated ink drawings of the psalms of the Bible Monochrome o Artist wanted to make the book look “ancient” Highly legible script Rich visual imagery, anecdotal scenes of psalms o characterized by agitated gesture and active violence Literal translation of the psalmsLindau Gospels Many costly commissions Book cover made with gold and jewels and sometimes ivory or pearls Glorified word of god but also evoked heavenly Jerusalem Created in book workshops of Charles the Bald Youthful Christ in Early Christian tradition, repousse o Reminiscent of beardless, unsuffering Christ of 5th centuryPalatine Chapel Charlemagne channeled Roman building techniques, traveling to Rome and Ravenna for inspiration Inspired by San Vitale, imported porphyry columns o Simpler plan o Massive geometric form, harmonious o Robust strength and clear structure  foreshadowing architecture of 11th and 12 c. Unique: Upper arches larger than lower, non-loading-bearing columns, fill space Royal chapel o Gallery with Charlemagne’s throne o Could look down on altar in apse o Spiral staircases, dramatic, appear in large framing archSt. Gall Plan Construction and expansion of monasteries “ideal plan” for Benedictine monastery, 3000 people Commissioned by Haito, abbot of Reichenau in 819 o Main purpose: separate monks from laity (nonclergy) o Center dominated by church and cloister  Colonnaded garden, earthly paradise removed from world, monks ate, worked and slept around cloisters o Uses “modules” (standard unit) of 2.5 ft., everything measured according to this (church length, bed length, path width, etc.) Widespread adoption of basilican plan, but more complex o Ex: 2nd apse at Monastery church of St. Gall Typial Carolingian church: 2 apses and elaborate westwork o Transept (as seen at St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s) o Transept equal width as nave, crossing = square o Rational and order plan, crossing square becomes unit of measurement for rest of church
  3. 3. Torhalle (Gate House) 3-arched opening (Arch of Constantine) Fluted pilasters on second story Carolingian patterning on walls Placed before entrance to a monasteryWestwork at Corvey Elaborate, tall towers at west end of building Greets visitors Castellum = castle or fortress Sole surviving example, top added during 12th c. Purpose: seats for visiting emperor, second altar (church within a church)Ottonian Art After death of Charlemagne, empire was divided up amongst his grandsons o (Charles the Bald, Lothair and Louis the German) Conflict gave way to an agreement that later became modern day territories of France and Germany New line of Saxon rule: Ottonians, 3 Otto’s o Monastic reforms o Free of Viking attacks o Preserved and enhanced arts and cultureGernrode Architectures continued basilican churches with towering spires and westworks but added their own features Heavily restored in 19th century, retains 10th c. character Ottonian touches o Gallery above ground floor, below clerestory (???) Alternate-support-system – heavy square piers alternate with columns, lead eye up, “verticalization”St. Michael’s, Hildesheim Bishop Bernward – great Ottonian patron of the arts o Tutor of Otto III, builder of St. Michael o Studied Roman monuments and artworks in Rome o Avid scholar, lover of the arts Constructed from 1001-1031, rebuilt after WWII Double-transept plan, tower groupings, westwork o Loss of basilican eastern orientation, 2 centers of gravity o Entrances on the side Modular approach o Alternating columns and arches o More open, less tunnel-like
  4. 4. Hildesheim Doors Bronze, perhaps inspired by Early Christian church doors 16 ft tall, HUGE in comparison to earlier small, portable works o At entrance to the church so monks see it every time they enter o Left door: book of Genesis (creation of Adam and Eve, end with murder of Abel by Cain o Right door: story of Christ (annunciation, Christ after resurrection) o Story of Original Sin and ultimate redemption, expulsion from Edenpath back to paradise through Christian church Compositions derived from Illuminated manuscripts Reminiscent of Utrecht Psalter o Adam and Eve’s accusation by God o Embarrassment, shamed, hiding from wrath o Simple but emotionalHildesheim Column Spiraling relief, bronze column Tells story of Jesus’ life in 24 scenes o Begins with baptism, ends with entry into Jerusalem o Column of Trajan, reads bottom to top ROMEGero Crucifix MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE REVIVAL Carved in oak, painted, and gilded, 6 ft tall Reliquary: houses relics o Compartment in the back held the Host o Crack miraculously healed, magical powers VERY different from Lindau Gospels cover o Powerful emotions, all-too-human martyer o Blood, closed eyes, face contorted in pain, body sags o Halo my foretell resurrection o Most powerful expression of agony in the Middle AgesUta Codex Uta, abbess of Niedermunster Sumptuous book presented to convent by Uta Testament to the role women played in religion and the arts Dedicatory page: o Mary with Christ in her lap, model for Uta and her nuns o Uta’s head touches the Virgin’s medallion o Inscription: “Virgin Moth of God, happy because of the divine Child, receive the votive offerings of your Uta of ready service”
  5. 5. Lectionary of Henry II Book of Gospel readings for Henry II’s death Annunciation of Christ’s birth o Angel landing on a hill, wings beating, robes flying o Overpowers scene, gesture of authority and instruction o Byzantine influence – gold oGospel Book of Otto III Otto III obsessed with Christian Roman Empire revival Died at 21, never saw his dream empire Ruler enthroned, scepter and cross-inscribed orb o Clergy and barons at his sides