Mathematical Webs Accessibility CSUN 2014

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This paper presents a research concerning the conversion of non-accessible web pages containing mathematical formulae into accessible versions through an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) tool. The objective of this research is twofold. First, to establish criteria for evaluating the potential accessibility of mathematical web sites, i.e. the feasibility of converting non-accessible (non-MathML) math sites into accessible ones (Math-ML). Second, to propose a data model and a mechanism to publish evaluation results, making them available to the educational community who may use them as a quality measurement for selecting learning material.
Results show that the conversion using OCR tools is not viable for math web pages mainly due to two reasons: many of these pages are designed to be interactive, making difficult, if not almost impossible, a correct conversion; formula (either images or text) have been written without taking into account standards of math writing, as a consequence OCR tools do not properly recognize math symbols and expressions. In spite of these results, we think the proposed methodology to create and publish evaluation reports may be rather useful in other accessibility assessment scenarios.

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  • Mathematical Webs Accessibility CSUN 2014

    1. 1. Miquel Centelles, Mireia Ribera, Inmaculada Rodríguez Adaptabit Group – University of Barcelona CSUN Conference 2014
    2. 2.  The vision  The problem  Setting the stage  Our point of view  Our solution: MathML, OCR (InftyReader) and linked data  Results and future work March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 2
    3. 3.  Teaching methodologies have shifted from content- based to skills-based learning.  A key business for teachers is the selection of web resources which serve as reference, extension and motivation to their students.  This selection is mainly based on content and source quality, but rarely considers accessibility criteria.  Accessibility criteria will be increasingly important. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 3
    4. 4.  Still lots of non-accessible math web sites.  Why?  Interactivity. Formulae in graphics or videos.  Authoring tools automatic conversion to MathML ▪ Not fully reliable ▪ Often convert to images March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 4
    5. 5.  Concerning accessibility in maths, several initiatives have been driven by publishers and libraries. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 5
    6. 6.  Concerning the semantic meaning to mathematical formulae several initiatives link MathML with the semantic web.  Christoph Lange: a proposal to describe generic mathematical formulae.  OpenMath: a lightweight ontology to endorse the meaning of mathematical symbols.  HELM: the pioneer in representing structures of mathematical knowledge in RDF. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 6
    7. 7.  To assess the potential accessibility of non- accessible math web sites?  Definition: Potential accessibility = The feasibility of converting them into accessible webs  To publish assessment results in a semantically-empowered way March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 7
    8. 8.  How to accessibilize a Math web? Converting to MathML  Re-writing formulae <mrow> a &InvisibleTimes; <msup>x 2</msup> + b &InvisibleTimes; x + c </mrow>  Describing formulae in alternative text “A times square x plus b times x plus c”  Converting through OCR <mrow> a &InvisibleTimes; <msup>x 2</msup> + b &InvisibleTimes; x + c </mrow> March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 8
    9. 9.  OCR is the best option:  Does not require expertise  OK for low resources  Can be done by the student March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 9
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    11. 11.  First  Conceived for Web pages.  After  General format for exchanging mathematics.  Now  Provides accessible content for people with disabilities. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 11
    12. 12. MathML support still incomplete but… March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 12
    13. 13. Pros  Recognizes math symbols, converts them into ▪ LaTeX, ▪ XHTML and MathML. Cons  Strong requirements: ▪ Pure B&W ▪ High resolution (600 dpi) ▪ Standard ISO 80000-2:2009 March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 13
    14. 14. The four principles of linked data publishing model:  Use URIs as names for things.  Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.  When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)  Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 14
    15. 15.  Opportunities for the data in accessibility reports:  To customize answers to user queries.  To generate data-enriched reports for managers, technicians (webmasters) and policy decision makers.  To enrich search engines results with accessibility results used as website quality indicators. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 15
    16. 16. TWO KEY DECISIONS  Reuse a formal vocabulary: EARL  Use an open-source CMS: Drupal. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 16
    17. 17.  EARL = Evaluation and Report Language  It is a simple vocabulary that describes test results, such as those generated by web accessibility evaluation tools.  It uses the RDF data model to define terms for expressing test results.  It is a W3C Working Draft. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 17
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    19. 19.  A new controlled vocabularies for the Test Case class:  Containing 10 suitable criteria based on requirements of both InftyReader OCR software and ISO 80000-2:2009  Examples: ▪ C2-INFTYREADER: Image resolution must be equals or greater than 600 dpi. ▪ C3-ISO: An explicitly defined function not depending on the context is printed in Roman (upright) type, e.g. sin, exp, ln. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 19
    20. 20.  A new controlled vocabularies for the Test Result class:  Containing 5 categories, based on the percentage of formulae correctly converted into MathML.  Examples: ▪ Failed conversion [0%-20%]: This web has a very low potential accessibility. ▪ Successful conversion [80%-100%]: This web has the maximum potential accessibility. March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 20
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    22. 22. Drupal is the first CMS with Semantic Web services ▪ Use by non-experts ▪ Drupal 7 publishes data in RDF format. Data model in RDF Data model in Drupal 7 Content type RDF class Field RDF property Node RDF resource March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 22
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    31. 31.  Most websites not accessible at all  Interactive  Non-interactive ▪ Formula images ▪ With very poor quality ▪ without alternative text. ▪ Formulae not following standards => OCR not working March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 31
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    33. 33.  Useful methodology?  Future work:  Using math ontologies ▪ OpenMath ▪ OMDoc  Adapt formulas to RDFa March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 33
    34. 34. Questions, suggestions, cooperation..? centelles@ub.edu http://www.ub.edu/adaptabit/ adaptabit@ub.edu March 2014 CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs 34
    35. 35. CSUN 2014 - Potential accessibility of mathematical webs Specification:  Analysis of data sources.  URI design.  Publishing license. Vocabularies and ontologies Transform into RDF Publication Exploitation 35March 2014

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