Climate Change and Adaptation in Agriculture for East Asia and the Pacific Region:                               Issues & ...
outline• Introduction• CA globally and regionally• CA for CC adaptation/mitigation• Policy and Investment• Conclusions
introduction• Challenge to feed the world• Natural resource base dwindling• Sustainability: no option but  necessity; link...
CA globally and regionallyFAO definition: www.fao.org/ag/caConservation Agriculture (CA)  is an approach to managing agro-...
CA globally and regionallyCA: more than just no-till: “never till”• with other best practices (IPM, IPNM, IC-  LS, agrofor...
CA globally and regionallyAdvantages for the farmer:Farmer’s livelihood  • less machinery cost  • 70% fuel saving  • 50% l...
100                                50                                                            Mill. ha1930             ...
CA globally and regionally Conservation Agriculture worldwide 117 Million ha                                              ...
CA for CC adaptationClimate Change: Higher variability                           extreme precipitationextended drought per...
CA for CC adaptationResponse strategy for AdaptationIncrease the resilience through:• diversity in the cropping• diversity...
CA globallyDiversity = rotations = long term profit• different rooting structures• pest and desease management• weed manag...
CA globally  ...maintaining soil cover in dry lands      Fodder                          ...a challenge                   ...
CA for CC adaptationAdaptation extreme events:• Erosion:  stubbel, mulch, crops  aggregate stability (OM)• Heat: mulch• Fr...
CA for CC adaptationAdaptation to drought:• better rooting• snow catching with residues• more water in soils  (1 % OM = 15...
CA for CC adaptationAdaptation to heavy rain:• water recharge (biopores)• water quality (leaching/erosion)• better infiltr...
CA for CC mitigationCA CC-mitigation options:• Sequestration:  Maximize soil as carbon sink  • reduce soil carbon emission...
Policy and Institutional SupportExperiences in DPR Korea and China
Policy and Institutional SupportSoya                  Wheat        Rice                                    Potato         ...
Policy and InvestmentPolicies:• China: CA mentioned in number 1 party  document• CA promoted to prevent dust storms around...
Policy and InvestmentInvestments:Overall CA is profitable for farmersInitial investment requirements• Capacity building: d...
CA globally - impact                    Financial Benefits of Conservation Agriculture                         Wheat Produ...
conclusionsConclusions:CA -• is universally applicable/location specific• is really existing on 8% of farmland• is growing...
With CA Agriculture can be part of the solutions,           not of the problem!    Thank you for your attention!More infor...
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Theo friedrich -_ca_for_cc_adaptation_in_eap

  1. 1. Climate Change and Adaptation in Agriculture for East Asia and the Pacific Region: Issues & Options FAO-WB Expert Group Meeting, Rome, May 16-17, 2011 Conservation Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation in East Asia and the Pacific Theodor FRIEDRICH Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  2. 2. outline• Introduction• CA globally and regionally• CA for CC adaptation/mitigation• Policy and Investment• Conclusions
  3. 3. introduction• Challenge to feed the world• Natural resource base dwindling• Sustainability: no option but necessity; link/integrate production with sustainability• One new strategic goal of FAO: Sustainable Crop Production Intensification (SCPI)• CA is the core strategy of SCPI = applied sustainable agriculture
  4. 4. CA globally and regionallyFAO definition: www.fao.org/ag/caConservation Agriculture (CA) is an approach to managing agro- ecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment. CA is characterized by three linked principles, namely:1. Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance.2. Permanent organic soil cover.3. Diversification of crop species grown in sequences and/or associations.
  5. 5. CA globally and regionallyCA: more than just no-till: “never till”• with other best practices (IPM, IPNM, IC- LS, agroforestry, ...) it is sustainable agriculture and ecosystem management• organic matter and carbon recycling• biodiversity (rotation, soil life)• biological processes• climate change adaptation and mitigation
  6. 6. CA globally and regionallyAdvantages for the farmer:Farmer’s livelihood • less machinery cost • 70% fuel saving • 50% labour saving • 20-50 % input saving • less drudgery • stable yields, food security = better livelihood/income
  7. 7. 100 50 Mill. ha1930 US Soil Conservation Service conservation tillage Dustbowl First no-till in the US Faulkner (US) – Fukuoka (Japan)1950 dustbowl Siberia/USSR commercial no-till/US1970 first no-till demonstration in Brazil IITA no-till research1980 Oldrieve/Zimbabwe adoption Brazil plantio direto na palha History and Adoption of CA1990 Argentina, Paraguay; experiments in China, Indogangetic Plains New boost: Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan,2000 Russia, China, Finland...; Africa CA globally and regionally
  8. 8. CA globally and regionally Conservation Agriculture worldwide 117 Million ha large scale Kazakhstan 1>50% continental, dry continental, dry Europe 1large scale Canada 13.5 China 1 smallholder temperate, moist arid USA 26.5 <25% irrigated Africa 0.5 tropical savannah large scale smallholder Brazil 26 tropical savannah smallholder Paraguay 2.5 subtropical, dry >70% temperate, moist Australia 17 Argentina 26 large scale arid large scale other LA 2 large scale up to 90%
  9. 9. CA for CC adaptationClimate Change: Higher variability extreme precipitationextended drought periods = less reliable rainfall
  10. 10. CA for CC adaptationResponse strategy for AdaptationIncrease the resilience through:• diversity in the cropping• diversity in the overall production• higher flexibility/more timely operations• agronomic practices that work for drought, rain, heat, cold, wind
  11. 11. CA globallyDiversity = rotations = long term profit• different rooting structures• pest and desease management• weed management• soil cover/residue managment strategy• higher long term productivity, risk reduction
  12. 12. CA globally ...maintaining soil cover in dry lands Fodder ...a challenge which needs a community Firewood solution! same removalLivestock is pride no-till tillage
  13. 13. CA for CC adaptationAdaptation extreme events:• Erosion: stubbel, mulch, crops aggregate stability (OM)• Heat: mulch• Frost: mulch
  14. 14. CA for CC adaptationAdaptation to drought:• better rooting• snow catching with residues• more water in soils (1 % OM = 150 m3/ha)• reduced water losses (evaporation)• better efficiency (water/crop -30%)
  15. 15. CA for CC adaptationAdaptation to heavy rain:• water recharge (biopores)• water quality (leaching/erosion)• better infiltration (flooding)
  16. 16. CA for CC mitigationCA CC-mitigation options:• Sequestration: Maximize soil as carbon sink • reduce soil carbon emissions • maximise biomass production • enhance soil carbon input• Emission reduction: • Rice – methane (no flooding) • Nitrous oxide (N-, compaction management) • Fuel emissions • Emissions from input manufacturing
  17. 17. Policy and Institutional SupportExperiences in DPR Korea and China
  18. 18. Policy and Institutional SupportSoya Wheat Rice Potato CabbageMaize
  19. 19. Policy and InvestmentPolicies:• China: CA mentioned in number 1 party document• CA promoted to prevent dust storms around Beijing before the Olympic games• Subsidies for mechanization exclude ploughs; priority to no-till seeding equipment• DPR Korea: CA promoted by Ministry of Agriculture and the Academy of Sciences as approach to sustainable and intensive agriculture
  20. 20. Policy and InvestmentInvestments:Overall CA is profitable for farmersInitial investment requirements• Capacity building: depending on extension (5 – 50 $/farmer; 100%?)• Equipment: 100-200 $/ha for seed-drills (50% based on Chinese equipment; 10 years depreciation, 2 weeks planting window)• evtl. soil rehabilitation: 50-200 $/ha (lime, herbicide, fertilizer, subsoiling)• Investment offset: fuel and emission savings/carbon sequestration; disaster risk• Total: China 500 mill. farmers, 140 mill. ha arbl. land DPRK 3 mill. farmers, 2.5 mill. ha arbl. land
  21. 21. CA globally - impact Financial Benefits of Conservation Agriculture Wheat Production in Northern Kazakhstan (IRR = 28%) 200 100US$/ha 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 -100 Investment -200 Tillage saving Higher yield -300 Chemical weeding Benefit -400 Years
  22. 22. conclusionsConclusions:CA -• is universally applicable/location specific• is really existing on 8% of farmland• is growing exponentially• is compatible with MDGs, UN conventions and FAO’s strategic objectives• is productive and sustainable (win-win)• is responding to climatic challenges• requires supportive policies for accelerated adoption
  23. 23. With CA Agriculture can be part of the solutions, not of the problem! Thank you for your attention!More information:http://www.fao.org/ag/ca

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