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PYTHAGORAS




Pythagoras
ABOUT PYTHAHORAS
Full name       Pythagoras
Born            569 BC , Greece
Died            500 – 475 BC, Italy
Religion        Western philosophy
Era             Ancient Philosophy
School          Pythagoreanism
Main subject    Mathematics ,Ethics ,Politics
Notable ideas   Musical Universalism, Golden
                ratio, Pythagorean tuning
                ,Pythagorean theorem
ABOUT PYTHAGORAS
Pythagoras
An Ionian Greek Philosopher, Mathematician
and founder of the religious movement
called Pythagoreanism. He was born on the
island of Samos. Mnesarchus was the father of
Pythagoras & Parthenis was his mother. He had
a teacher named Themistoclea, who introduced
him to the principles of ethics. He is often
revered as a great Mathematician, Mystic
and Scientist.
Mathematics

   The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the
    two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the
    square on the hypotenuse (c).
   The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up
    mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but
    saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of
    mathematics were the principles of all things.
   Aristotle, Metaphysics 1–5 , cc. 350 BC
   a2 + b2 = c2.
Writings
No texts by Pythagoras are known to have
survived, although forgeries under his name a
few of which remain extant did circulate in
antiquity.       Critical     ancient        sources
like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt on
these writings. Ancient Pythagoreans usually
quoted their master's doctrines with the
phrase autos ephe ("he himself said") emphasizing
the essentially oral nature of his teaching.
Tetractys

Pythagoras was also credited with devising
the tetractys, the triangular figure of four
rows, which add up to the perfect number, ten.
As a mystical symbol, it was very important to
the worship of the Pythagoreans
THE SYMBOLIC APHORISMS OF
           PYTHAGORAS
   Declining from the public ways, walk in unfrequented paths.
   Govern your tongue before all other things, following the gods.
   The wind blowing, adore the sound.
   Assist a man in raising a burden; but do not assist him in laying it
    down.
   Speak not about Pythagoric concerns without light.
    Having departed from your house, turn not back, for the furies
    will be your attendants.
    Nourish a cock, but sacrifice it not; for it is sacred to the sun
    and moon.
    Receive not a swallow into your house. Offer not your right
    hand easily to anyone..
   When rising from the bedclothes, roll them together, and
    obliterate the impression of the body.
Lore
An extract from Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase
and Fable's entry entitled "Golden Thigh”.
"Pythagoras is said to have had a golden
thigh, which he showed to Abaris, the
Hyperborean priest, and exhibited in the
Olympic games.”
Pythagoras Believed
   All things are numbers. Mathematics is the basis for everything, and
    geometry is the highest form of mathematical studies. The physical
    world can understood through mathematics.
   The soul resides in the brain, and is immortal. It moves from one
    being to another, sometimes from a human into an animal, through
    a series of reincarnations called transmigration until it becomes
    pure. Pythagoras believed that both mathematics and music could
    purify.
   Numbers have personalities, characteristics, strengths and
    weaknesses.
   The world depends upon the interaction of opposites, such as male
    and female, lightness and darkness, warm and cold, dry and
    moist, light and heavy, fast and slow.
   Certain symbols have a mystical significance.
   All members of the society should observe strict loyalty and
    secrecy.
Influence on Plato
 Pythagoras, depicted as a medieval scholar in the Nuremberg
Chronicle. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the
Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the
work of Plato. Influence on esoteric groups. Pythagoras started a
secret society called the Pythagorean brotherhood devoted to the
study of mathematics. This had a great effect on future esoteric
traditions, such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, both of which
were occult groups dedicated to the study of mathematics and both
of which claimed to have evolved out of the Pythagorean
brotherhood. The mystical and occult qualities of Pythagorean
mathematics are discussed in a chapter of Manly P. Hall's The
Secret Teachings of All Ages entitled "Pythagorean Mathematics".
Pythagorean theory was tremendously influential on
later numerology, which was extremely popular throughout
the Middle East in the ancient world. The 8th-century Muslim
alchemist grounded his work in an elaborate numerology greatly
influenced by Pythagorean theory.
PHOTO
GALLERY
Croton on the southern coast
                                 of Italy, to which Pythagoras
                                 ventured      after    feeling
                                 overburdened in Samos.




Pythagoras, depicted on a 3rd-
century coin
Medieval woodcut showing
                                 Pythagoras with bells and other
                                 instruments in Pythagorean
                                 tuning.




Pythagoras, the man in the
center with the book, teaching
music, in The School of
Athens by Raphael
A STATUE OF PYTHAGORAS WITH A
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
PYTHAGORAS WITH HIS PET IN
                          HIS OLD HOME




PYTHAGORAS TEACHING
ABOUT HIS THE TRINGULAR
FIGURE OF 4 ROWS
A POTRAIT OF
PYTHAGORAS
AN AGEWISE IMAGE OF PYTHAGORAS
Pythagoras

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Pythagoras

  • 2. ABOUT PYTHAHORAS Full name Pythagoras Born 569 BC , Greece Died 500 – 475 BC, Italy Religion Western philosophy Era Ancient Philosophy School Pythagoreanism Main subject Mathematics ,Ethics ,Politics Notable ideas Musical Universalism, Golden ratio, Pythagorean tuning ,Pythagorean theorem
  • 3. ABOUT PYTHAGORAS Pythagoras An Ionian Greek Philosopher, Mathematician and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. He was born on the island of Samos. Mnesarchus was the father of Pythagoras & Parthenis was his mother. He had a teacher named Themistoclea, who introduced him to the principles of ethics. He is often revered as a great Mathematician, Mystic and Scientist.
  • 4. Mathematics  The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c).  The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things.  Aristotle, Metaphysics 1–5 , cc. 350 BC  a2 + b2 = c2.
  • 5. Writings No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived, although forgeries under his name a few of which remain extant did circulate in antiquity. Critical ancient sources like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt on these writings. Ancient Pythagoreans usually quoted their master's doctrines with the phrase autos ephe ("he himself said") emphasizing the essentially oral nature of his teaching.
  • 6. Tetractys Pythagoras was also credited with devising the tetractys, the triangular figure of four rows, which add up to the perfect number, ten. As a mystical symbol, it was very important to the worship of the Pythagoreans
  • 7. THE SYMBOLIC APHORISMS OF PYTHAGORAS  Declining from the public ways, walk in unfrequented paths.  Govern your tongue before all other things, following the gods.  The wind blowing, adore the sound.  Assist a man in raising a burden; but do not assist him in laying it down.  Speak not about Pythagoric concerns without light.  Having departed from your house, turn not back, for the furies will be your attendants.  Nourish a cock, but sacrifice it not; for it is sacred to the sun and moon.  Receive not a swallow into your house. Offer not your right hand easily to anyone..  When rising from the bedclothes, roll them together, and obliterate the impression of the body.
  • 8. Lore An extract from Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable's entry entitled "Golden Thigh”. "Pythagoras is said to have had a golden thigh, which he showed to Abaris, the Hyperborean priest, and exhibited in the Olympic games.”
  • 9. Pythagoras Believed  All things are numbers. Mathematics is the basis for everything, and geometry is the highest form of mathematical studies. The physical world can understood through mathematics.  The soul resides in the brain, and is immortal. It moves from one being to another, sometimes from a human into an animal, through a series of reincarnations called transmigration until it becomes pure. Pythagoras believed that both mathematics and music could purify.  Numbers have personalities, characteristics, strengths and weaknesses.  The world depends upon the interaction of opposites, such as male and female, lightness and darkness, warm and cold, dry and moist, light and heavy, fast and slow.  Certain symbols have a mystical significance.  All members of the society should observe strict loyalty and secrecy.
  • 10. Influence on Plato Pythagoras, depicted as a medieval scholar in the Nuremberg Chronicle. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato. Influence on esoteric groups. Pythagoras started a secret society called the Pythagorean brotherhood devoted to the study of mathematics. This had a great effect on future esoteric traditions, such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, both of which were occult groups dedicated to the study of mathematics and both of which claimed to have evolved out of the Pythagorean brotherhood. The mystical and occult qualities of Pythagorean mathematics are discussed in a chapter of Manly P. Hall's The Secret Teachings of All Ages entitled "Pythagorean Mathematics". Pythagorean theory was tremendously influential on later numerology, which was extremely popular throughout the Middle East in the ancient world. The 8th-century Muslim alchemist grounded his work in an elaborate numerology greatly influenced by Pythagorean theory.
  • 12. Croton on the southern coast of Italy, to which Pythagoras ventured after feeling overburdened in Samos. Pythagoras, depicted on a 3rd- century coin
  • 13. Medieval woodcut showing Pythagoras with bells and other instruments in Pythagorean tuning. Pythagoras, the man in the center with the book, teaching music, in The School of Athens by Raphael
  • 14. A STATUE OF PYTHAGORAS WITH A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
  • 15. PYTHAGORAS WITH HIS PET IN HIS OLD HOME PYTHAGORAS TEACHING ABOUT HIS THE TRINGULAR FIGURE OF 4 ROWS
  • 17. AN AGEWISE IMAGE OF PYTHAGORAS