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Atoms and molecules


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Modern symbols of Some common Elements in Chemical study and other details.

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Atoms and molecules

  1. 1. Atoms and MoleculesModern Symbols of Some Common Element Element Symbol Element Symbol Aluminium Al Iron (Latin-Ferrum) Fe Argon Ar Lead (Latin-Plumbum) Pb Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Carbon C Nitrogen N Chlorine Cl Oxygen OCopper (Latin-Cuprum) Cu Potassium (Latin-Kalium) K Fluorine F Silicon Si Gold (Latin-Aurum) Au Silver (Latin-Argentum) Ag Hydrogen H Sodium (Latin-Natrium) Na Iodine I Zinc Zn
  2. 2. Atomic Masses of Some Common Elementsu – Unified atomic mass unitAtomic mass unit mass of a C-12 atom1u mass of a C-12 atomElement Atomic mass Element Atomic mass (u) (u)Hydrogen 1 Potassium 39Helium 4 Calcium 40Carbon 12 Argon 40Nitrogen 14 Iron 56Oxygen 16 Copper 63.5Fluorine 19 Zinc 65Neon 20 Bromine 80Sodium 23 Silver 108Magnesium 24 Gold 197Chlorine 35.5 Sulphur 32
  3. 3. The name of some common ions with their symbols is given below. Cation Symbol Atomicity Anion Symbol AtomicityAluminium Al3+ Monoatomic Bromide Br– MonoatomicAmmonium Polyatomic Carbonate Tetra-atomic Calcium Ca2+ Monoatomic Chloride Cl– MonoatomicCuprous ion Cu+ Monoatomic Fluoride F– MonoatomicCupric ion Cu2+ Monoatomic Hydride H– Monoatomic Hydrogen H+ Monoatomic Hydroxide OH– Diatomic Ferric ion Fe3+ Monoatomic Iodide I– MonoatomicMagnesium Mg2+ Monoatomic Nitrate Tetra-atomic Nickel Ni2+ Monoatomic Nitride N3– MonoatomicPotassium K+ Monoatomic Nitrite Tetra-atomic Silver Ag+ Monoatomic Oxide O2– Monoatomic Sodium Na+ Monoatomic Phosphate Polyatomic Zinc Zn2+ Monoatomic Sulphate PolyatomicHydrogen carbonate Polyatomic Sulphite Tetra-atomicThe table given below illustrates some examples of ionic compounds.Ionic Compound Combining Ratio by Ratio by number of Elements mass ionsCalcium oxide Calcium, oxygen 5:2 1:1
  4. 4. Magnesium Magnesium, chlorine 24:71 1:2chloride Aluminium, sulphur 27:32 2:3AluminiumsulphideThe valencies of some common ions are given in the following table.Name of ion Symbol Valency Name of ion Symbol ValencyAluminium Al3+ 3 Sulphite 2Ammonium 1 Bromide Br− 1 Calcium Ca2+ 2 Carbonate 2Copper(II) Cu2+ 2 Chloride Cl− 1 Hydrogen H+ 1 Hydride H− Iron(II) Fe2+ 2 Hydrogen 1 carbonate Iron(III) Fe3+ 3 Hydroxide OH− 1Magnesium Mg2+ 2 Nitrate 1 Nickel Ni2+ 2 Nitrite 1 Potassium K+ 1 Oxide O2− 2 Silver Ag+ 1 Phosphate 3 Sodium Na+ 1 Sulphate 2 Zinc Zn2+ 2 Sulphide S2− 2