Think like an isd 2013

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  • Introduce myself.Thank you!
  • Previous knowledge – SurveyHave you ever put together a training session? Taught a class? Made a presentation for a class?Have you ever taught a child to tie a shoe or ride a bike?All of us here have already done many, if not all of the tasks involved in the ISD model already.
  • We’re going to cover the ADDIE model, a tool used by instructional designers. These terms are specific to this field. So while there are a whole bunch of people who use the terms “designer” “instructional developer” etc. here when we say “instructional designer” we mean someone familiar with this framework of design. In certain industries and in consulting, the instructional designer is different than the expert on the training topic, called a subject matter expert.Instructional Design Instructional Systems Development (ISD Model) one name for all phases of the a structured model or the whole processWhy are these called systems? Systems contain integral parts and components — all of which must be fully functioning for optimum performance. If there is a problem or malfunction within one of the components, it could cripple the full system (e.g. a problem with a hard drive or a blockage of a vein). Systematic Instructional Design The focus for a systematic approach in designing instructional material and content is on the student’s success in learning. Conducting an analysis of your student’s readiness to learn the new material, determining entry-level prerequisites, sequencing instruction to continually build on already learned knowledge and abilities, and assessing student’s learning against the instructional objectives are among the strengths of a systematic approach to creating instruction.These are generally modeled aroundCriterion-Referenced Testing.In contrast to norm-referenced tests in which an individual's performance is compared to group performance, a criterion-referenced test is designed to test an individual's behavior in relation to an objective standard. It can be used to assess the learners’ entry level behavior, and to what extent learners have developed mastery through an instructional program.Additionally, instruction is designed to be used over and over again so that careful attention is taken to evaluate results and revise as necessary (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001, p.11).  Why it is effective? Systematic Instructional Design puts the “. . . focus . . . on what learners are to know or to be able to do when the instruction is concluded.”  There is “ . . . careful linkage . . . between the instructional strategy and the desired learning outcomes” in this “ . . . empirical and replicable process (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001, p.11).” Return to TopADDIE ModelThis generic and basic model (below) of the systematic approach to designing instruction has seen many variations developed over the years--but the common elements of ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate) remain.
  • STUDENTS – Add these terms to your handout…Barbara Sells & Zita Glasgow, Making Instructional Design Decisions, Second Edition, 1998, p. 7Analysis – INVESTIGATEthe process of defining what is to be learned. DEFINE PROBLEM/INVESTIGATIONDesign – PLANthe process of specifying how learning will occur. BLUEPRINTDevelopment – CREATEthe process of authoring and producing the materials. Implementation – Student meets instructional solutionthe process of installing the instruction in the real world. Evaluation – ASSESSthe process of determining the impact of the instruction.  Analysis – Investigate What is the problem or goal?Design – Plan What are the objectives? How will learning occur?Development – Create all instructional materials How do the materials look and sound? What do the materials say?Implementation – Student meets instructional solutionEvaluation – Review Did learning occur? What needs to be improved?Also, QT - SIMPLEDefining what is to be learnedPlanning an intervention that will allow learning to occurMeasuring the learning to determine of objectives were metAnd refining the intervention until objectives are metOVERLAP and EVAL ongoingAND defined differently by every designerOUTPUTS/Inputs at every stage, Seels, p. 13n
  • Analysis –the process of defining what is to be learned. (Blueprint stage)Design – the process of specifying how learning will occur. Development – the process of authoring and producing the materials.Implementation – the process of installing the instruction in the real world.Evaluation – the process of determining the impact of the instruction.
  • Needs analysis What is the problem? Is this a problem that can be solved with an instructional solution? How do we solve it?Example of a non-instructional problem. Flash drive training:WHAT IS UP with flash drives? Why do you have to be trained to get the bloody thing in correctly?Better – fix the design!Getting around Atlanta training:MAPS? No, lousy street names
  • What is the need? – Is training the answer? Or is it communication, low wages, lack of proper equipment?....Can a training intervention remedy the problem?Goal = rationale – reason for the training. Start with the sponsoring organization, manager, client. Verify or correct assumptions. Ask questions like: what does success look like to you? When will you be happy with this project? Some of the questions you will need to answer….You need the following to continueSubject matter What’s the need or problemTraining or non-training solution?What’s the organizational goals – Does this match?What resources do I need?What are the obstacles?Create a population profileFocus group, if necessaryTask analysis, if necessaryDo you have all information needed to write objectives and evaluation tasks in the design phase?HODELInstructional problem – must involve deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes. (seels, 195)Includes both instructional method and delivery mode (hodel, 41)
  • We’ll use a scenario here to illustrate the phases of the ISD modelStay with me. Just an example so you can interact with these phases. For today, you are each instructional designers/trainers for a party planning company – Pick: Swanky Soiree, Big Shindig, Pimp my PartyThe CEO, PAT has come to you to create training solve two party problems related to soiree set-up”“Napkin folding review”“Creative party place card tutorial” 
  • Part 1 analysis = Detective WorkPart 1 – AnalysisYou need to first find out: What’s the real, main problem here?Can this problem be solved with an instructional solution? HERE instruction goes beyond face-to-face sessions? ACTIVITY: What are three steps you can take to investigate the situation further? WRITE – SHARE +CLICK THE
  • ISSUE : Manager communicationEducation solution – Train manager Train workers on how better report issues in another existing systemNon-ed FIRE manager Create an anonymous, protected system for feedback to someone who can/will respond.ISSUE : Crap productsEducation solution Learn to use these napkins to fold better; Learn new shapes with these napkinsNon-ed solution Skip this service use other shapes that do work add starch switch napkins! QUICK REVIEW: Analysis phase -  
  • Root causeNeeds analysis – determine performance discrepancies (what is and ought to be) – gaps between status quo and ideal – these needs are reformulated and prioritized as goals or statements of intentTask analysis – What is the topic or job to be learned? Instructional analysis? (Seels & Glasgow, 1998)
  • THEN, if it’s an instructional problem. – i.e.Writing a research paper…Get to know the task or job in an objective, detailed, explicit manner.Audience analysis/Learner audienceWhat aspects of the audience may influence the chosen solution? e.g. literacy reading level, english proficiency, prior knowledgeOther constraintsTOOL: Interviews, surveys and Focus groupsALSO, with pre-tests – I don’t mind if people pass a good test and skip the session (or use the session for their research). OR get extra credit for helping others. Will address some of the disparities.OTHER ::TimeResourcesTime-limits on the validity and currency of content or dataAvailable technologiesTOOL: Discuss parameters with stake holders & research instructional options
  • Task analysisWhat are the detailed elements of the process, content, or job?Define, in behavioral terms, what a competent performer does in response to various conditions of performance (seels, 35) General duties Tasks – defined in observable terms Identify: Subtasks, decisions required to perform a task; info. flow, inputs/outputsInputs: resources, needed conditions Outputs: produced as a resultWhat hurdles will be encountered? What, if any, elements need to be covered in a specific sequence?TOOL: Task Analysis – document review (start here), interview a SME, observation, surveys (if straightforward, simple)
  • World Series PARTY EXAMPLE: Inputs: resources, needed conditions Outputs: produced as a resultLater: critique results – can a student process through the tasks? What’s missing?
  • Contextual analysis – which learner and environmental factors should be considered in proposing a solution? And recommend strategies for doing so (seels, 195) – physical setting, support from management on transfer of learning…. See questions in Seels and Glasgow matrix – p. 217
  • Analysis –the process of defining what is to be learned. (Blueprint stage)Design – the process of specifying how learning will occur. Development – the process of authoring and producing the materials.Implementation – the process of installing the instruction in the real world.Evaluation – the process of determining the impact of the instruction.OVERLAP and EVAL ongoingOUTPUTS/Inputs at every stage, Seels, p. 13n
  • Write objectivesReview objectives with >>>>Subject-Matter ExpertsWrite matching assessmentsOutline and Plan Instructional solutionPLAN PLANPLAN Write objective (course and unit level) Spent time here!MATCHING ASSESSMENTSIf you have tech. – choosing media, storyboarding, etc.Outline and Plan Instructional solution>>> Here you can plan pre-session activities, post-session practices, (if approved by faculty to be for CREDIT)Decision Questions, SeelsWhat are the objectives?How will we know if the learning objectives are met?What instructional strategy will achieve the objectives?What media and methods are most successful?
  • Objectives, CHUCKWriting objectives is the TOP skill; “nucleus of all other aspects of ID”, if parts of project aren’t working, first look at objectives – may be sloppy.4 part objectives forces a designer to transform vague goals into observable behaviors, p 57“Foundation”AudienceThe learnersBehavior (Performance)What should the learner be able to do as a result of this instruction?ConditionAny special conditions required to demonstrate mastery?What will the learners be allowed to use?What won't the learners be allowed to use?Under what conditions must the mastery of skill occur?Degree (or criterion)What performance is good enough?A degree/criterion is the standard by which performance is evaluated. The communication power of an objective increases when you tell the learners HOW WELL the behavior must be done. Focus on answering the question, "What's good enough?"Common degrees include:SpeedAccuracy: Quality
  • Try to pick out theA - AudienceB - BehaviorC - ConditionD – DegreeCircle and write A, B, etcAudienceThe learnersIdentify who it is that will be doing the performance (not the instructor) Behavior (Performance)What the learner will be able to doMake sure it is something that can be seen or heardConditionState the conditions you will impose when learners are demonstrating their mastery of the objective.What will the learners be allowed to use?What won't the learners be allowed to use?Under what conditions must the mastery of skill occur?Degree (or criterion)A degree/criterion is the standard by which performance is evaluated. The communication power of an objective increases when you tell the learners HOW WELL the behavior must be done. Focus on answering the question, "What's good enough?"Common degrees include:SpeedAccuracy: Quality
  • A - AudienceB - BehaviorC - ConditionD – DegreeNote all of the possibilities here. Note that this is measureable. Not understand or know.Note that I’ve got a low bar for what we can accomplish today. My goal is familiarity. Not a higher
  • Create a matching assessment for that objective.
  • Analysis –the process of defining what is to be learned. (Blueprint stage)Design – the process of specifying how learning will occur. Development – the process of authoring and producing the materials.Implementation – the process of installing the instruction in the real world.Evaluation – the process of determining the impact of the instruction.OVERLAP and EVAL ongoingOUTPUTS/Inputs at every stage, Seels, p. 13nTO ME, development is one of the clearest phases.The only TOOL to note here: PILOT TESTING is part of this phase Before production is complete. if f2f – taught by instructor if online or distance – given to users to testAud – I tend to make the first time I teach a class (IMPLEMENT), the pilot test
  • Analysis –the process of defining what is to be learned. (Blueprint stage)Design – the process of specifying how learning will occur. Development – the process of authoring and producing the materials.Implementation – the process of installing the instruction in the real world.Evaluation – the process of determining the impact of the instruction.AGAIN STRAIGHT forwardPLUS – some evaluation parts come out hereAlso includes 1-2 forms of assessment Reaction to the training Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation, Level 1 – Reaction – Instant quality control Smile sheets – likes and dislikesFocus groups or selective interviews where participants answer questions about their opinions of training as soon as they leave1999, 72-89% evaluate at this level, ASTD data, p.104Implementation phase, evaluation, part 2Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation, Level 2 – Learning Imp phase?? (written as level “behavior” in book!) Evaluations at this level are directly tied to objectives, p.105Only 29-32% of organizations measure here, p.105Performance agreement helps to ensure that the objectives will be correctly evaluatedYou should be able graph the objectives and matching assessments along Behavior, Condition and degree, p 106Implementation phase, evaluation, more things to addressEvaluation: from the perspective of the evaluatorof the materials or technologyof the environment (room size, arrangement)Continuity of instruction and conformity of implementation to the plan
  • Analysis –the process of defining what is to be learned. (Blueprint stage)Design – the process of specifying how learning will occur. Development – the process of authoring and producing the materials.Implementation – the process of installing the instruction in the real world.Evaluation – the process of determining the impact of the instruction.OVERLAP and EVAL ongoingOUTPUTS/Inputs at every stage, Seels, p. 13nSeels, p. 9 decision questions, QTHave we solved the problem?What is the impact?What needs to be changed?Evaluation phase, evaluation, part 1Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation, Level 3 – Behavior – or Behavioral Change(After time has passed from implementation) Post-training evaluation seeks to answer “Did the training stick?” 11-12% are evaluated at this level (very few!)Can be done with surveys, observation p.119-120Have a representative sample of participants try to complete the formal evaluation in used in classWhy retention fails? p. 120-121Evaluation phase, evaluation, part 2Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation, Level 4 – Return-on-investment About results“What was accomplished? Did the training contribute to an organization’s bottom line? Were the expected or promised results accomplished?”Less than 3% evaluate here
  • Epsicokhan, J. (2004, February 20). Confessions of a closet trekkie.      Retrieved October 12, 2009, from Jammer's Reviews website:      http://www.jammersreviews.com/articles/confessions.php
  • Think like an isd 2013

    1. 1. Using the ADDIE Model Audrey Cutler Spring 2013
    2. 2.  Solve instruction challenges using a shared approach – the ADDIE model.
    3. 3. Using materials provided during thepresentation, students will be able to: Demonstrate familiarity with the tasks, outcomes and goals of each phase of the ADDIE model by correctly matching 90% of tasks or tools to their corresponding design phase. Recognize elements of behavioral objectives.
    4. 4. Instructional Designers / Subject Matter ExpertsInstructional Design or Instructional Systems Design ADDIE Kanji Takeno, Towson University, Retrieved on Mach 3, 2010 from: http://towson.edu/photographicservices/ image_gallery.asp
    5. 5. Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation (Hodel, 2000; Holland, 2005; Seels & Glasgow, 1998)
    6. 6. Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation (Hodel, 2000; Holland, 2005; Seels & Glasgow, 1998)
    7. 7. Is this a problem that can be solved with an instructional solution?Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 1.0 Generic license. Retrieved March 3, Christian Møller. (2007). Road trip.2010 from http://commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved on March 3, 2010 from: http://chrmc.dk/wp.
    8. 8.  What is the need or problem? Training or non-training solution? What resources do I need? What are the obstacles? Do I have everything I need to write objective and evaluation in the design phase? (Hodel, 2000)
    9. 9. You’re a newinstructional designerLet’s ANALYSE this!
    10. 10. You need to first find out: Is this a problem that can be solved with an instructional solution?How can you get the informationyou need to answer these questions? write + pair + share
    11. 11. What is at least oneNON-educationalsolution to this issue?What is at least oneeducational solutionto this issue?
    12. 12. Difference between performers’ current andneeded: Knowledge Skills Attitudes
    13. 13. Define in observable terms –  General duties  Specific tasks and their descriptions, decide:  What decisions are required to perform this task?  What subtasks are needed?  What information/knowledge is needed to perform this task?  What are the needed inputs/outputs of each task?
    14. 14. 1. List three or four major duties to be carried out to get ready for the party.2. Pick one duty from prior step. Break it down into 3-5 tasks (and subtasks, if appropriate).3. For each task: Identify the specific knowledge needed for the task, decisions required during each task, inputs (needed conditions, resources) & outputs (something produced by the task)For all: Write duties/tasks as observable actions. http://atssportsblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/orioles-baseball.jpg
    15. 15.  Which learner and environmental factors should be considered in proposing a solution? (Seels & Glasgow, 1998)
    16. 16. Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation (Hodel, 2000; Holland, 2005; Seels & Glasgow, 1998)
    17. 17. GoalsAnalysisObjectivesMatchingassessmentsInstructional plan
    18. 18. A – Audience The learnersB – Behavior What should the learner be able to do as a result of this instruction?C – Condition Any special conditions required to demonstrate mastery?D – Degree What performance is good enough?
    19. 19. Using materials provided during thepresentation, ISTC 541 students should beable to: Demonstrate familiarity with thetasks, outcomes and goals of each phase ofthe ADDIE model by correctly matching90% of tasks to its corresponding designphase.
    20. 20. Using materials provided during thepresentation, ISTC 541.101 students shouldbe able to: demonstrate familiarity with thetasks, outcomes and goals of each phase ofthe ADDIE model by correctly matching90% of tasks to its corresponding designphase.
    21. 21.  Material production Pilot testing – Does this solution work as planned?
    22. 22. Student meets instruction Captive audience Asynchronous course Coaching On-the-job training Just-in-time resource Kanji Takeno, Towson University, Retrieved on Mach 3, 2010 from: http://towson.edu/photographicservices/ image_gallery.asp
    23. 23. “Have we solved the problem?”“What is the impact [of the training solution]?“What needs to be changed?” Seels, B., & Glasgow, Z. (1990).
    24. 24. Talk with Subject- Matter Experts Analysis Write Tests The Planning Phase Design Student attend a class Development Define instructional problemImplementation Write Goals Produce a handout. Evaluation The Investigation Phase Perform a Task Analysis Pilot Test the instruction
    25. 25. Hodell, C. (2000). ISD from the ground up. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.Holland, G. P., (2005). Basics of instructional design. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from: http://wwwnew.towson.edu/adminfinance/ots/ciat/isdSeels, B., & Glasgow, Z. (1998). Making instructional design decisions (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

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