The ww1 powerpoint1

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WW1 PPT for Social 20-1

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The ww1 powerpoint1

  1. 1. The Great War The War to End All Wars
  2. 2. National Interest  Last day we discussed different views of “national interest”.  Why would a nation WANT to go to war?  Economic Prosperity Employment and standard of living Pass laws, make trade treaties  Security Protecting citizens inside the country, passing laws Securing national borders Resolve differences with other countries  Beliefs and Values Affirming and promoting its citizens cultures and beliefs Ensuring a standard of quality of life for its citizens Concern for our land, environment, and ecosystems
  3. 3. Understanding the Era 1814 – Congress of Vienna Nationalist revolutions take place throughout Europe in the 1800’s Industrial Revolution flourishes Berlin Conference (1884) – Scramble for Africa. Imperialism takes off again.
  4. 4. The Causes Of WWI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Industrial Revolution Imperialism The Rise of Nationalism The Death of the Ottoman Empire Alliances The Assassination 1. II NO AA
  5. 5. #1 The Industrial Revolution  From 1750 onward  Started with the textile industry  Spread to other industries  By the 1900s – industrialization had greatly affected the military  Leaders were eager to put new weapons to use
  6. 6. The Machine Gun Turkey - 1913
  7. 7. Canon Improvements Germany - 1913
  8. 8. #2 – The Rise of Nationalism  Since 1789 – The Ripple Effect…                                    1794 – Poland 1796 – White Lotus – China 1789 – Irish 1804 – Serbian 1808 – Madrid 1810 – Mexico, Paraguay, Venezuela 1812 – Korea 1820 – Spain and Portugal – Peru, too! 1821 – Greece 1822 – Mexico IND 1824 – Russian (Decembrists) 1825 – Indonesia 1830 – French again 1830 – Belgium IND 1832 – Algeria 1837 – Canada 1841 – Afghanistan 1848 – France, Italy, Germany IND 1848 – Hungary 1851 – China 1854 – Spain IND 1857 – India 1859 – Italy 1866 – Japan 1867 – Irish 1867 – Canada IND 1868 – Puerto Rico IND 1875 – Herzegovina 1876 – Bulgaria 1896 – Philippine IND 1903 – Macedonia IND 1905 – Iran 1907 – Romania 1908 – Turkey 1910 - Mexico Nationalism develop a new sense of pride that people were willing to die to defend.
  9. 9. T.E. Lawrence Self-Determination Faisal
  10. 10. #3 - Imperialism  The act of creating an empire  British Empire – “Sun Never Sets..  Germany – “Her Place in the Sun”  1884 – Berlin Conference  Several conflict erupting – Boar War, Moroccan Crisis…  The Cape to Cairo Dream
  11. 11. #4 – The Death of The Ottoman Empire  The “Sick Man” of Europe  Land grab possibility?
  12. 12. #5 - Military Alliances  Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy  Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, and Russia  Various other alliances  Russian – Serbia  Britain – Belgium  Colonies!
  13. 13. #6 - The Assassination  Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Austrian heir to the throne  Sarajevo, Bosnia  Touring region  Gavrilo Princip  Serbian Nationalist
  14. 14. The Shots Heard Around the World!  19 at the time of the assassinations  Death penalty set at 20 (27 days away)  Cyanide capsule failed (past expiration)  88 lbs at time of death – TB, 1918
  15. 15. Declarations of WAR Begin!  Austria-Hungary – Serbia  Who will help Serbia?  When Russia declares War on A-H, who will help them?  When Germany declares war on Russia… who will help them?  Let’s ACT this out!!
  16. 16. The WWI Timeline         Open War – Aug 1914 War of Attrition – Sept 1914 Total War – 1916 The Last Push – 1917 1917 – May, Germans begin to lose ground 1917 – Summer USA joins the war Nov 11, 1918 – Armistice Jan 1919 – Treaty of Versailles
  17. 17. The Beginning of the War      Schlieffen Plan Aug 1914 – 1 500 000 advance into Belgium French – old mentality, bright, no helmets, rifles… 500 000 causalities! Miracle of Marne – 2 million clash Sept – repositioned – stalemate begins
  18. 18. Failure of the Schlief fen Plan
  19. 19. The War of Attrition  Western Front:    Eastern Front:     Race for the sea begins Trench warfare begins Russia mobilizes 5 million 400 trains a day sent from Western Front Russia quickly out of supplies Southern Front  A-H and Serbia – mountains of Serbia
  20. 20. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns
  21. 21. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare
  22. 22. Marne http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/w
  23. 23. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led To: Reconnaissance Planes Fighter Planes
  24. 24. "there was a lump in my throat. If he had been my dearest friend, I could not have felt greater sorrow"
  25. 25. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led To Reconnaissance Planes Fighter Planes Gas Warfare
  26. 26. Second Battle of Ypr es April 22, 1915 • Canadians were moved into position in early April 1915 • On the 22nd of April Germans released 160 tons of chlorine gas • A four mile hole was developed in the Allied line due to the gas attack • Canada fought through the night to close the gap • On April 24th, German forces launched another gas attack in an attempt to push the Canadians back
  27. 27. Second Battle of Ypres • The Canadian forces held the line until reinforcements could arrive • The cost of this 48 hour battle was extremely high; over 4000 Canadians injured and 2000 deaths. • Canadian forces established a reputation as a formidable fighting force in their first major appearance on a European battlefield.
  28. 28. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led To Reconnaissance Planes Fighter Planes Gas Warfare Artillery Barrages
  29. 29. They were enormous canons that could launch shells that weighed a ton 15 kilometers. There destructive power could penetrate two meters of earth, three meters of concrete in a meter thick wall.
  30. 30. Ver dun • Verdun was a well fortified town surrounded by fortresses and trenches • It projected out into German occupied territory • It remains the longest battle in history, spanning roughly 10 months, beginning on February 21st 1916 and ending on December 11th 1916. • The French suffered 550,000 losses and the Germans fared better at only 434,000
  31. 31. Battle of Verdun Feb 21, 1916 Opening Barrage: 1200 guns targeted 60 forts and strong points. Over 80 000 shells hit per day. A huge gaping hole was torn in the French defenses. Bravery – Hand to Hand Combat: More than 80 % of casualties were taken in hand to hand combat. French Defenders: French defenders caught in the open were blown apart. 98 % of units were lost and men went insane from the exploding shells Flame Throwers: Both sides used flame throwers to gain territory.
  32. 32. Somme Offensive June 24, 1916 Opening Barrage: 1500 guns bombed German defenses for 5 days. British Advance – Machine Guns: The British felt that no one would survive the barrage, and they sent a 12 mile column of four rows of men (only 2 meters apart) towards the well armed German machine guns. 20 000 died on the first day. German Withdrawal: The German troops withdrew from the frontline trenches into the back trenches, knowing they could rearm their guns in 3 minutes.
  33. 33. Battle of the Somme • • • • Began on July 1st, 1916 – 60K casualties on the British side A counter offensive against the German push at Verdun 1.5 million rounds of artillery ammunition 600 000 British and French troops were lost in less than 3 months • Canadians joined the battle on September, 15th 1916 • Newfoundland Regiment joined battle on the first day: • • • • • Of the 780 men who went forward only about 110 survived unscathed, of whom only 68 were available for roll call the following day…. a casualty rate of approximately 90 percent. The Canadians were able to capture many key positions After 141 days the battle fighting came to a stand still Canada had 24 000 casualties Approximately 1 million injured and 300K killed “Somme. The whole history of the world cannot contain a more ghastly word”
  34. 34. Who else was at The Battle of The Somme?
  35. 35. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led To Reconnaissance Planes Fighter Planes Gas Warfare Artillery Barrages Tanks Mass Attacks
  36. 36. The first tank was named “Little Willie” and could travel 3 miles per hour, (2 on rough terrain). This tank was restricted as it could not cross trenches. Early on, tanks often broke down and became ditched - i.e. stuck in a muddy trench - more often than Tanks were deployed during anticipated. the notorious, almost swampy, conditions of the Third Battle of Ypres (more commonly known as 'Passchendaele'). They promptly sank in the mire and were entirely without benefit. By 1917 however, the tanks had improved so that they helped solve the problem of trench warfare, and were iincreasingly used during the Allied advance of summer 1918.
  37. 37. 1917 – The Big Pushes  Feb - Russian Revolution     What effect does this have? Germans push to conquer Europe before Americans arrive. 1.5 to 1.3 million What happens when they break through? Allies Come Back    Vimy – April Canada’s 100 Days American’s fill ranks
  38. 38. V imy Ridge • • • • • • • Vimy was a key position in the German line French and English forces attempted numerous times to break through the German line here but failed repeatedly at a tremendous cost On April 9th, 1917 the task of taking the ridge was given to the Canadians It took only five days for the Canadian forces to sweep the Germans off the ridge Over 7 000 Canadians were injured and 3598 were killed After this battle Canadian troops were seen as an elite fighting force Many historians insist that Canada became a country at Vimy
  39. 39. Arthur Currie
  40. 40. The Creeping Barrage
  41. 41. Other Canadian Contributions
  42. 42. Passchendaele, 1917 (also known as the thir d battle of Ypr es) The casualties of Passchendaele were horrendous. The Germans lost 270,000 men. The Allied forces lost 450,000. This included 36,500 Australians and 16,000 Canadians. The Canadians were lost in the final assault between October 26 and November 10. 90,000 of the fallen bodies were never identified. 42,000 were never found.
  43. 43. …Lice and anxiety came into my life about the same time. At standto one morning a flight of whizz-bangs skimmed the top of the trench. The man next to me went down with a scream and half his face gone. The sand-bag in front of me was ripped open and I was blinded and half-choked with its contents. …At the end of the short trench I stumbled over something. A bank of cloud cleared for a moment from the moon, and I saw it was a headless body. …I went back to my post, frightened beyond anything that should be humanly possible. Twice I was blown off my feet by the concussion of bursting shells. The whine of falling shrapnel filled the air. I seemed to be all alone in a world tottering into ruin. If only the noise would stop I felt I might keep my reason. I think I prayed for a direct hit to end it all. By a miracle, however, I was not even touched. …One got used to many things, but I never overcame my horror of the rats. They abounded in some parts, great loathsome beasts gorged with flesh. I shall never forget. …I had one from a woman friend who had always seemed intelligent and understanding. Yet she asked this singular question: Is it as bad as they say it is out there, or is it only the shortage of cigarettes that makes it seem so rotten?“ The irony of it coming at that time made me giggle like a schoolgirl. The others wanted to know the joke so I read it aloud. The comments were unprintable.
  44. 44. Total War    Diverting all resources and attention to the war effort Food rations for civilians Use of propaganda
  45. 45. A TOTAL WAR Effort Daddy, what did you do in the war? Smear Campaign against the Enemy!
  46. 46. Russians Unite! An appeal to women! An effort beyond social class Wartime materials meant more than just weapons
  47. 47. What does this poster reveal about Canada’s war effort? Lets Go Canada! What is the irony in this poster?
  48. 48. November 11 - 1918  ALLIES    5.2 Million Dead 12.8 Million Wounded  TOTAL DEAD – 18.6 CENTRAL POWERS   3.5 Million Dead 8.8 Million Wounded TOTAL Military WOUNDED – 21.2
  49. 49. November 11 - 1918  Canada’s War Effort: (not including Nfld)   Total Enlistees: 620 000  Wounded: 173 000   Total Population: 6.8 Million Killed: 67 000 Proportionally Equivalency  3 500 000 Enlistees  977 000 Injured  378 000 Killed
  50. 50. Identify as many territorial differences as you can between the map of Europe in 1910 (pre-WWI) and 1919 (post-WW1)

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