PEOPLE AS NATIONS - MultiCultural Society


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PEOPLE AS NATIONS - MultiCultural Society

  1. 1. State commonly refers to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity (such as a country) or sub-entity (such as an autonomous territory of a country). Map of Malaysia
  2. 2. Nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history Artist illustration on different “loghat” of Malaysian
  3. 3. The term "nation state" implies that the two geographically coincide. Nation state formation took place at different times in different parts of the world, but has become the dominant form of state organization. Federation of Malaysia
  4. 4. The Malay are Malaysia's largest ethnic group, accounting for over half the population and the national language. With the oldest indigenous peoples they form a group called bumiputera, which translates as "sons" or "princes of the soil." Almost all Malays are Muslims, though Islam here is less extreme than in the Middle East. Traditional Malay culture centers around the kampung, or village, though today one is just as likely to find Malays in the cities. They form about 71 percent of the population. Malay
  5. 5. The Chinese traded with Malaysia for centuries, then settled in number during the 19th century when word of riches in the Nanyang, or "South Seas," spread across China. Though perhaps a stereotype, the Chinese are regarded as Malaysia's businessmen, having succeeded in many industries. When they first arrived, however, Chinese often worked the most grueling jobs like tin mining and railway construction. Most Chinese are Tao Buddhist and retain strong ties to their ancestral homeland. They form about 22 percent of the population. Chinese
  6. 6. Indians had been visiting Malaysia for over 2,000 years, but did not settle en masse until the 19th century. Most came from South India, fleeing a poor economy. Arriving in Malaysia, many worked as rubber tappers, while others built the infrastructure or worked as administrators and small businessmen. Today ten percent of Malaysia is Indian. Their culture with it's exquisite Hindu temples, cuisine, and colorful garments is visible throughout the land. They form about 7 percent of the population. Indian
  8. 8. BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1) The situation of multi-society in Malaysia started after the establishment of the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca and Singapore 2) The presence of large numbers of Chinese and Indians is due to the colonial policy during the 19th century, when the British needed labour for economic exploitation of the Malay states. 3) Economy 4) Educational system a) Chinese : Chinese schools with their syllabus adopted from mainland China and this cultivated their nationalism towards China b) Indian : Indian schools c) Malay : Madrasa (religious school) Estate sector for Indian Paddy sector for Malay Business sector for Chinese
  9. 9. AFTER INDEPENDENCE 1) The government implemented a new policy called New Economic Policy (NEP) to bridge the economic gap between the Malays and the Chinese. 2) Policy enforcement in 1971 known as ‘1971 National Culture Policy’ in Malaysia to have better interaction and integration. 3) ‘1971 National Culture Policy’ which is focused on the three major concepts : a) Malay culture b)suitable elements from the other cultures may be accepted as part of the national culture c)Islām is an important component in the moulding of the National Culture. 4) 1971 National Culture Policy emphasises values on courtesy, moderation, tolerance, harmony and cordial relations among family members, neighbours and community. 5) Islām took place as the official practice religion of Malaysia but there is freedom of worship especially those who are non-Muslim. 6) The Malay Language is the national language of the country as mentioned earlier before. However, the people are free to use their mother tongue and other languages. English as the second language is widely used in business.
  10. 10. The Malacca Sultanate and the Evolution of Malay Identity: The commencement of the current Malay nation is often traced to the fifteenth- FROM left: Tunku Abdul Rahman, the British Colonial Secretary, Duncan Sandys and first Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew talk about Malaysia.
  11. 11. THE MERGING PLAN  The idea to unite Malaysia with neighbouring countries was raised several times.  Merger of Singapore suggested in 1955 by David Marshall – rejected by Tunku Abdul Rahman.  Lee Kuan Yew proposed the idea again in 1959 – unfavorable response  27th May 1961: Tunku Abdul Rahman suggested the merger of Malaya with: - Singapore - North Borneo: Sabah - Sarawak - Brunei “Free through unification” was the main general factor of the proposal
  12. 12. REASONS Political Reasons -To curb communist threat -To boost and accelerate the independence of Brunei, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. -To create racial harmony Economy -To boost regional economy for people and countries Social - To create Malaysian nation new identity based on shared cultural heritage
  14. 14. July 1963, The Malaysian Agreement was signed by five countries and was sealed. Malaysia was born as a new nation on 16th September 1963
  15. 15. Jan 10,1949. J/kuasa Melayu-Cina (Malay-Chinese Goodwill Committee) was established. Then called the Communities Liaison Committee (CLC) or Jawatankuasa Perhubungan Antara Kaum (JPK). •chaired by E.E.C Thuraisingham & composed by Dato 'Onn Jaafar, Tan Cheng Lock, Dato' Panglima Bukit Gantang Abdul Wahab, Yoong Shook Lin, Sir Roland Braddel, Salleh Judge, CCTan, Zainal Abidin Hj. Abbas & Malcolm MacDonald (British General Commissioner in Southeast Asia) E.E.C Thuraisingham
  16. 16. • is a first attempt to create goodwill among the various races in Malaya. • objective: to find a way to prevent communal clashes. • a forum to negotiate & find peaceful solutions on issues of race and managed to bring political consensus that is not racist. • responsible for making initial recommendations on controversial issues such as citizenship, education, local council elections & Federal Legislative Council. FUNCTIONAL “JPK”
  17. 17. HOW IMPROVE THE INTER-RACIAL RELATIONSHIP IN MALAYA JPK efforts: •April 1950 - to submit proposed changes to federal citizenship with the implementation of the basic principle of Jus Soli citizenship. •Recommendations to improve the economic conditions of the Malays (indicates a tolerance between the representatives of non-Malay & Malay). •Proposal to study education issues - leading to the establishment of JK Barnes & JK Fenn-Wu.
  18. 18. HOW IMPROVE THE INTER-RACIAL RELATIONSHIP IN MALAYA • Suggest BM & BI required in all government primary schools & government aided primary schools. • Suggested that the voters in the election federation composed of citizens of Malaya. • While not all proposals received by the JPK race, but no doubt the JPK had laid the foundation for cooperation between the races in Malaya. • JPK talks about citizenship issues when the Chinese continue to insist that they be simplified to obtain citizenship. As a result JPK persuade the British to amend conditions of citizenship in the federal constitution Malaya 1948.
  19. 19. 1) East Coast Economic Region (ECER) 2) Northen Corridor Economic Region East Coast Economic Region (ECER) •to accelerate  the  growth of  the  East  Coast  Economic  Region in a viable, equitable and sustainable manner. •The  Master  Plan  also  details  measures  to eradicate poverty, and improve incomes and distribution in  a  sustainable manner for ECER. •The  ECER  ’s  distinctive  natural resources, culture & heritage will form the basis for transforming the economy  into one that is dynamic and competitive in light of greater  regional and global competition and economic liberalisation.
  20. 20. Economic clusters  Five economic clusters have been identified as key focal points for development in  the ECER namely:   (i) Tourism                (ii) Oil, gas and petrochemical       (iii) Manufacturing              (v) Education          (iv) Agriculture   
  21. 21. Kelantan •The ECER development will enable the dominant positioning of Kelantan to serve as  the principal East Coast cross-border trading and tourism centre. • Kelantan will focus on human capital development, in line with the state’s recognition of  the rakyat as a key resource and the engine of economic growth.
  22. 22. Terengganu •Travel  along  the  Terengganu  coast  and  you  will  surely  be  awed  by  its  impressive  244  km stretch of sandy coastline,  traditional  Malay  coastal  villages,  domestic  animals  wandering  in  the  fields  and  picturesque  sunrises  coming below the horizon.  •Beyond Terengganu’s impressive coastline lie some of the most popular island  destinations in Malaysia.
  23. 23. Pahang •Two  thirds  of  Pahang  state  is  covered  with  rainforest,  making  it  a  haven  for  adventure and eco-holidays.
  24. 24. Mersing •In the ECER Master Plan, Mersing will focus on the development of mainland coastal tourism, sustainable island tourism and eco-tourism.
  25. 25. Northen Coast Economic Region (NCER)
  26. 26. Northen Corridor Economic Region (NCER) •to accelerate economic growth and elevate income levels in the north of Peninsular Malaysia – encompassing the states of Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and the north of Perak. •to helping the Region maximise its economic potential and closing the development and income gap between the different regions in Malaysia •4 key thrust areas have been identified, namely agriculture, manufacturing, tourism and logistics. agriculture manufacturing logistic tourism
  27. 27. •Malaysia expected become a competitive, world-class sustainable economic region. •Raise the overall standard of living. •Closing income gap between the different regions •Eradicate poverty, and improve incomes and distribution in a sustainable manner •Increase competition between regions across nations regional development •ethnic groups were more effective and successful than social classes in mobilizing their members in pursuit of collective ends in Malaysia. •changing conflicts over races
  28. 28. • 1887 - First Proposal Presented To The formation of Malaya was by Lord Brassey • 1948 - Sir Malcolm Mcdonald Propose To Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Malaya Established • 1956 - Dato 'Onn Ja'afar recommend Federation of Malaya Independence Called Malaysia • 1959 - Lim Yew Hock, David Marshall and Lee Kuan Yew Recommend British Negotiate With Tunku Abdul Rahman to merging the Federation of Malaya and Singapore only. • 1961 - Tunku Abdul Rahman agree form of Gagasan Malaysia.
  29. 29. • Creating an optimal balance between the goal of economic growth and equitable distribution. • Ensure balanced development of key economic sectors to enhance complementarities between sectors to optimize growth. • Reduce and ultimately eliminate disparities and social and economic imbalances in the country • Promote and strengthen national integration to reduce the vast inequalities in economic development among the states and between rural and urban areas. • Awaken a progressive society where all people enjoy a high quality of life, in addition to having societal values and spirituality as well as appreciate the positive feelings of pride​​ and love country. • Promote human resource development including creating a workforce that is disciplined and productive and improve the skills needed to face the challenges in the development of the industry through a culture of excellence without compromising the goals of the restructuring of all communities. • Making science and technology as an integral part of the socio-economic planning and development which requires the development of capacity and capability in strategic and knowledge-based technology and to develop a culture of science and technology in the process of developing a modern industrial economy. • Ensure that in the pursuit of economic development, due attention should be given to environmental protection and long-term technology to ensure sustainable development of the country continued way.
  30. 30. •promotes peace and love in a nation •unity is strength where united people can put efforts in elimination of vices like corruption and tribalism and also to fight diseases by abdopting more hygienic standards of living •unity enhance political stability in a nation •unity minimises and eventually eliminates intercommunity suspisions where it gives people a sense of security for they are able to know each other better and understand each others ways •unity promotes co-operation and open opportunity to excellence •unity promotes collective responsibility in times of need like in funding for the disabled and lastly unity reduces incidence of fear •suspisions and power struggles which reduce incidents like civil war which may affect social economic activities like trade Source :
  31. 31. Outcomes Study as Reflection: How Malaysian lived happily in this multicultural country? Which is better, before or after independents? Do government sector also involved in formation of nation? What are the importance of having national unit?