Bipolar Disorder[1]


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Bipolar Disorder[1]

  1. 1. Bipolar Disorder Ana Paola Paredes Paola Zambrano I'm not worried about what's going to happen when I'm thirty, because I am never going to make it to thirty. You know what life is like after thirty - I don't want that. - KURT COBAIN (1967-1994)
  2. 2. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood clinically referred to as mania or, if milder, hypomania. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. What Is The Bipolar Disease?
  3. 3. Who Has The Bipolar Disease? <ul><li>Has been estimated to affect more than 5 million Americans about 3 out of every 100 adults . </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1 percent for Bipolar I, 0.5 to 1 percent for Bipolar II or cyclothymia, and between 2 and 5 percent for subthreshold cases meeting some but not all criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 5.7 million of americans adults, and about 2.6% of the population,age 18 and older. </li></ul><ul><li>American academy of Infantile and Teen Psychiatry, up to a third of 3,4 million children and teenagers with depression on the United States they might be experimenting, in fact, a two-pole incipient disease. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types <ul><li>Bipolar I </li></ul><ul><li>A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life. </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar II </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar II is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time. However, in bipolar II disorder, the &quot;up&quot; moods never reach full-on mania. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>In rapid cycling, a person with bipolar disorder experiences four or more episodes of mania or depression in one year. About 10% to 20% of people with bipolar disorder have rapid cycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Bipolar </li></ul><ul><li>In most forms of bipolar disorder, moods alternate between elevated and depressed over time. But with mixed bipolar disorder, a person experiences both mania and depression simultaneously or in rapid sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclothymia </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclothymia (cyclothymic disorder) is a relatively mild mood disorder. People with cyclothymiacs disorder have milder symptoms than in full-blown bipolar disorder. </li></ul>There are several types of bipolar disorder; all involve episodes of depression and mania to a degree. They include bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymiacs disorder, mixed bipolar, and rapid-cycling bipolar disorder.
  5. 5. Causes <ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood precursors </li></ul><ul><li>Life events and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Neural processes </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin activity </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological processes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms The primary symptoms of bipolar disorder are dramatic and unpredictable mood swings. It may include excessive happiness, excitement, irritability, restlessness, increased energy, less need for sleep, racing thoughts, high sex drive, and a tendency to make grand and unattainable plans. Also sadness, anxiety, irritability, loss of energy, uncontrollable crying, change in appetite causing weight loss or gain, increased need for sleep, difficulty making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide.
  7. 7. Complications & Warning Signs <ul><li>Self-injury, often referred to as cutting, self-mutilation, or self-harm, is an injurious attempt to cope with overpowering negative emotions, such as extreme anger, anxiety, and frustration. It is usually repetitive, not a one-time act. </li></ul><ul><li>When a person's illness follows the classic pattern, diagnosing bipolar disorder is relatively easy. But bipolar disorder can be sneaky. Symptoms can defy the expected manic-depressive sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide is a very real risk for people with bipolar disorder, whether they're in a manic or depressive episode -- 10%-15% of people with bipolar disorder kill themselves. But treatment greatly lowers the risk. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pharmaceutical Treatment & Psychosocial Treatment <ul><li>The mainstay of treatment is a mood stabilizer medication such as lithium carbonate or lamotrigine. There is an evidence based review which shows these two drugs are the most effective. Lamotrigine has been found to be best for preventing depressions. ; these two drugs comprise several unrelated compounds which have been shown to be effective in preventing relapses of manic, or in the one case, depressive episodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy is aimed at alleviating core symptoms, recognizing episode triggers, reducing negative expressed emotion in relationships, recognizing prodromal symptoms before full-blown recurrence, and, practicing the factors that lead to maintenance of remission Cognitive behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psycho education have the most evidence for efficacy in regard to relapse prevention, while interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy appear the most effective in regard to residual depressive symptoms. Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge. Some clinicians emphasize the need to talk with individuals experiencing mania, to develop a therapeutic alliance in support of recovery. </li></ul>
  9. 11. What We Learn about Bipolar Disease? <ul><li>The bipolar disease it’s not as fun as we think, is dangerous because sometimes we don’t know if we will ever have that disease… if its like that we could hurt our selves in the future because in this disease there are no limitations. We have to be careful and don't play with this disease. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Videos