Dealing With Conflict


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Dealing With Conflict

  1. 1. Dealing with Conflict Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
  2. 2. Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Become more aware of the signs of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the impact conflict has on participatory decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and accept responsibility to handle conflicts when they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn an approach to conflict resolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is inherently bad and unhealthy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict doesn’t occur that often in a stakeholder consultation session. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #3 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is always a matter of right vs. wrong. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are always a result of clashing personalities. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #5 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is only prevalent in crisis situations. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #6 </li></ul><ul><li>Most conflicts resolve themselves over time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #7 </li></ul><ul><li>People usually know when they’ve disturbed someone else. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #8 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts only impact the disputing parties. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #9 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts continue mostly because of stubbornness and a lack of caring. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Misconception #10 </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with conflict is not the facilitator’s responsibility. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series: Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
  14. 14. One View of Conflict <ul><li>Conflict is inevitable, but combat is optional. </li></ul><ul><li>~Max Lucado, theologian </li></ul>
  15. 15. Avoiding … doesn’t deal with the issue
  16. 16. Accommodating … just smoothes things over
  17. 17. Competing … divides groups and creates win/lose
  18. 18. Compromising … helps find the middle ground
  19. 19. <ul><li>Collaborating … </li></ul><ul><li>helps people to work together to find best solution for everyone </li></ul>
  20. 20. Usage of Approaches Avoiding Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating 10% of situations 5% of situations 0% of situations 20% of situations 65% of situations
  21. 21. Beware of the Iceberg! Conflict <ul><li>Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Dealing with Conflict <ul><li>Effectively diagnosing a conflict: </li></ul><ul><li> - determining the root causes </li></ul><ul><li>Taking action to manage the conflict based on the diagnosis </li></ul>
  23. 23. Circle of Conflict
  24. 24. <ul><li>Negative experiences in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Poor or failed communication </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive negative behavior </li></ul>Relationships Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
  25. 25. <ul><li>Factors unrelated to substance of dispute </li></ul>External Moods Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
  26. 26. <ul><li>Limited physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal power </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal control </li></ul>Structure Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
  27. 27. <ul><li>Substantive </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul>Interests Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
  28. 28. Data Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis <ul><li>Lack of information </li></ul><ul><li>Misinformation </li></ul><ul><li>Too much information </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Belief system </li></ul><ul><li>Right & wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Good & evil </li></ul><ul><li>Just & unjust </li></ul>Values Causes, Drivers of Conflict: Diagnosis
  30. 30. Interventions
  31. 31. Interventions <ul><li>Clarify perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Control emotions through procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Block negative behavior by changing structure </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage problem solving attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the external issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reconvene when external issue has diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define roles </li></ul><ul><li>Establish fair decision </li></ul><ul><li>making process </li></ul><ul><li>Change time constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on common interests </li></ul><ul><li>Address 3 types of interests differently </li></ul><ul><li>Read agreements on what data are important </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on process to collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Develop common criteria to access data </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly collect, jointly assess data </li></ul><ul><li>Allow parties to agree or disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Search for super-ordinate goal </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Moving Beyond Model Readiness to Resolve Anger Confusion & Distress Denial Something Ending Acceptance A New Beginning
  33. 33. 2 Steps: How to Handle Conflict? Based on the Moving Beyond Model <ul><li>Venting Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>… .Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving Issues </li></ul>
  34. 34. Step 1: Venting <ul><li>Slow things down </li></ul><ul><li>Stay totally neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Be assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Revisit the norms </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize with a flip chart </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow dysfunctional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Make interventions </li></ul>
  36. 36. Facilitator’s interventions <ul><li>Gaining buy-in from all members as to the purpose and outcome of the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Getting everyone’s input </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing a complex set of ideas to the satisfaction of group members </li></ul><ul><li>Linking people’s ideas together so they feel they’re saying the same thing </li></ul>
  37. 37. Participants Behavior… <ul><li>… .to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciating others’ ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on other’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inviting critiques of own ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… .to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupting people in mid-sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not acknowledging the ideas that others have put on the table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticizing other’s ideas as opposed to giving them useful feedback </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Transition <ul><li>Check whether the participants are ready to move to resolving the problems </li></ul>
  39. 39. Eunson, Baden. 1997. The Communication Skills Series: Dealing with Conflict. Sydney, Australia: Jacaranda Wiley Limited.
  40. 40. Transition Questions <ul><li>Anything else? </li></ul><ul><li>Is that all? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need to move </li></ul><ul><li>Under what conditions would </li></ul>forward? you move forward?
  41. 41. Step 2: Resolving Issues
  42. 42. Participants’ Behavior ... <ul><li>… .to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to alternative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying calm and friendly even in the course of disagreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing own ideas, ignoring others’ inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting defensive when own ideas are analyzed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking alternative suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using feelings to force a decision </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Facilitating Consensus Building <ul><li>Agree on clear outcome statements </li></ul><ul><li>Describe conditions that will show outcome has been achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Set time frames </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on action steps (what will be done & how, by whom, when, and results indicators) </li></ul><ul><li>Check if the group is satisfied with the consensual decision-making process and its results </li></ul>
  44. 44. Thank you