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  1. 1. Public Policy Instruments for SCP - A Guideline for Civil Society Organisations Presented by: Satu Lähteenoja UNEP/Wuppertal Institute Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Town - Research and Action for SCP (CSOContribution2SCP)
  2. 2. The contents of the presentation <ul><li>The objectives of the guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>SCP policy processes – a bottom up overview </li></ul><ul><li>Policy instruments for SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Regulatory instruments </li></ul>
  3. 3. The objectives of the guideline booklets <ul><li>To provide a quick, hands-on overview of selected instruments, assessment tools and indicators </li></ul><ul><li>To provide information on the instruments, assessment tools and indicators that are most relevant for CSOs </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest areas where CSOs may be able to contribute to more effective implementation </li></ul><ul><li> Give resources for CSO action for effective implementation </li></ul>
  4. 4. The objective of this presentation <ul><li>Give an overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Of the key action areas in the high-impact demand areas housing, mobility and food and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Of the policy processes on SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Of the policy instruments on SCP </li></ul>Policy instruments are described according to the following structure: <ul><li>Definition, objectives and mode of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities for CSO action to increase their effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>A case study on CSO intervention for effective implementation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key action areas in food, housing and mobility <ul><li>Lowering meat consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing food waste and packaging waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing food miles </li></ul>Food and drink Housing <ul><li>Energy efficiency in existing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour change of building occupants </li></ul>Mobility Food and drink, housing and mobility are the demand areas with highest environmental impacts. Together they cause around 70 percent of the global warming potential and 65 percent of total material use.* Economic growth is the driver behind many of the harmful environmental impacts. Economic drivers <ul><li>Tackling the growth paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Decoupling growth </li></ul>*Source: Namea study 2006 <ul><li>Compact cities </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour change of consumers </li></ul>
  6. 6. A.C.T.I.O.N Areas of civil societies
  7. 7. The outline of the presentation <ul><li>The objectives of the guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>SCP policy processes – a bottom up overview </li></ul><ul><li>Policy instruments for SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Regulatory instruments </li></ul>2. SCP policy processes – A bottom-up overview
  8. 8. 2. SCP policy processes – A bottom-up overview Individual consumer level <ul><li>Food, housing, mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior, norms and standards </li></ul>International level <ul><li>The Marrakech process </li></ul>EU-level <ul><li>EU SCP action plan </li></ul>National level <ul><li>National SCP action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Policy instruments for SCP </li></ul>
  9. 9. The outline of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction – Setting the stage </li></ul><ul><li>SCP policy processes – a bottom up overview </li></ul><ul><li>Public policy instruments for SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Regulatory instruments </li></ul>3. Public policy instruments for SCP
  10. 10. 3. Public policy instruments for SCP <ul><li>Norms and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental liability </li></ul>Regulatory instruments Informational instruments <ul><li>Information campaigns and websites </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality targets </li></ul><ul><li>Information centres </li></ul>Economic instruments <ul><li>Environmental taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental fees and user-charges </li></ul><ul><li>Green public procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus systems </li></ul><ul><li>Emission trading </li></ul>Research & educational instruments <ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for monitoring individual consumption </li></ul>Creative instruments <ul><li>Creating a collective movement </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative technology </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary agreements </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. Public policy instruments for SCP Degree of freedom Potential effectiveness High High Low Low Eco-benchmarking Environmental taxes Green public procurement Environmental fees and use-charges Information campaigns Facilitating monitoring of individual consumption Norms and standards Creating a collective movement
  12. 12. The outline of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction – Setting the stage </li></ul><ul><li>SCP policy processes – a bottom up overview </li></ul><ul><li>Policy instruments for SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms and standards </li></ul></ul>4. Example: Norms and standards
  13. 13. Description and objectives of norms and standards Norms and standards are the most traditional policy instruments: rules and targets set up by public authorities. Compliance is ensured by some kind of punishment. That is why norms and standards are sometimes called “command and control” -instruments. Description Objectives <ul><li>Reducing emissions and waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing resource and energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the application of certain technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Phase out the use of harmful substances </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mode of operation Type Description Emission standards Specifying a maximum level of emission from a certain activity Product standards Specifying which kind of technology has to be used. E.g. forbidding or prescribing a certain technology. Technology standards Specify certain product characteristics. E.g. energy efficiency standards of household equipment. Management and process standards Specify certain procedures that have to be followed. E.g. environmental impact assessment procedure.
  15. 15. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses High effectiveness If norms and standards are enforced, their aim will be achieved with a high certainty. Clarity Norms and standards send a clear message on what is the desired behaviour. They also clearly determine the consequences of non-compliance. Experience available Norms and standards are the most widely used policy instrument, so there exists a lot of experience and information on how to use them effectively. Low innovation incentive Laws and norms don’t give an incentive to improve performance beyond the standard. Information requirements To set up norms and standards, public authorities need to have all the relevant information on the topic. In many cases, this is not possible. Vulnerability to corruption If corruption is widespread, it might be difficult to enforce norms and standards. Strengths Strengths
  16. 16. A.C.T.I.O.N. areas Assess the level of current norms and standards. Should they be more stringent? Campaign for tighter norms and standards. Campaigns might also be needed for the efficient implementation of a norm (See case study). Take part in policy processes when new norms and standards are being designed. Network with other CSOs and stakeholders to be more effective. Picture Picture
  17. 17. Case study: Greenpeace campaigning against e-waste dumping A description of the situation: The EU directive on Waste from Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) has been in force since 2003. However, large amounts of e-waste is still ending up in developing countries. CSO response: Greenpeace international has started campaigning on stopping the export of e-waste in developing countries. Greenpeace tracked down the route of a non-fixable TV from the recycling site in the UK to Nigeria. In addition, GP publishes a Guide to Greener Electronics, that helps consumers to choose the products that are not contributing to the e-waste problem. The results: The action provided concrete evidence on how e-waste ends up in developing countries. The actions by Greenpeace raise awareness of the problem and the Guide to Greener Electronics also urges companies to clean up their act.
  18. 18. What next? Comments, feedback and ideas welcome <ul><li>What kind of information is needed from research to support civil societies’ work? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the ACTION areas enough? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most important policy instruments to be presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find good case studies? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Looking forward for the discussions! For further questions, please contact: Satu Lähteenoja Researcher, CSCP [email_address]