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  1. 1. ENTERTicks areisArachnidsinvolves complete or near-complete lackA mental state that bacterial disease that affects the nervousTetanus a serioussystemof responsiveness to people and other environmentalAllisticks are wingless and have four pairs of legsIt commonly known as “lock jaw”stimuli.It is caused by Clostridium tetani, produce tetanospasminIt can interfere with your ability to breatheTicks are external parasites, meaning that they require ahost for can be treatedTetanus food and/or shelterFatality is highest in individuals who havent been immunizedand in older adults with inadequate immunizationMost active during warm month usually from April toSeptember.
  2. 2. • Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that affects the nervous system• It is commonly known as “lock jaw”• It is caused by Clostridium Tetani, produce “Tetanospasmin”• It can interfere with your ability to breathe• Tetanus can be treated• Fatality is highest in individuals who havent been immunized and in older adults with inadequate immunization
  3. 3. SYMPTOMS• Spasms and stiffness of jaw muscles• Stiffness of neck muscles• Difficulty swallowing• Stiffness of abdominal muscles• Clenched fists• Painful body spasms
  4. 4. RISK FACTORS• Lack of immunization or inadequate immunization• A penetrating injury that results in tetanus spores being introduced to the wound site• A foreign body, such as a nail or splinter• Puncture wounds• Amputations• Burns
  5. 5. COMPLICATIONS• Disability• Death
  6. 6. TREATMENTS• Wound care• Antitoxin- can neutralize only toxin that hasnt yet bonded to nerve tissue• Antibiotics- to fight tetanus bacteria.• Vaccine- prevent future tetanus infection, quickly make the needed antibodies to protect you against tetanus.• Sedatives- control muscle spasms.
  7. 7. LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES• Get medical attention if - the wound is deep and dirty - If youre unsure of your immunization status.• Leave unclean wounds openIf you have a minor wound, these steps will help prevent you from getting tetanus:• Control bleeding• Keep the wound clean• Use an antibiotic- can discourage bacterial growth and infection and may allow the wound to heal more efficiently.• Cover the wound- keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. Blisters that are draining are vulnerable.• Change the dressing- to prevent infection
  8. 8. PREVENTION• The DTaP vaccine consists of a series of five shots, typically given in the arm or thigh to children at ages: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, 4 to 6 yearsThe booster• Tdap- between the ages of 11 and 12• Td booster be given every 10 years thereafter.• If you receive a deep or dirty wound and its been more than five years since your last booster shot, get another booster shot.
  9. 9. TETANUS IMMUNIZATIONProtection against tetanus should be considered withany wound, even a minor one. After any wound, check the students immunization record for tetanus and notify parent or legal guardian. A minor wound would need a tetanus booster only if ithas been at least 10 years since the last tetanus shot or if the student is 5 years old or younger.Other wounds such as those contaminated by dirt, feces and saliva (or other body fluids); puncture wounds;amputations; and wounds resulting from crushing, burns, and frostbite need a tetanus booster if it has been more than 5 years since last tetanus shot.
  10. 10. • Ticks are Arachnids• All ticks are wingless and have four pairs of legs• Ticks are external parasites, meaning that they require a host for food and/or shelter• Most active during warm month usually from April to September.
  11. 11. PREVENTING TICK BITES• Avoid Direct Contact with Ticks• Repel Ticks and wear clothes treated with Permethrin
  12. 12. FIND AND REMOVE TICKS FROM YOUR BODY• Bathe or shower as soon as possible after coming indoors• Conduct a full-body tick check using a hand-held or full-length mirror. Parents should check their children for ticks under the arms, in and around the ears, inside the belly button, behind the knees, between the legs, around the waist, and especially in their hair.• Examine gear and pets• Tumble clothes in a dryer on high heat
  13. 13. TICKS Students should be inspected for ticks after time in woods Refer to your schools policy or brush. Ticks may carry regarding the removal of ticks serious infections and must be completely removed. . Do NOT handle ticks with Wear disposable gloves when exposed bare hands . to blood and other body fluids. Wash the tick area gently with soap and water before attempting removal Using tweezers, grasp the tick as close to the skin surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do NOT twist or jerk the tick as the mouth parts may break off. It is important to remove the ENTIRE tick. Take care not to squeeze, crush or puncture the body of the tick as its fluids may carry infection.After removal, wash the tick area thoroughly with soap and water.Wash your hands.Apply a bandage. Ticks can be safely thrown away by placing them in container of alcohol or flushing them down the toilet. Contact responsible school authority & parent/legal guardian.
  14. 14. REMOVING TICKSFollow-upIf you develop a rash or fever within several weeks of removing a tick, see your doctor.Be sure to tell the doctor about your recent tick bite.Early recognition and treatment of the infection decreases the risk of serious complications.
  15. 15. UNCONSCIOUSNESSa mental state that involves complete or near-complete lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli.
  16. 16. UNCONCIOUSNESS If student stops breathing, Unconsciousness may have many causes including: and no one else is available Heat exhaustion. to call EMS, administer Injuries. Illness. Blood loss/shock. CPR for 2 minutes and Fatigue. Poisoning. then call EMS Severe allergic reaction. Stress. yourself. Not eating. If you know the cause of the unconsciousness see the appropriate guideline. See YES Did student regain consciousness immediately? "Fainting". NO YES Is unconsciousness due to injury? NO See "Neck & Back Pain" and Open airway with head tilt/chin lift. treat as a possible neck injury. Look, listen and feel for breathing. Do NOT move student. YES Is student NO Begin CPR. breathing? See "CPR". CALL EMS 999.Keep student in flat position of comfort.Elevate feet 8-10 inches unless this causes CALL EMSpain or a neck/back or hip injury is suspected. 999.Loosen clothing around neck and waist.Keep body normal temperature. Cover studentwith a blanket or sheet. ContactGive nothing to eat or drink. responsibleIf student vomits, roll onto left side keeping school authorityback and neck in straight alignment if injury is &suspected. parent/legalExamine student from head-to-toe and give guardian.first aid for conditions as needed.