Impressionism (1874)• Modernist movement – avant-garde artists• Pioneered independent art exhibitions (1874) as the “Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, Printmakers,” adopted “Impressionists” soon thereafter• Rely on the transient, the quick and the fleeting• Seek to capture the effects of light • Knew shadows had color, seasons effect object • Plein-air painting • Landscape and still-life painting• Impressionists prided themselves on being antiacademic and antibourgeois
What was happening at the time?• Industrialization, urbanization and increased global economic and political exchange • Steel, electricity, chemicals and oil • Cities grew displaced citizens found work in factories• Theorist and social thinker: Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto and Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection• Extensive colonization and explorationWhat is MODERNISM?- Societal changes brought a shift in artistic thinking (technology, exposure to other cultures the world’s impermanence)- Captures images and sensibilities of the age AND the artist’s critical examination, critique or reflection on art itselfTo quote influential American art critic, Clement Greenberg:“The essence of Modernism lies…in the use of the characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize thediscipline itself—not in order to subvert it, but to entrench it more firmly in its area ofcompetence…Realistic, illusionistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art.Modernism used art to call attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting—theflat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of pigment—were treated by the Old Masters asnegative factors that could be acknowledged only implicitly or indirectly. Modernist painting has cometo regard these same limitations as positive factors that are to be acknowledged openly”
The Impressionist All-Star LineupEdouard Manet – the Father of ImpressionismClaude Monet – ‘Impression: Sunrise”, most committedPierre-Auguste Renoir: Social settingsMary Cassatt: women and childrenBerthe Morisot: posed women in interior and outdoor settingsEdgar Degas: Racehorses, Bathers & Ballerinas Berthe Morisot, Villa at the Seaside, 1874
Claude MonetImpression: Sunrise Intersection of what the artist SAW and what the1872 artist FELToil on canvas - Complementary color, choppy brushstrokes1 ft. 7 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/2 in.
Claude MonetRouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun)1894oil on canvas3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.
What is the subject of this series of paintings?Claude MonetRouen Cathedral: The Portal1892-95oil on canvaseach approximately 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.
Claude MonetSaint-LazareTrain Station1877oil on canvas2 ft. 5 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 5 in.
Gustave CaillebotteParis: A Rainy Day URBANIZATION1877 Baron Georges Haussman – gave Paris aoil on canvas makeover under Napoleon III’s ordersapproximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 9 ft. 9 in.
Berthe MorisotVilla at the Seaside1874oil on canvas1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1/8 in.
Pierre-Auguste RenoirLe Moulin de la Galette1876oil on canvas Leisure activities of the Parisian middle class4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 8 in.
Édouard ManetA Bar at the Folies-Bergère1882oil on canvas3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.
Edgar Degas Inspirations: Formal leisure activities, movement, photographyBallet Rehearsal and Japanese woodblock prints1874oil on canvas1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 9 in.
Torii Kiyonaga, detail of Two Women at the Bath JAPONISME - With new open trade in Japan, woodblock prints had great effect on French art and style—tea sets, folding screens, fans, kimonosEdgar Degas - An admiration for the beauty and exoticism of the Japanese aestheticThe Tub - Valued for use of diverging lines and flat forms1886 - Familiar and intimate subjectspastel1 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 8 3/8 in.
Katsushika HokusaiThe Great Wave off Kanagawa1857color woodblock print9 7/8 x 14 3/4 in.
Cassatt, Woman Bathing, etchingMary CassattThe Bathca. 1892oil on canvas3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.
John Ruskin accused Whistler of, “flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face”James Abbott McNeil WhistlerNocturne in Black and Gold(The Falling Rocket)ca. 1875oil on canvas1 ft. 11 5/8 in. x 1 ft. 6 1/2 in.
POST-Impressionism (1880s- 1890s) Back to picture making rather than copying nature• Just as the Impressionists were being taken seriously as artists, a new group came along feeling that the Impressionists neglected too many traditional elements in favor of capturing a fleeting moment• Artists explore the properties and expressive qualities of formal elements• Borrows from Impressionism in new and unique ways• Combine Impressionist ideals (light, shading and color) with structure• Nearing abstraction while retaining volume or depth Cezanne, the quintessential Post-Impressionist wished to, “make Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums”
What influenced Lautrec?Henri de Toulouse-LautrecAt the Moulin Rouge1892-1895oil in canvas4 ft. x 4 ft. 7 in.
Georges Seurat POINTILLISMA Sunday on La Grande Jatte1884-1886oil on canvas6 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBBOMLURSGA
Vincent van GoghThe Night Café1888 “a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad,oil on canvas or commit a crime”2 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 3 ft.
Paul CézanneMount Sainte-Victoire1902-1904oil on canvas2 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/4 in.
“Treat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, the cone, everything in proper perspective so that each side of an object or a place is directed toward aPaul Cézanne central point. Lines parallel to the horizon give breadth…Lines perpendicular to this horizon give depth. But nature for us men is more depth than surface,Mount Sainte Victoire whence the need of introducing into our light vibrations, represented by reds and yellows, a sufficient amount of blue to give the impression of air.” -1885 Cezanneoil on canvas
Paul CézanneMount Sainte Victoire1897oil on canvas
Paul CézanneThe Basket of Applesca. 1895oil on canvas2 ft. 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 7 in.