Water Quality Report


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Annual Water Quality Report, Presented as a Marketing Tool

  • Since almost everyone has been educated about fluoride and its connection with tooth decay, and subsequently almost everyone uses toothpaste with fluoride added, in addition to dental treatments, it is not advisable at this point in time to continue a practice of water fluoridation that was begun in the early 50's when times were different.

    Recently more and more valid and reputable research indicates that going to the expense and trouble of adding fluoridation to the public drinking water is no longer advisable. Once it goes past the teeth and into the body it is now proven to cause harmful side effects.

    I appreciate everything you are doing to keep the water purified but I also have to purchase a rather expensive add-on filter to remove the scientifically suspect (and redundant) fluoride from my personal drinking water system. Keep up the good work and let's come into present time and re-review the need to continue to add hydrofluorosilic acid to the public bodies, in light of the fact that most toothpastes contain fluoride and most dentists provide fluoride treatments for children and adults and these practices address the teeth directly and should be sufficient.
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Water Quality Report

  1. 1. 2006 Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System
  2. 2. Dear Aquarion Customer, The employees of Aquarion Water Company are presently commemorating our 150th anniversary, and we are extremely proud of our record as the provider of high-quality drinking water for your good health and well-being. In this eleventh annual Water Quality Report, we are pleased to inform you that your water continues to meet, or is better than, the quality required by state and federal standards. In 2006 your water quality data, provided on page six, were extracted from more than 114,000 tests on some 10,400 samples of our water at various locations in our service areas. To further assure the quality of our water, the state’s Department of Public Health routinely reviews our test results and examines our treatment facilities and testing laboratories to ensure sustained compliance with state and federal water quality regulations. In addition, Aquarion Water Company’s water treatment facility operators have attained the most advanced certification in the state. We pay tribute to our past and present employees who have built this company, and we honor you for helping us to excel as your drinking water provider. Please join us as we celebrate the past 150 years and prepare for the next 150! Sincerely, Charles V. Firlotte, President and CEO In addition to Bridgeport, the Greater Bridgeport Area includes Easton, Fairfield, Monroe, Norwalk, Shelton, Stratford, Trumbull, Westport, Weston, and Wilton. 1857–2007 When Aquarion Water Company was established as The Bridgeport Hydraulic Company on June 26, 1857, we supplied water to about 18,000 residents from 2007 Marks Our flowing springs and lakes through hollow log pipes. Today, as we celebrate our 150th 150th Anniversary anniversary, our reservoirs hold more than 33 billion gallons of water. We provide water to some 720,000 people in four states using more than 17 million feet of under- As Your Provider of ground water mains. Yes, we have a rich history that—in concert with our present High-Quality Water continual pursuit of excellence—makes us extremely proud to serve you refreshing, high-quality drinking water. Here are some historic milestones.
  3. 3. 2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 2 The Greater Bridgeport Monroe ‚ System Shelton ƒ Easton Trumbull „ Weston Stratford Where does your water come from? … Wilton Bridgeport Your water is collected in reservoirs and wells, treated, and delivered Fairfield † to you through an extensive underground piping system. The Bridgeport System supply, which serves about 350,000 people in the Westport ‡ Greater Bridgeport Area, is mostly surface water drawn from a system of eight reservoirs (Aspetuck, Easton Lake, Far Mill, Hemlocks, Means Brook, Saugatuck, Trap Falls, and West Pequonnock). The reservoirs supply more than 98% of the 41 million gallons per day The Greater Bridgeport System includes Bridgeport, average system demand. Water also is drawn from Aquarion Water Easton, Fairfield, Monroe, Shelton, Stratford, Company’s Westport and Coleytown Well Fields. Company-wide, an Trumbull, Westport, Weston, and Wilton. Residents average 15.8% of the system demand is unaccounted- for water due to may receive water from one or more of these sources fire protection, undetected leaks, and unauthorized use. at different times of the year. How is your water treated? ‚ Housatonic Wells … Hemlocks Reservoir The reservoir water receives filtration treatment at our Trap Falls, ƒ Trap Falls Reservoir † Coleytown Wells Easton Lake, and Warner treatment facilities. Water from the wells is naturally filtered underground. All of the water is disinfected, fluori- „ Easton Lake Reservoir ‡ Westport Wells dated, and further treated to protect the water supply piping system. Improving your service and water quality Aquarion Water Company continues its comprehensive capital improvement campaign to upgrade and replace all aging infrastruc- ture, which ensures the high quality of the water that we deliver to you. In 2006 the company-wide capital budget for the replacement of water mains, improvements at treatment plants and reservoirs, and How much did your long-range water supply planning totaled $48 million. In 2007 the company-wide capital budget is estimated to exceed $37 million. water cost in 2006? ? Water used per household: 89,600 Gallons Did Aquarion offers fun Average daily use: 245 Gallons water lessons for Annual bill: $450 you school and home! Average cost: $1.23 Check them out at know per day www.aquarionwater.com. AQUARION WATER COMPANY CELEBRATES ITS SESQUICENTENNIAL 1857–1876 1887–1916 1877–1896 Our first president was We built several reservoirs Famous showman Joseph H. Richardson, for a total supply of three P.T. Barnum served and our first reservoir billion gallons of water to meet as our second president was a masonry tank. increasing industrial demand from 1877–1886 Post-Civil War expansion by the mid-20th century as and developed the more than tripled our greater Bridgeport’s population foundation for an water supply. exploded past 70,000. extensive reservoir system.
  4. 4. 3 www.aquarionwater.com Trip to theTap Protecting water The at the source Even small quantities of pollutants may be enough to contaminate a drinking water Aquarion Water Company ensures that the water we supply. Examples of pollutants that may deliver to you is of high quality via a four-step process: wash into surface water or seep into ground water include: • Microbial contaminants from septic Protect systems, agriculture and livestock operations, and wildlife; We vigilantly monitor the water and activity on the surrounding land, continuously watching for potential contamination of our 1 • Inorganic contaminants such as salts and supplies. We take immediate and decisive action whenever those metals that can be naturally occurring sources are threatened. You can help protect our precious water resources by reporting any activity that could contaminate our or result from urban storm water runoff, drinking water supply. Report any unusual activity to Aquarion industrial or domestic wastewater Water Company or your local police department. discharges, or farming; • Pesticides and herbicides from sources Treat such as agriculture, urban storm water 2 Well water is naturally filtered underground. Reservoir water is runoff, and residential uses; filtered at our treatment plants before being delivered to the • Organic chemical contaminants, including distribution system. The water receives additional treatment to further improve its quality. synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes; and • Radioactive contaminants that can 3 be naturally occurring. Distribute Clean water is distributed via a system of pipes that is cleaned You can help periodically to remove naturally occurring sediments, which helps to maintain high quality as water is pumped or fed by • Ensure that your septic system gravity to your tap. is working correctly. • Use chemicals and pesticides wisely. • Dispose of waste chemicals and used motor oil properly. Monitor • Report illegal dumping, chemical spills, In 2006 we tested samples of our water at various locations or other polluting activities to the CT in our service areas. Those results indicate to state and federal 4 health agencies and Aquarion that you are receiving high- DEP’s 24-hour hotline (860-424-3338), quality water. Aquarion Water (203-452-3500), or your local police. 1917–1936 1937–1956 Young engineer Samuel P. Senior A burgeoning BHC provided became CEO in 1927 and tremendous support to its growing accomplished a vast expansion industrialized service area during of the water system. He remained World War II to help build fighter president for 35 years. planes, helicopters, and submarines. Image courtesy of Northwestern University
  5. 5. 2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 4 Your Health, Our Priority Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791. Radon is a radioactive gas that is found naturally underground The Greater Bridgeport System is in compliance with the Lead and Copper Action Levels. For more information, call the EPA’s and can enter ground water and the air in buildings. Water from a Safe Drinking Water Hotline. well source typically contains radon and can also add radon to the air in buildings. Compared to radon entering the home through Disinfection By-Products Disinfection by-products soil, radon entering the home through tap water will, in most cases, (DBPs) are chemicals formed during the disinfection process when be a small source of radon in indoor air. Breathing air containing naturally occurring organic matter reacts with chlorine that is radon can lead to lung cancer. Drinking water containing elevated added to the water to eliminate bacteria and other microorganisms. radon levels may cause an increased risk of stomach cancer. Currently there are limits on two types of DBPs known as Total The radon levels found in the Bridgeport System well water Trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Total Haloacetic Acids (THAA). supplies were 1070 –1740 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). These levels Some people who drink water containing DBPs in excess of these would contribute approximately 0.11– 0.17 pCi/L of radon to the limits over many years may experience problems with the liver, home air, compared to the EPA’s health guideline of 4.0 pCi/L for kidneys, or the central nervous system, and may have an increased home air. Most of the water we deliver is from reservoirs, which risk of getting cancer. Aquarion Water Company’s drinking water contain little or no radon. The EPA is in the process of setting a meets the EPA standards of 80 parts per billion (ppb) for TTHMs health standard for radon in public drinking water, which will likely and 60 ppb for THAAs. be in the range of 300 to 4,000 pCi/L. On January 4, 2006, the EPA passed a new DBP regulation that The EPA and Aquarion Water Company recommend that all changes how compliance with the standards is determined. The homes be tested for radon in the air. For more information about intent of the new rule is to provide increased protection against radon, call the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline or visit the the potential risks associated with DBPs. Aquarion Water Company EPA web site at www.epa.gov/safewater/radon.html. is in the process of evaluating its systems to ensure continued compliance for DBPs. Lead and Copper Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level Cryptosporidium On January 5, 2006, the EPA passed a over a relatively short period of time could experience gastrointestinal new regulation requiring public water systems that use surface distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of water sources to monitor for Cryptosporidium. This is a microbial the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage. pathogen found in surface water throughout the U. S. The purpose People with Wilson’s Disease should consult their personal doctor. Major of the regulation is to protect public health from illness due to sources of copper in drinking water include corrosion of household Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens in drinking plumbing systems, erosion of natural deposits, and leaching from wood water. Ingestion of Cryptosporidium may cause Cryptosporidiosis, preservatives. an abdominal infection. Symptoms of infection include nausea, Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. action level could experience delays in their physical or mental develop- Although filtration removes Cryptosporidium, the most commonly ment. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning used filtration methods cannot guarantee 100% removal. Monitoring abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop results indicate the occasional presence of low levels of these organ- kidney problems or high blood pressure. Major sources of lead in isms in the Easton Lake Reservoir, but our water meets or exceeds drinking water include corrosion of household plumbing systems and state and federal health and treatment standards. In addition, there erosion of natural deposits. are no reported cases of waterborne disease due to Cryptosporidium in Aquarion Water Company’s treated drinking water. 1977–1996 1957–1976 1997–2007 To enhance the quality Passage of the federal During a wave of expansion of our drinking water and Safe Drinking Water throughout New England, we operate more efficiently, Act in 1974 resulted in changed our name to Aquarion we began a $147 million many new water quality Water Company in 2002 and investment to build six regulations over the next became the region’s first water water treatment plants that 30 years. utility to win a statewide was completed in 2007. Quality Improvement Award.
  6. 6. 5 www.aquarionwater.com Immune-compromised persons How Does Some people may be more vulnerable Your Water to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immune- Measure Up? compromised persons such as persons The with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ Results transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly are In at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Footnotes and Definitions Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the > Greater than and run your tap for 30 seconds to 2 Safe Drinking Water Hotline minutes before using your tap water. < Less than (800-426-4791). Additional information is available AL Action Level from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline Industry research CU Color Units (800-426-4791). Aquarion Water Company supports the MCL Maximum Contaminant Level *** Reported value is the highest average American Water Works Association of quarterly measurements for disin- MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Research Foundation (AWWARF). The fection by-products in the distribution MRDL Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level AWWARF, which focuses on finding system. Values in the range are MRDLG Maximum Residual ways to protect individuals from water- individual measurements. Disinfectant Level Goal borne disease and contamination, is the # The monthly TOC removal ratio is central research organization for the N/A Not applicable calculated as the ratio between the U.S. public water supply industry. For actual TOC removal and the TOC rule NL State of Connecticut more information, visit the AWWARF removal requirements. This number customer notification level should be greater than 1.0. web site at www.awwarf.org. NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Units, a ^ Measured at representative locations Aquarion Water Company is also involved measure of the presence of particles. within the distribution system. Low NTUs is an indicator of high- with an ongoing research project at the + quality water. University of Massachusetts that is Reported value is the highest monthly average for turbidity reported from currently focusing on the assessment of ppm Parts per million, the surface water treatment plant or milligrams per liter (mg/L) the occurrence, treatment, and control effluents. Values in the range are of disinfection by-products. ppb Parts per billion, individual measurements. or micrograms per liter (ug/L) Source water assessment report Action Level: The concentration of a contami- SMCL Secondary Maximum nant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or The Connecticut Department of Public Contaminant Level other requirements which a water system Health (DPH) has found that the public TT Treatment Technique must follow. drinking water sources have a low-to- * 90th percentile value in copper MCL: The highest level of a contaminant that moderate susceptibility to potential monitoring. Result is representative is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as sources of contamination. To read the of customer sampling stagnant water. close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best CT DPH report, visit its web site at No locations exceeded the action level available treatment technology. www.dph.state.ct.us/BRS/Water/ for copper. MCLG: The level of a contaminant in drinking source_protection/SWAP/swap.htm. ** 90th percentile value in lead water below which there is no known or monitoring. Result is representative of expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a What is Aquarion doing to customer sampling stagnant water. margin of safety. protect your drinking water? One (1) out of 50 locations exceeded MRDL: The highest level of a disinfectant Aquarion Water Company’s commitment the action level for lead. Infants and allowed in drinking water. There is convincing young children are typically more to providing the highest quality water evidence that addition of a disinfectant is nec- vulnerable to lead in drinking water is evidenced by both our regular essary for control of microbial contaminants. than the general population. It is pos- inspection of homes, businesses, farms, MRDLG: The level of a drinking water disinfec- sible that lead levels in your home and other sites that could pollute tant below which there is no known or expect- may be higher than at other homes water supplies and review of new land ed risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the in the community as a result of mate- development projects for impact on benefits of the use of disinfectants to control rials used in your home’s plumbing. water quality. We use the best water microbial contaminants. If you are concerned about elevated treatment and filtration technology lead levels in your home’s water, you Treatment Technique: A required process and continue our capital equipment may wish to have your water tested intended to reduce the level of a contaminant investment to improve the security in drinking water. and the quality of your water.
  7. 7. 2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 6 Treated Water Table Your water has been tested for over 90 regulated compounds, as well as those non-regulated substances for which we are required to test. Only 15 compounds were detected, all of which were below the amounts allowed by state and federal law. Many of these compounds are naturally occurring. The state allows us to monitor for some contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently. Some of our data, though representative, are more than one year old. Results shown are of detected compounds only. BRIDGEPORT SYSTEM HIGHEST ALLOWED BY LAW DETECTED LEVEL SUBSTANCE MCLG MCL COMPLIANCE TEST DATE AVERAGE RANGE INORGANIC COMPOUNDS BARIUM 2 ppm 2 ppm YES 2006 0.011 0.009 – 0.011 COPPER 1.3 ppm AL = 1.3 ppm YES 2006 0.24* FLUORIDE 4.0 ppm 4.0 ppm YES 2006 1.05 0.71 – 1.21 LEAD 0 AL = 15 ppb YES 2006 3** NITRATE 10 ppm 10 ppm YES 2006 0.305 0.172 – 3.57 MICROBIALS TURBIDITY N/A TT = 1 ntu max YES 2006 0.18+ 0.02 – 0.31 TURBIDITY N/A TT = 95% of YES 2006 100.0% samples < 0.3 ntu DISINFECTANT CHLORINE MRDLG 4 ppm MRDL 4 ppm YES 2006 0.70 0.01 – 1.52 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) N/A TT Removal YES 2006 1.37 1.02 – 1.60 Ratio > 1# TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANES N/A 80 ppb YES 2006 46*** 9 – 80 TOTAL HALOACETIC ACIDS N/A 60 ppb YES 2006 39*** 4 – 67 STATE-REQUIRED TESTING PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS^ COLOR N/A 15 cu YES 2006 1 0–5 pH N/A 6.4 – 10.0 units YES 2006 7.2 6.8 – 9.6 TURBIDITY N/A 5 ntu YES 2006 0.12 0.05 – 1.10 INORGANIC COMPOUNDS CHLORIDE N/A 250 ppm YES 2006 18.2 16.4 – 23.1 SODIUM N/A NL = 28 ppm N/A 2006 12.4 11.5 – 21.0 SULFATE N/A SMCL = 250 ppm N/A 2006 17.5 15.7 – 25.0 SOURCES OF CONTAMINANTS Barium: Erosion of natural deposits. Copper: Corrosion of household plumbing systems. Fluoride: Water additive which promotes strong teeth; Erosion of natural deposits. Lead: Corrosion of household plumbing systems. Nitrate: Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sewage; Erosion of natural deposits. Chlorine: Water additive used to control microbes. Total Organic Carbon: Naturally present in the environment. Total Trihalomethanes: By-product of drinking water chlorination. Total Haloacetic Acids: By-product of drinking water chlorination. Color: Natural organic matter such as decaying leaves; Naturally occurring iron and manganese. pH: Naturally occurring; Water treatment processes. Turbidity: Sediment particles; Naturally occurring iron and manganese; Soil runoff. Chloride: Naturally present in the environment. Sodium: Water treatment processes; Use of road salt; Naturally present in the environment. Sulfate: Naturally present in the environment. E PA S A F E D R I N K I N G WAT E R H O T L I N E 800-426-4791
  8. 8. Do Your Part Use water wisely and prevent waste For more information with these conservation tips: Citizens who wish to comment on water quality may attend a Community Water Indoors: Quality Meeting. If interested, please call • Turn the water off while shaving, brushing teeth, and face washing to us at 203-336-7635. save up to three gallons a minute. • Repair faucet and toilet leaks, as a steady one-eighth-inch diameter Water Quality Management Department: drip can waste more than 20 gallons a day. 800-832-2373 • Take shorter showers and turn the water off while lathering to save 20 percent of water used. Install low-flow showerheads to save at least Connecticut Department of 2.5 gallons a minute. Public Health Water Supplies Section: • Do not overfill the bathtub. Filling a tub to two-thirds of its capacity 860-509-7333 saves nearly 20 gallons of water. • Avoid using the toilet to flush facial tissue or other small pieces of trash U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s and save five-to-seven gallons per flush. Safe Drinking Water Hotline: • Use the washing machine for full loads only and shorten the cycle to 800-426-4791 save up to 33 gallons. • Wash only full loads of dishes in the dishwasher and use the short cycle to save 13 gallons. PWS ID#: CT0150011 • Keep a container of cold water in the refrigerator, instead of allowing it to run to get chilled, and save three-to-five gallons a minute. Outdoors: In a Glass by Itself ® • Water your lawn (and other landscaping) in the early morning to avoid evaporation. • Be sure sprinklers water only your lawn, not the pavement, and do not water on a windy or rainy day. • Do not use the hose to clean debris from your driveway or sidewalk. Use a broom. • Apply mulch around flowers to reduce evaporation, promote plant growth, and control weeds. • Plant drought-tolerant foliage and use rocks, mulch, and creative landscaping instead of planting new flower beds. PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID SPRINGFIELD, MA PERMIT #1378 600 Lindley Street, Bridgeport, CT 06606 This report contains important information about your drinking water. If English is not your primary language, please have it translated or speak with someone who understands it. Este informe tabien esta disponible en espanol. Para una version en espanol, sirvase llamar 203-336-7635.