Early 20th Century: MODERNISMFauvismExpressionismDie BruckeDer Blaue ReiterCubismFuturismSuprematismConstructivismDadaDeStijlBauhausPrecisionismSurrealismArt DecoOrganic ArtDepression Era Art“Less is MORE”
What was happening at this point inHISTORY?Imperialist Expansion:Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Portugal AfricaBritain IndiaDutch IndochinaRussia Central Asia and Siberia• Japan as its own rising formidable power in the Pacific1917 The US entered World War I1930s Great Depression: Huge economic difficulties in the US and otherWestern countries1920s-1930s Rise of Totalitarianism: Mussolini in Italy, Stalin in the Soviet Union, Hitlerin Germany1941 The US entered World War II with the bombing of Pearl Harbor by theJapanese1945 WWII ends: The Allied forces defeated Germany, US dropped atomicbombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
How did this effect artists?Artists began searching for a new definition of and use for art in a changedworld!Avant-garde artists were ahead of their time and transgressed the limits ofestablished art idealsEXPRESSIONISM• Term used to describe a wide range of art• Result of an artist’s “unique inner or personal vision”• Often emotionally drivenHow does Expressionism contrast the art created since theRenaissance?
FauvismFauves = wild beasts- Interest in color and in altering of space- Fauves first gained attention at the Salon d’Automne of 1905- Movement didn’t last long, began to fall apart almost as soon as it emerged butstill contributed greatly to the direction of painting from then onBest known Fauvists: Henri Matisseand Andre DerainHenri MatisseRed Room(Harmony in Red)1908-1909oil on canvas5 ft. 11 in. x 8 ft. 1 in.
Henri MatisseWoman with the Hat1905oil on canvas2 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 1 ft. 11 1/2 in.“What characterized fauvism wasthat we rejected imitativecolors, and that with pure colors weobtained stronger reactions”
André DerainThe Dance1906oil on canvas6 ft. 7/8 in. x 6 ft.10 1/4 in.André DerainTurning Road, L’Estaque1906oil on canvas51 x 76 3/4 in.
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerStreet, Dresden1908oil on canvas4 ft. 11 1/4 in. x 6 ft. 6 7/8 in.German Expressionism – Fauvist color + distortion, agitation, discomfortDIE BRUCKE (the Bridge) – Dresden, Germany 1905 – Led by Kirchner“bridging the old and the new”- Influenced by German Medieval Art
Franz MarcThe Large Blue Horses1911oil on canvas40 3/4 x 70 7/8 in.Der Blaue Reiter – “the Blue Rider”Led by Kandinsky and Marc• Called that because they…. loved blue and horses• Like Die Brucke, Der Blaue Reiter captured their feelings in visual form whileeliciting intense visceral responses from viewers
Vassily KandinskyImprovisation 281912oil on canvas3 ft. 7 7/8 in. x 5 ft. 3 7/8 in.1st abstract painting!!!!!
Franz MarcFate of the Animals1913oil on canvas6 ft. 4 3/4 in. x 8 ft. 9 1/2 in.
Kathe KollwitzWoman with Dead Child1903etching1’4 x 1’87”
• Initiated by Picasso & Braque, worked together to develop it• Reduced, fractured, many vantage points at once• Emphasized the two-dimensionality of the canvas• Inspiration: Primitivism and non-western cultures (AFRICA)• What would have sparked this interest in “primitive” cultures?• Most popular subjects: still lifes, human faces and figures
Pablo PicassoGertrude Stein1906-1907oil on canvas3 ft. 3 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.“Primitivism”
Pablo PicassoLes Demoiselles d’Avignon1907oil on canvas8 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
Georges BraqueThe Portuguese1911oil on canvas3 ft. 10 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.Analytic Cubism“The hard-and-fast rules of perspective …were a ghastly mistake which…has takenfour centuries to redress”
Pablo PicassoStill Life with Chair-Caning1912oil and oilcloth on canvas10 5/8 in. x 1 ft. 1 3/4 in.
Georges BraqueBottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass1913charcoal and various papers pasted on paper1 ft. 6 7/8 in. x 2 ft. 1 3/4 in.Attributed to developing papier collé(collage) which revolutionized art-makingSyntheticCubism
Aleksandre Archipenko, WomanCombing HerHair, 1915, bronze, approximately 1Julio González, Woman Combing HerHair, ca. 1930-1933, iron, 4 ft. 9 in. high
CUBISM + DIVISIONISM- Launched by “Le Futurisme” by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, a Futuristmanifesto- Glorified the energy and speed of modern life along with the dynamismand violence of new technology MOVEMENT- Supported war as a“cleansing agent”Giacomo BallaDynamism of a Dog on a Leash1912oil on canvas2 ft. 11 3/8 in. x 3 ft. 7 1/4 in.
Umberto BoccioniUnique Forms ofContinuity in Space1913bronze3 ft. 7 7/8 in. x 2 ft. 10 7/8 in. x 1 ft. 3 3/4 in."Let us fling open thefigure and let itincorporate withinitself whatever maysurround it."
Gino SeveriniArmored Train1915oil on canvas3 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 10 1/8 in.
Dada – the anti-movement (1916-1925)Dada had only one rule: Never follow any known rules• Began in Zurich in response to WWI• Where does the word “dada” come from?• Intended to provoke an emotional reaction from the viewer (typicallySHOCK or OUTRAGE)• Nonsensical to the point of whimsy. Almost all of the people who created itwere ferociously serious, though.• Main influences: Abstraction and Expressionism• No predominant medium in Dadaist art.All things from geometric tapestries toglass to plaster and wooden reliefs werefair game.Assemblage, collage, photomontage andthe use of ready made objects all gainedwide acceptance.• Spawned many offshoots: best-known isSurrealism.
Jean ArpCollage Arranged According to the Laws ofChance1916-17torn and pasted paper19 1/8 x 13 5/8 in.
Marcel DuchampFountain1917porcelain urinalWhat is art?Is craft required?Is aestheticexperiencerequired?THE READYMADE
Marcel DuchampThe Bride Stripped Bare by HerBachelors, Even (The Large Glass)1915-23oil, lead wire, foil, dust, varnish, glass8 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 7 in.
Marcel DuchampBicycle Wheel1913assemblage23 3/4 in. high
Marcel DuchampL.H.O.O.Q.1919drawing on photographic reproduction7 3/4 in. x 4 1/8 in.
Hannah HöchCut with the Cake Knife1919-20photomontage11 7/8 x 35 3/8 in.
AMERICA, 1900 to 1930• Many American artists began their careers and then continued them in Europe and viceversa• Art “Matronage” – Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, Peggy Guggenheim, Mary QuinnSullivan and the like• Jon Sloan and The Eight – American “Realism” “The apostles of ugliness”• The Armory Show – huge display of Modern Art, over 1,600 pieces
Marcel DuchampNude Descending a Staircase No. 21912oil on canvas58 x 35 in.
Man RayGift1921flatiron with nails6 1/2 in. high
Charles DemuthMy Egypt1927oil on composition board2 ft. 11 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 6 in.PRECISIONISMEuropean cubist ideas +American sensibilities
Georgia O’KeeffeNew York, Night1929oil on canvas3’4” x 1’7”
Georgia O’KeeffeJack in the Pulpit IV1930oil on canvas
Alfred StieglitzThe Steerage1907Photogravure (on tissue)4 11/16 x 3 1/8 in.PHOTOGRAPHY“…to hold amoment, to recordsomething socompletely thatthose who see itwould relive anequivalent of whathas been expressed.”
Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity)Neue Sachlichkeit artists had beenin the army or participated in WWI- Deeply influenced theirworldviews and informed theirart- Clear, direct and genuinedepictions of warGeorge GroszFit for Active Service (The Faith Healers)1916-17pen, brush, ink on paper20 x 14 3/8 in.
Max BeckmannThe Night1918-19oil on canvas55 1/2 x 37 3/4 in.
Otto DixDer Kreig1929-1932oil and tempera on wood6 ft. 8 1/3 in. x 13 ft. 4 3/4 in.