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Two Hot Topics in Online Language Learning: Corpus Linguistics and Telecollaboration

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Two Hot Topics in Online Language Learning: Corpus Linguistics and Telecollaboration

  1. 1. OLLReN Webinar 2 Hot Topics in OLL Research: Corpus Linguistics & Telecollaboration Presented by Anthony Schmidt Thursday, March 8 10:00AM ET
  2. 2. Self-Introduction TOOLS Corpus tools (VocabKitchen, JTW) , Kahoot, Quizlet, Newsela, Canvas, Movie Maker, EdPuzzle EDUCATION MSEd in Language Education and TESOL – Indiana University EXPERIENCE • 6 years in South Korea – middle school, university • < 1 year in Japan – middle school • 4 years in USA – university intensive English program TEACHING INTERESTS • Academic reading and writing • Language learning technology • International student success BLOGS www.anthonyteacher.com, www.ELTResearchBites.com
  3. 3. Outline • Brief Overview of OLLReN Research Report • Corpus Linguistics • Corpus tool demonstration • Summary of practice-oriented articles • Summary of a teacher training-oriented article • Takeaway • Telecollaboration • What is it? • Summary of research • Takeaway • Conclusion and Final Thoughts • Q&A
  4. 4. OLLReN Research Report • 108 articles from relevant journals • ELT Journal; TESOL Journal; System; ReCALL; CALICO; Language, Learning & Technology; Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching • 2017-2017 trends included: • Corpus linguistics (DDL: data-driven learning) • Telecollaboration • Writing • Blogging – improved traditional writing • Multimodal composing – improved revision • Mobile Apps • Substitutions – SMS, Twitter • Modification – online recording and feedback • Redefinition – FB groups and intercultural communication
  5. 5. Corpus Linguistics Corpus Tools Learner Error “make a research” BYU-BNC MICASE AntConc BNCWeb Google MICUSP just-the-word StringNet TED Corpus
  6. 6. Lee, H., Warschauer, M., & Lee, J. H. (2017). The Effects of Concordance-Based Electronic Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Learning. Language Learning & Technology, 21(2), 32-51. • Participants: 138 B1-B2 Korean undergrads • Corpus Tool: BNC to make e-glosses • Conditions: Electronic reading with no gloss, concordance line glosses (3), or concordance and dictionary glosses. • Results: control < concordance lines < concordance and dictionary • Finding: “the combination of definition and example sentences resulted in the highest comprehension gains” Corpus Linguistics Classroom Research
  7. 7. Li, S. (2017). Using corpora to develop learners’ collocational competence. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 153– 171. • Participants: linguistics class in China • Corpus: BYU-BNC, BYU-COCA • Focus: Verb-preposition collocations • Groups: 15-week corpus (exp.) or rule- based (control) • Measure: Pre-, post-, and delayed essay writing • Findings: both groups increased in the use, decrease in misuse, • experimental > control Corpus Linguistics Classroom Research
  8. 8. Bardovi-Harlig, K., Mossman, S., & Su, Y. (2017). The effect of corpus-based instruction on pragmatic routines. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 76– 103. Participants: Chinese linguistics class • Participants: ESL at US university • Corpus: MICASE • Focus: oral agreement, disagreement, self- correction • Groups: control, corpus materials (CM), corpus search (CS) • Measure: speaking tasks Corpus Linguistics Classroom Research Corpus Materials Example Corpus Search Example
  9. 9. Bardovi-Harlig, K., Mossman, S., & Su, Y. (2017). The effect of corpus-based instruction on pragmatic routines. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 76– 103. Participants: Chinese linguistics class • Findings: • CM/CS had more speech acts than control • CM > CS on speech act scores • Some differences in type of speech act • CM format considered superior because they were more focused and had less “noise” Corpus Linguistics Classroom Research Corpus Materials Example Corpus Search Example
  10. 10. Hadley, G., & Charles, M. (2017). Enhancing extensive reading with data-driven learning. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 131–152 • Participants: international students at a Japanese university • Corpus: Oxford Bookworms • Procedure: expansion activities, 30-45 mins of silent reading, vocabulary log, MReader • Expansion: discussion activities (control) or discussion and DDL activities (experimental) • Findings: DDL students were less enthusiastic, less involved in vocabulary logs, control students did better on cloze test and Vocabulary Levels Test Corpus Linguistics Classroom Research
  11. 11. What challenges do students face? • Lack of context • Lack of proficiency • Lack of technical skills • Lack of research skills • Lack of motivation What challenges do teachers face? • Awareness • Technical skills • Linguistic skills • Pedagogical skills • Training Corpus Linguistics Corpus Issues “Corpora remain underused in much teacher education but are arguably an untapped resource with true pedagogical potential.” (Naismith, 2017)
  12. 12. Naismith, B. (2016). Integrating corpus tools on intensive CELTA courses. ELT Journal, 71(3), 273-283. • Rationale: Students and teacher trainees both need to improve lexical knowledge, need to learn to use a powerful pedagogical tool • Corpus: multiple; JTW, Google Ngram Viewer • Method: 75-minute training session – observed throughout the program, questionnaire • Findings: • High interest in benefits and understanding language usage • Low usage - 17% increase in usage, (maybe due to lack of assessment during course) • Corpus use used to plan lessons rather than during lessons as materials • JTW and Ngram Viewer most common Corpus Linguistics Teacher Training
  13. 13. Corpus Linguistics Teacher Training Naismith, B. (2016). Integrating corpus tools on intensive CELTA courses. ELT Journal, 71(3), 273-283. • Recommendations: • Introduce corpus use in a computer lab • Amend CELTA syllabus to promote corpus usage: • include frequency as a key feature of lexis • Look at vocabulary and grammar together (lexicogrammar) rather than separately • include “appropriacy” as a measure of context
  14. 14. Leńko-Szymańska, A. (2017). Training teachers in data-driven learning: Tackling the challenge. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 217–241. • Rationale: need to train teachers to obtain technical, linguistic, and pedagogical skills related to corpus use. • Course: “Corpora in Foreign Language Teaching, University of Warsaw” (6x, 98 students) spent a semester addressing those skills • Procedure: analyzed student-made corpora and lesson plans • Findings • Technical – basic level skills but shied away from advanced searches • Linguistic – stuck to vocabulary and collocations • Pedagogy – used to inform materials, but not as classroom activities • Recommendation: expose to corpora as learners and teachers throughout their courses Corpus Linguistics Teacher Training
  15. 15. Corpus Linguistics Takeaways “DDL is not an ‘all-or-nothing’ process” (Boulton, 2010, p. 28) 1.Gradients of usage – from materials support to learner investigations, web-based tools to corpus creation 2.DDL can be effective given motivated students who have both the need and proficiency 3.DDL can be effective given motivated and well-trained teachers 4.Clear need for teacher training: technical, linguistic, and pedagogical
  16. 16. OLLReN Webinar Telecollaboration The engagement of groups of students in online intercultural interaction and collaboration with partner classes from other cultural contexts or geographical locations. (O’Dowd, 2015) • Language learning • Teacher training • Intercultural communication • Synchronous videoconferencing • Asynchronous discussion
  17. 17. Guo, S., & Möllering, M. (2016). The implementation of task-based teaching in an online Chinese class through web conferencing. System, 62, 26-38. • Method: Blackboard Collaborate webconferencing software • Participants: Students in a Chinese FL classroom • Task Sequence • Pre-task: warm-up activities, use of interactive whiteboard to rehearse parts of the task they would later use in breakout rooms • Task: family tree info-gap (session 1), doctor roleplay/jigsaw (session 2) • Post-task: in main room, presented their work Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & TBLT
  18. 18. Guo, S., & Möllering, M. (2016). The implementation of task-based teaching in an online Chinese class through web conferencing. System, 62, 26-38. • Findings: • Teacher-talk time was high • Lack of use of webcam by students • Text chat used for teacher feedback, technical problems – seen as the teacher’s area • After familiarity, a mix of audio, text, emoticons • Strategic use: main room – webcam; breakout rooms – audio, whiteboard to focus on task • Teacher’s presence changed use of modalities • Facilitates interaction when language breakdown takes place in conversation Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & TBLT
  19. 19. Akiyama, Y. (2017). Learner beliefs and corrective feedback in telecollaboration: A longitudinal investigation. System, 64, 58-73. • Method: eTandem, a language-exchange system with a focus on error correction, and Skype • Purpose: understand corrective feedback (CF) beliefs and behavior • Participants: 12 Japanese, 12 Americans • Procedure: training workshop in CF, 50/50 language exchange (task-based) • Findings • Beliefs: majority want CF, over time most preferred recasts, decreased in want of explicit correction (though some see recasts as explicit) • Reason: easier, model Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & CF
  20. 20. Liaw, M. L., & English, K. (2017). Identity and addressivity in the “Beyond These Walls” program. System, 64, 74-86. • Beyond These Walls: French and Taiwanese students learning English, cultural exchange • Rationale: “the belief that the keys to successful learning in telecollaboration are participants' sense of intimacy and social presence in the community” • Focus: identify, social presence • Method: “About Me Bag” Project via website • Findings: • French: hobbies and interests connected to talent and background with confidence • Taiwanese: hobbies, family, school friends but candid with feelings Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & ID
  21. 21. Liaw, M. L., & English, K. (2017). Identity and addressivity in the “Beyond These Walls” program. System, 64, 74-86. • Findings (con’t): • Commenting: similarity, further interaction, We/us/ours use high and shows closeness • Survey results indicated it was seen as a positive medium for collaboration, though lacking some interaction/dialog • “…an effective learning activity should provide an environment with a sound social climate and therefore foster intimacy and mutual support among the participants. AMBs, to a large degree, fulfilled this goal.” Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & ID
  22. 22. Kurek, M., & Mueller-Hartmann, A. (2017). Task design for telecollaborative exchanges: In search of new criteria. System, 64, 7-20. • Participants: MA TESOL students in Poland and Germany (via telecollaboration) • Rationale: exposure to ICT, teaching via telecollaboration, task design • Method: created telecollborative tasks to promote intercultural communication (via Weebly) (2 cycles) • Peer-evaluated on: language, fit, meaning, authenticity, positive impact Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & TT
  23. 23. Kurek, M., & Mueller-Hartmann, A. (2017). Task design for telecollaborative exchanges: In search of new criteria. System, 64, 7-20. • Findings: • Hands-on practice developed a structured approach to task design • Relationship between tools, tasks, and learning • Need for balance between task support, task demand, clarity of instructions and design • Telecollaborative tasks require more evaluation criteria • Pedagogical framework more useful than a CALL framework for task design Telecollaboration Telecollaboration & TT
  24. 24. Telecollaboration Takeaways 1.Telecollaboration is an effective way to foster meaningful intercultural exchanges 2.Telecollaboration is an effective tool that can simulate the social and pedagogical context of learning. 1.Useful in both synchronous and asynchronous formats 3.Like DDL, it requires teacher training and the learning of both technical and pedagogical skills
  25. 25. OLLReN Webinar 2 Hot Topics in OLL Research: Corpus Linguistics & Telecollaboration Questions? Comments?

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