Strikes and Riots
The Communists in Malaya & S’pore <ul><li>Malayan Communist Party (MCP) was formed in 1930.  HQ in S’pore.  Why? </li></ul...
Communist Activities 1945 - 1948 <ul><li>Spread communist ideas to many people in Singapore and Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Methods <ul><li>Stir up the people’s feelings against Br &  promise a better life & freedom from colonial rule. </li></ul>...
Why? <ul><li>British Education System   was biased towards the English-educated </li></ul><ul><li>Job opportunities   with...
How? <ul><li>Wrote articles in the Chinese Press </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged workers to  </li></ul><ul><li>form Trade Uni...
<ul><li>Encouraged workers to organize and go on  STRIKE </li></ul>Methods?
Government's Action <ul><li>Passed laws to prevent the Trade Unions from being controlled by the communists </li></ul><ul>...
GUERILLA? EMERGENCY?
GUERILLA <ul><li>Is a person who is not a member of a regular army but who is engaged in fighting in small secret groups <...
EMERGENCY The danger? The Communist Revolt Declaration of Emergency in mid 1948 gave the Government more powers to deal wi...
TERRORISM <ul><li>Murdered Anti-Communists, Europeans planters and tin-miners </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked police stations a...
ECONOMIC DISRUPTION Destroyed rubber estates and tin mines   Disrupted Communications
Government Measures <ul><li>Banned the MCP </li></ul><ul><li>National Registration System </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested Commu...
Government Measures <ul><li>Trained and sent Malay Special Constables for guard duty in estates, mines and remote areas </...
7 Platoon C Coy 60-61 Australians in Malayan jungle Chin Peng, leader of MCP
<ul><li>By middle of the 1950s, the Emergency laws were relaxed as the communists were beaten in the jungles </li></ul><ul...
One additional reason for the unhappiness with the British Government was... <ul><li>Chinese educated students were not el...
<ul><li>The students were involved in the following activities: </li></ul><ul><li>1954: Anti-National Service Riot </li></...
Anti-National Service Riot <ul><li>The date: May 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>The issue: The British required all 18-20 year old...
Hock Lee Bus Riots <ul><li>275  strikes in 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>workers at HLBC demanded better wages and conditions. </...
Police officers trying to maintain order Students supporting the workers Workers on strike
SCMSSU 1956 Riots <ul><li>The MCP recruited outstanding student leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Est. Singapore Chinese Middle S...
Parents giving supplies and moral support to students staging a stay-in demo at Chung Cheng High School   Riot police clea...
cont. <ul><li>25 Oct Lim Chin Siong, communist leader, led workers down to CHS to support the students. </li></ul><ul><li>...
cont. <ul><li>This sparked three days of rioting (stone and bottle throwing, car burning) </li></ul><ul><li>A curfew was i...
Effects of the Riots <ul><li>The govt. had taken firmer action against the communists even at the risk of being seen to be...
The Maria Hertogh Riots
<ul><li>Maria Bertha Hertogh </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Java in 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch (RC) Parents </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Maria’s Mother wanted to claim her back </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Consul-General placed her under the care of the So...
And then.. <ul><li>Malay and English papers carried the news of her being in the convent </li></ul><ul><li>The Malays felt...
<ul><li>Day 1: 11 Dec Europeans were attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles were burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Curfew was im...
riots Muslims showing anger against verdict Maria’s marriage with a teacher
Lessons <ul><li>We are vulnerable to outside ideas and influences </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes and Riots cause disorder, dail...
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Sec2 Hist Chp8

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Sec2 Hist Chp8

  1. 1. Strikes and Riots
  2. 2. The Communists in Malaya & S’pore <ul><li>Malayan Communist Party (MCP) was formed in 1930. HQ in S’pore. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>It earned the respect of the people of S’pore during WW2. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Upon the return of the Br, MCP was allowed to operate as a legal party but all arms had to be surrendered. Were they? </li></ul><ul><li>MCP wanted to drive the Br out of S’pore and replace it with a communist govt. run from China. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communist Activities 1945 - 1948 <ul><li>Spread communist ideas to many people in Singapore and Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>They did through the: </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Student leaders in Chinese Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the members of the MCP were teachers and students </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methods <ul><li>Stir up the people’s feelings against Br & promise a better life & freedom from colonial rule. </li></ul><ul><li>By using trade unions, Chinese newspapers, & student leaders in Chinese schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Why schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Many MCP members were teachers & students in Chinese language schools. </li></ul><ul><li>They felt discriminated against by the Colonial govt. cf English-educated. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why? <ul><li>British Education System was biased towards the English-educated </li></ul><ul><li>Job opportunities with the British also were also biased towards those who were English-educated </li></ul><ul><li>British had not done enough to provide them with a decent livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>The workers had low pay and working conditions were poor </li></ul>
  6. 6. How? <ul><li>Wrote articles in the Chinese Press </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged workers to </li></ul><ul><li>form Trade Unions </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Encouraged workers to organize and go on STRIKE </li></ul>Methods?
  8. 8. Government's Action <ul><li>Passed laws to prevent the Trade Unions from being controlled by the communists </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions have to be registered with the Government </li></ul><ul><li>People soon became tired of the strikes </li></ul><ul><li>They were not paid </li></ul><ul><li>There were so much control by the government </li></ul>
  9. 9. GUERILLA? EMERGENCY?
  10. 10. GUERILLA <ul><li>Is a person who is not a member of a regular army but who is engaged in fighting in small secret groups </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on enemies are unexpected and carried out in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Sabotage is often used </li></ul><ul><li>Success depends on help and support from masses </li></ul>EMERGENCY A sudden serious event or situation requiring immediate action
  11. 11. EMERGENCY The danger? The Communist Revolt Declaration of Emergency in mid 1948 gave the Government more powers to deal with the Communists
  12. 12. TERRORISM <ul><li>Murdered Anti-Communists, Europeans planters and tin-miners </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked police stations and burnt houses </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorized squatters into giving food and supplies </li></ul>
  13. 13. ECONOMIC DISRUPTION Destroyed rubber estates and tin mines Disrupted Communications
  14. 14. Government Measures <ul><li>Banned the MCP </li></ul><ul><li>National Registration System </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested Communist sympathizers and suspects </li></ul>MCP BANNED!
  15. 15. Government Measures <ul><li>Trained and sent Malay Special Constables for guard duty in estates, mines and remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganized and expanded police force </li></ul><ul><li>Deployed troops to strike at guerillas and bombed their hideouts </li></ul><ul><li>Established radio contact with remote areas </li></ul>
  16. 16. 7 Platoon C Coy 60-61 Australians in Malayan jungle Chin Peng, leader of MCP
  17. 17. <ul><li>By middle of the 1950s, the Emergency laws were relaxed as the communists were beaten in the jungles </li></ul><ul><li>Once again, the Communists were able to penetrate the Trade Unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Lim Chin Siong concentrated on winning the support of students in the Chinese Schools </li></ul><ul><li>He encouraged them to create problems for the British Government </li></ul><ul><li>Nb the Chinese schools did not come under Br Govt. control. </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum was mostly about communist China, and both teachers and students were proud of, and loyal to, China not Singapore. </li></ul>
  18. 18. One additional reason for the unhappiness with the British Government was... <ul><li>Chinese educated students were not eligible to enter the University of Singapore or Teachers’ Training College. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who had gone to Communist China for higher studies could not return to Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>The British feared that these students could spread Communist ideas to the people in Singapore </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The students were involved in the following activities: </li></ul><ul><li>1954: Anti-National Service Riot </li></ul><ul><li>1955: Hock Lee Bus Riots - demanding for better pay </li></ul><ul><li>1956: S’pore Chinese Middle School Students’ Union Riots - a battle of wills between students and the govt. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Anti-National Service Riot <ul><li>The date: May 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>The issue: The British required all 18-20 year olds to do part time National Service </li></ul><ul><li>The protesters: many students in Chinese medium schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Why rebel? </li></ul><ul><li>- many of the students were 20 or above and did not want their education disrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>- many were not willing to fight for a foreign government </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hock Lee Bus Riots <ul><li>275 strikes in 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>workers at HLBC demanded better wages and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>12 May: mobs of up to 1000 attacked the police </li></ul><ul><li>4 dead 31 injured , 2 days no buses ran </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Student leaders were arrested . Govt threatened to close all Chinese schools. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 students camped out at Chung Cheng High School. </li></ul><ul><li>The govt. gave in to the students!! </li></ul>
  22. 22. Police officers trying to maintain order Students supporting the workers Workers on strike
  23. 23. SCMSSU 1956 Riots <ul><li>The MCP recruited outstanding student leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Est. Singapore Chinese Middle School Students’ Union (SCMSSU) </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 56 police arrested 4 student leaders from CHS and CCHS </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. expelled 142 students for communist activities! </li></ul><ul><li>The 4000 students occupied the two schools!! </li></ul><ul><li>On 24 Oct the govt. ordered the students to leave by 8pm the next day Oct 25th. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Parents giving supplies and moral support to students staging a stay-in demo at Chung Cheng High School Riot police clear the barricades set up by the students.
  25. 25. cont. <ul><li>25 Oct Lim Chin Siong, communist leader, led workers down to CHS to support the students. </li></ul><ul><li>The crowd began to overturn and burn cars so the police imposed a curfew from midnight. </li></ul><ul><li>At 6 am on 26 Oct the police stormed into the school and used tear gas to clear all the students out. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole process took 20 minutes . </li></ul>
  26. 26. cont. <ul><li>This sparked three days of rioting (stone and bottle throwing, car burning) </li></ul><ul><li>A curfew was imposed and the army was called in. </li></ul><ul><li>The police and the army used road blocks to ensure that crowds could never get bigger than about 200. </li></ul><ul><li>Police arrested the union leaders and the riots died out. </li></ul><ul><li>The death toll was 13 with 100+ injured. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Effects of the Riots <ul><li>The govt. had taken firmer action against the communists even at the risk of being seen to be biased towards Chinese education and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the Emergency came to an end in 1960, the communists were still a political threat into the 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>The damage done to life, vehicles and property badly affected Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic slowdown. Why do you think so? </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Maria Hertogh Riots
  29. 29. <ul><li>Maria Bertha Hertogh </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Java in 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch (RC) Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Parents were imprisoned during the Japanese Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Looked after by an Indonesian couple and brought up as a Muslim - Nadra </li></ul><ul><li>Mother was released after the war </li></ul><ul><li>Looked for her in Java but heard that she was brought to Trengganu </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Maria’s Mother wanted to claim her back </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Consul-General placed her under the care of the Social Welfare Dept in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Maria’s case was brought to the court in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>While the case was being fought, she was kept in a convent </li></ul>
  31. 31. And then.. <ul><li>Malay and English papers carried the news of her being in the convent </li></ul><ul><li>The Malays felt that their Muslim laws were not being respected </li></ul><ul><li>When verdict was announced in favour of her natural mother, the Malays in Padang rioted. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Day 1: 11 Dec Europeans were attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles were burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Curfew was imposed </li></ul><ul><li>Military police were also brought in </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3: situation was under control. </li></ul><ul><li>Death toll: 18 dead, 173 injured. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation claims totalled $20,848 </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. had to spend more $ repairing damage to public facilities. died and 173 injured </li></ul>
  33. 33. riots Muslims showing anger against verdict Maria’s marriage with a teacher
  34. 34. Lessons <ul><li>We are vulnerable to outside ideas and influences </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes and Riots cause disorder, daily lives are upset, business is disrupted and the economy suffers </li></ul><ul><li>Racial tensions are created when we do not understand each other’s culture and customs </li></ul>

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