Opinió de l’EGE sobre els Aspects Ètics
   de la Clonació d’Animals per a l’Alimentació




Pere Puigdomènech
Centre de Re...
Què és l’EGE?
European Group on Ethics in Science
                    and New Technologies (EGE)

• The EGE is an independent, pluralist...
European Group on Ethics in Science
   and New Technologies (EGE)




    Göran Hermerén, Linda Nielsen, Rafael Capurro, I...
•   Following President Barroso's requests, in
    2006-2007 the EGE has issued Opinions on
    (1) ethics and nanomedicin...
EGE Opinion on Ethical Aspects
of Animal Cloning for food supply
Mandat

• The EGE has already issued an Opinion
  on ethics of animal cloning in 1997, but
  due to the state of the art o...
Preparació


•   10 months of internal working meetings,
    expert hearings, a public consultation
    launched in the Eu...
Gener 2008
Bases científiques
El procediment de clonació
Els animals
són
o no són
idèntics?
Perspectives
Impacte en el mitjans de
     comunicació
Un article a The Guardian
Descendants of Dolly

Scientists will have to work hard to persuade a cynical public to tuck in ...
Interès industrial
Clonació de toros braus
Informe de la FDA
Informe de la FDA
Informe de la FDA
Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
Recomenacions (EFSA)
Aspectes legals
Base legal
Problemes ètics
Focus de l’opinió
Arguments a favor
• The arguments in favour are mainly economical:
  To keep up European competition on the free
  market,...
Arguments en contra
• concerns based on human health and safety,
  animal health and welfare, animal integrity,
  biodiver...
Arguments sobre la clonació
d’animals per alimentació
•   The Group is aware that there are differing
    viewpoints on th...
Seguretat alimentària
Salut i benestar animal
Biodiversitat i sustanibilitat
Conclusions
• In line with EFSA findings, and considering the
  current level of suffering and health problems of
  surrog...
Food safety
•   To guarantee safety of food products for human
    consumption as a pre-condition for their
    marketing....
Traceability and Labelling
•   1) To apply the current EU legislation to food
    regarding traceability of food products....
Biodiversity
•   1) To protect, as much as possible, biodiversity
    in farm animals stocks also to avoid risks of
    gl...
Global Trade
•   1) to make the import of materials from
    cloned animals and their offspring (e.g.
    semen and food p...
Additional research
•   To concentrate research efforts to solve the lack
    of knowledge on (1) scientific aspects indic...
Resum
• El Grup no ha trobat arguments essencials per
  proposar una prohibició o una moratòria a l’ús
  d’animals clonats...
Tot va començar amb Dolly!




      Moltes gràcies
Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual
Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual
Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual
Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual
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Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual

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Aspectes ètics del clonatge d'animals de producció. Una visió general de les expectatives d'aplicació en el mercat actual

  1. 1. Opinió de l’EGE sobre els Aspects Ètics de la Clonació d’Animals per a l’Alimentació Pere Puigdomènech Centre de Recerca en Agrigenòmica CSIC-IRTA-UAB. Barcelona Membre del Grup Europeu d’Ètica de les Ciènces i les Noves Tecnologies
  2. 2. Què és l’EGE?
  3. 3. European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) • The EGE is an independent, pluralist and multidisciplinary body which advises the European Commission on ethical aspects of science and new technologies in connection with the preparation and implementation of Community legislation or policies http://europa.eu.int/comm/european_group_ethics/index_en.htm
  4. 4. European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) Göran Hermerén, Linda Nielsen, Rafael Capurro, Inez de Beaufort, Pere Puigdomenèch Rosell and Günter Virt, (from the former EGE) new members: Emmanuel Agius, Diana Bánáti, Anne Cambon-Thomsen Jozef Glaza, Hille Haker, Julian Kinderlerer, Krzysztof Marczewski Paula Martinho da Silva, Francesco Busnelli
  5. 5. • Following President Barroso's requests, in 2006-2007 the EGE has issued Opinions on (1) ethics and nanomedicine, (2) Ethics review of FP7 human embryonic stem cells projects (3) ethical apects of animal cloning for food supply
  6. 6. EGE Opinion on Ethical Aspects of Animal Cloning for food supply
  7. 7. Mandat • The EGE has already issued an Opinion on ethics of animal cloning in 1997, but due to the state of the art of the technology at that moment, it did not address the ethics of animal cloning specifically for food supply. The EGE Opinion complements and updates the previous one and is intended to complement that of EFSA.
  8. 8. Preparació • 10 months of internal working meetings, expert hearings, a public consultation launched in the Europa web site (800 contributions received) and a round table with representatives from academia, industry, NGOs, civil society, International organisations and industry on January 16, 2008, the EGE has adopted the Opinion on ethical aspects of animal cloning for food supply.
  9. 9. Gener 2008
  10. 10. Bases científiques
  11. 11. El procediment de clonació
  12. 12. Els animals són o no són idèntics?
  13. 13. Perspectives
  14. 14. Impacte en el mitjans de comunicació
  15. 15. Un article a The Guardian Descendants of Dolly Scientists will have to work hard to persuade a cynical public to tuck in to the idea of cloned meat James Randerson Monday July 16, 2007 The Guardian How would you feel about tucking into a burger from a cloned cow or serving rashers of cloned bacon to your kids? Since Dolly the sheep was revealed in 1997, cloning has been a distant science for most people. But that will soon change. Scientists predicted last week that cloned meat could be on American dinner plates within two years. And Europe may not be far behind. Mail from a reader: eh, I don't know, it's one thing to put unnatural things like chemicals on, and in, meat. It's another thing to have the meat itself be unnatural. And by unnatural I mean there's no way that animal would have occurred in the natural world. Kinda seems icky, gives me the creeps. I won't buy any.
  16. 16. Interès industrial
  17. 17. Clonació de toros braus
  18. 18. Informe de la FDA
  19. 19. Informe de la FDA
  20. 20. Informe de la FDA
  21. 21. Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
  22. 22. Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
  23. 23. Esborrany d’opinió EFSA
  24. 24. Recomenacions (EFSA)
  25. 25. Aspectes legals
  26. 26. Base legal
  27. 27. Problemes ètics
  28. 28. Focus de l’opinió
  29. 29. Arguments a favor • The arguments in favour are mainly economical: To keep up European competition on the free market, to facilitate industrial development to improve food production and quality or to minimise costs (cheaper food production) • Cloning may be an useful tool to accelerate breeding of animals of specific lineage, such as cattle resistant to diseases or adverse conditions • However the technique can also be used for the conservation of rare animal breeds and it has been tried to protect species in danger of extinction
  30. 30. Arguments en contra • concerns based on human health and safety, animal health and welfare, animal integrity, biodiversity, risk of epidemics, social and economic consequences on rural areas, agricultural trade; negative effects on the attitude towards animals; ‘slippery slope’ (cloning of human beings).
  31. 31. Arguments sobre la clonació d’animals per alimentació • The Group is aware that there are differing viewpoints on the moral acceptability of using animals in modern farming and is aware that there are some very strongly held views against the instrumental use of animals for human purposes regardless of positive consequences this might have for humans. The Group therefore recognises that, for some people, animal cloning for food supply is an ethically unacceptable practice, whatever conditions are required.
  32. 32. Seguretat alimentària
  33. 33. Salut i benestar animal
  34. 34. Biodiversitat i sustanibilitat
  35. 35. Conclusions • In line with EFSA findings, and considering the current level of suffering and health problems of surrogate dams and animal clones, the EGE has doubts as to whether cloning animals for food supply is ethically justified. Whether this applies also to progeny is open to further scientific research. • At present the EGE does not see convincing arguments to justify the production of food from clones and their offspring. If in the future food products derives from cloned animals were to be introduced to the European market, The EGE recommends that a number of requirements are met
  36. 36. Food safety • To guarantee safety of food products for human consumption as a pre-condition for their marketing. Animal welfare and health • 1) To respect as much as possible animal welfare; 2) to carry out studies on long term animal welfare and health implications, including comparative analyses with other animal farming assisted and traditional reproductive technologies; 3) the Commission to prepare a Code of Conduct for responsible farm animal breeding, including animal cloning.
  37. 37. Traceability and Labelling • 1) To apply the current EU legislation to food regarding traceability of food products. It should be ensured that EU legislation provides for the ability to identify individual animals where necessary; 2) Te EGE is aware of technical difficulties for labelling, nevertheless recommends the Commission to work out target procedures prior to the marketing of such food in the EU.
  38. 38. Biodiversity • 1) To protect, as much as possible, biodiversity in farm animals stocks also to avoid risks of global epidemics; 2) the Commission to take proper measures to preserve the genetic heritage of animals' species. Public perception • To launch a thematic EUROBAROMETER survey on animal cloning for food supply. • Public participation: The Commission should take a pro-active role by financing a number of as hoc initiatives aimed at promoting public debate.
  39. 39. Global Trade • 1) to make the import of materials from cloned animals and their offspring (e.g. semen and food products) conditional to the requests indicated in this EGE Opinion (e.g. traceability provisions). 2) To launch an international discussion on considerations of free trade and ethical concerns regarding the cloning of animals;
  40. 40. Additional research • To concentrate research efforts to solve the lack of knowledge on (1) scientific aspects indicated in the EFSA report; (2) animal welfare and health for other farmed species than the ones covered by EFSA and FDA; (3) ethical, legal and Social Implications of animal cloning for food; (4) qualitative studies on public perception; (5) exclusion clauses stated in EC/98/44 (Art. 6) and EPO 23d with regard to animal cloning for food; (7) research on food philosophy
  41. 41. Resum • El Grup no ha trobat arguments essencials per proposar una prohibició o una moratòria a l’ús d’animals clonats per l’alimentació • El Grup té dubtes de si el seu ús està justificat a la vista dels pocs avantatges i dels problemes de salut i benestar animal, de biodiversitat i de percepció pública • El Grup proposa que se segueixi la salut dels animals i la seva descendència, que es considerin maneres d’informar el públic i els consumidors i que el plantegi la qüestió a nivell internacional
  42. 42. Tot va començar amb Dolly! Moltes gràcies

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