Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Strawberry Season Extension
Techniques
“Lessons gained in Quebec”
Gérard Thébeau P.Ag.
NBDAAF, Bouctouche
ACORN – November...
Table of content
• Traditional system (matted row)
• Why consider season extension options?
• Season extension options usi...
Matted row system
Traditional Matted Row System
• Use dormant bare roots.
• Single rows planted on bare ground with
60 inch row spacing / ru...
Traditional Matted Row System
• Early to late short day cultivars
• Can increase earliness of harvest with
floating cover ...
Why consider
season extension options?
• New markets
• Better labour use
• Quicker return on investments
• Fewer pests (we...
Luc Urbain - MAPAQ
How to modify harvest season?
1- Cultivars
2- Plant « seedling » types
3- Day length - Short-day vs Day-neutral
4- Growing...
1- Cultivars
1) Early, mid, late seasons
2) Adapted to various climates and soils
3) Different characteristics (taste, fir...
Cultivars
http://gwallennursery.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ComptableStraw.pdf
2- Plant « seedling » types
Dormant bare root plant
http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
Fresh plug plants
http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
Dormant plug plants
http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
Large fresh or dormant plants
(trayplants)
http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
Some plant plug sources
• Ferme Onésime Pouliot:
http://savoirfaire.iledorleans.com/fra/product
eurs/ferme-onesime-pouliot...
Some other bare root suppliers
in Nova Scotia
• G.W. Allen (http://gwallennursery.com/wp-
content/uploads/2014/09/Comptabl...
3 - Growing systems:
Other season extension tools:
• Bare ground (traditional)
• Raised beds plasticulture (High density)
...
4- Day Length
a) Short day strawberries
b) Day neutral strawberries « everbearing »
Short Day Strawberry
• Plants that produce fruit buds when days are
short or when photo-periods are 13 hours or
less.
• Th...
Systems based on the following
tools:
• Cultivars
• Plant (seedling) types
• ‘‘Other techniques’’ (bare ground,
plasticult...
Bare Ground Matted row system/ short
day bare root plants/ floating cover
Luc Urbain - MAPAQ
Plasticulture technique –
General Info
• Modifications to traditionnal techniques
are necessary to be successful.
Fresh plug plants / short day
http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
Early Spring Harvest using
Short day/Plasticulture/ Fresh plugs/ Row cover
Care required to make 8
inch hills
45,000 plant...
Early Spring Harvest using
Short day/Plasticulture/
Fresh plugs/ Row cover
• Planting date: late Aug – early Sept
• Early ...
Field preparation – Short day
Plasticulture/ F. plugs/ Row cover
• Fertily before making beds
- Conventional: 1/3 of norma...
• 1st frost forecast (-2 ºC): White fabric floating
cover ( 1 X P-40 or 2 P-17)
• Extend fruit initation period.
• Many wi...
Fertigation
Fertigation
Short day / Plasticulture / Fresh
plugs / Row Cover
• Harvest – Early June for 4-5 week period.
• 10 – 15 tonnes / ha of f...
Renovation for Short day / Plasticulture
/ Fresh plugs / with few weeds
• Stop fertilizing close to end of harvest. (Let
r...
Renovation for Short day / Plasticulture
/ Fresh plugs / with lots of weeds
• Stop fertilizing close to end of harvest. (L...
Short day cultivars /
Plasticulture / Fresh plugs
• Next Spring: Remove straw
• Frost protection
• 2nd year harvest: Not a...
• Clery – Favourite ; good calibre, good
taste, orangy dark (protected cultivar)
• Tried Veestar: Size goes down quick?
• ...
Short day cultivar possibilities
Matted row Plasticulture
Day Length
a) Short day strawberries
b) Day neutral strawberries
« everbearing »
Day Neutral Strawberries
• Capacity to produce flowers continously
(indifferent to day length)
• Form fruit buds at any da...
http://www.novafruit.ca/fraises/plants.php
Fall Harvest using
Plasticulture / Day Neutral /
Bare roots / Spring planted
• Plant as early as possible using bare root
...
Fall Harvest using
Plasticulture / Day neutral /Dormant
bare roots / Spring planted
• Plantation done mainly by hand . (30...
Fall Harvest using
Plasticulture / Day Neutral /Dormant
Bare roots / Spring planted
• Will produce harvest during fall of ...
Plasticulture / Day Neutral/ Dormant
Bare root spring planting /
Fall harvest
• 60% of harvest is done between August 10th...
Fall Harvest using
Plasticulture / Day Neutral /Dormant
Bare roots / Spring planted
• Conventional system: fertigation 1X ...
Plasticulture - Day Neutral
Strawberries
• Annual cost is more $$$$$
• Some pest pressure (less weeds & insect
pressure)
•...
Plasticulture - Day Neutral
Strawberries
• A lot of attention to details is necessary;
therefore limiting who can produce.
Plasticulture
• Last season extension system example:
Plasticulture - Day Neutral –
Fall planted / Fresh plugs -
Fall crop
Plasticulture - Day Neutral –
Fall planted / Fresh plugs -
Fall crop• Fresh plugs planted in August / September
• Weekly f...
Matted row - Traditional
• Better adapted to U-Pick.
• Smaller investment.
• Longer time before ROI.
• More pest pressure....
Plasticulture Comparisons
Early Harvest/ Short Day plugs/
Fall planting
• Less pest pressure -
Possibility to do an
organi...
Plasticulture
Short day vs Day neutral Comparisons
Early Harvest/ Short Day plugs/
Fall planting
• Less pest pressure -
Po...
Take Home Messages
Many tools are available to growers …
So, many production systems exist
Take home message for organic growers:
• Plasticulture helps deter weeds.
However, organic fertilization must be front loa...
Plasticulture – Labor distribution
Short Day Fall planting Fall Harvest of Day
Neutral
Unheated Greenhouse – Short
Day Berries
Unheated Greenhouses
Heated structures
http://www.novafruit.ca/fraises/systemes/view.php?id=9
Season Extension
Technologies Strawberries
• New marketing is necessary / Not for U-
Pick!!!
• Increase fruit size & quali...
“Off-season” Strawberries –
Marketing Summary
• Most successful growers are the ones that
market their produce near big ce...
Marketing
Marketing
"20 years ago, we had 20 different varieties in
only one production system, today we have 20
ways to grow the same variety...
Acknowledgements
• Jacques Painchaud; Luc Urbain – MAPAQ
• John Lewis – Perennia
• Ferme Talfort; Ferme J-Y Gamelin; Ferme...
Thank you / Merci!!
• Questions??????
Strawberry Season Extension Techniques: “Lessons Gained in Quebec”
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×
Upcoming SlideShare
Revitalizing Strawberry Production in Arkansas and the Surrounding Region via Extended Season Production Systems
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

1

Share

Download to read offline

Strawberry Season Extension Techniques: “Lessons Gained in Quebec”

Download to read offline

Gerard Thebeau (P.Ag) of the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture & Fisheries presents at the 2014 ACORN Conference.

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Strawberry Season Extension Techniques: “Lessons Gained in Quebec”

  1. 1. Strawberry Season Extension Techniques “Lessons gained in Quebec” Gérard Thébeau P.Ag. NBDAAF, Bouctouche ACORN – November 13, 2014
  2. 2. Table of content • Traditional system (matted row) • Why consider season extension options? • Season extension options using the following tools: - Cultivars; Day length - Plant “seedling” types - Growing systems • Most commonly used season extension systems • Marketing • Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Matted row system
  4. 4. Traditional Matted Row System • Use dormant bare roots. • Single rows planted on bare ground with 60 inch row spacing / runners will fill row (5000 plants/ acre) • Establishment year without harvest • 2 – 3 harvest years with renovations. • Lower cost, well adapted to U-Pick • Expensive harvest for retail, lower prices
  5. 5. Traditional Matted Row System • Early to late short day cultivars • Can increase earliness of harvest with floating cover in the spring. • Can harvest 8 - 10 T/Ha in first harvest yr. Yields usually go down afterwards • Pests cause major headaches. • Long period before return on investment. • Often used where land is plentiful.
  6. 6. Why consider season extension options? • New markets • Better labour use • Quicker return on investments • Fewer pests (weeds, insects & diseases) • Better land utilization • $$$$$$ (off-season markets)
  7. 7. Luc Urbain - MAPAQ
  8. 8. How to modify harvest season? 1- Cultivars 2- Plant « seedling » types 3- Day length - Short-day vs Day-neutral 4- Growing systems SELECT, COMBINE & MANAGE THESE SEASON EXTENSION TOOLS TO FIT YOUR BUSINESS NEEDS
  9. 9. 1- Cultivars 1) Early, mid, late seasons 2) Adapted to various climates and soils 3) Different characteristics (taste, firmness, disease resistance, appearance, yield, climate & soil adaptability…)
  10. 10. Cultivars http://gwallennursery.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ComptableStraw.pdf
  11. 11. 2- Plant « seedling » types
  12. 12. Dormant bare root plant http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
  13. 13. Fresh plug plants http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
  14. 14. Dormant plug plants http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
  15. 15. Large fresh or dormant plants (trayplants) http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
  16. 16. Some plant plug sources • Ferme Onésime Pouliot: http://savoirfaire.iledorleans.com/fra/product eurs/ferme-onesime-pouliot.asp • Nova Fruits http://www.novafruit.ca/ • Pépinière Larreault: http://www.lareault.com/ • Johnny’s Seed: http://www.johnnyseeds.com/c-247- strawberries.aspx * Plugs should be ordered in advance
  17. 17. Some other bare root suppliers in Nova Scotia • G.W. Allen (http://gwallennursery.com/wp- content/uploads/2014/09/ComptableStraw. pdf ) • Kelly Nursery Inc. (http://nasga.org/members/nurseries/cana da/keddy.htm) • Balamore Farm Ltd. (http://balamore.com )
  18. 18. 3 - Growing systems: Other season extension tools: • Bare ground (traditional) • Raised beds plasticulture (High density) • Floating covers (low & high plant density) • Unheated caterpillar and high tunnels • Heated greenhouses
  19. 19. 4- Day Length a) Short day strawberries b) Day neutral strawberries « everbearing »
  20. 20. Short Day Strawberry • Plants that produce fruit buds when days are short or when photo-periods are 13 hours or less. • Thus, fruit buds are produced in less light and colder temperatures • Produce daughter plants (runners) when days are long.
  21. 21. Systems based on the following tools: • Cultivars • Plant (seedling) types • ‘‘Other techniques’’ (bare ground, plasticulture..) • Short day & day neutral plants
  22. 22. Bare Ground Matted row system/ short day bare root plants/ floating cover
  23. 23. Luc Urbain - MAPAQ
  24. 24. Plasticulture technique – General Info • Modifications to traditionnal techniques are necessary to be successful.
  25. 25. Fresh plug plants / short day http://novafruit.ca/en/fraises/plants.php
  26. 26. Early Spring Harvest using Short day/Plasticulture/ Fresh plugs/ Row cover Care required to make 8 inch hills 45,000 plants / ha or 18,000 plants /acre
  27. 27. Early Spring Harvest using Short day/Plasticulture/ Fresh plugs/ Row cover • Planting date: late Aug – early Sept • Early planting: More vegetation/ More yield/ Later crop • Later planting: Less vegetation / Less yield / Earlier crop • Later planting: Frees up land longer - Can use land for short season crops & offers more time for site preparation.
  28. 28. Field preparation – Short day Plasticulture/ F. plugs/ Row cover • Fertily before making beds - Conventional: 1/3 of normal recommendation - Organic: compost + N rich material (all upfront) • Make beds: mid-Aug / Early Sept • Trickle irrigation under plastic • Fertigate weekly @ 3 lbs / N (Conv.) Start fertilize for 4 – 5 X until about 20 total N. • Some will monitor fertility needs with salt test. • Use greenhouse liquid / soluble fertilizers (Ca NO3 , KSO4)
  29. 29. • 1st frost forecast (-2 ºC): White fabric floating cover ( 1 X P-40 or 2 P-17) • Extend fruit initation period. • Many will lift cover to add straw + re-apply floating cover for winter protection • Following spring: Move straw in between rows and re-apply floating cover until 10% bloom • Frost control…. • Bees, fertility program. Short day -Plasticulture / Fresh plugs/ Row cover
  30. 30. Fertigation
  31. 31. Fertigation
  32. 32. Short day / Plasticulture / Fresh plugs / Row Cover • Harvest – Early June for 4-5 week period. • 10 – 15 tonnes / ha of fruit of excellent quality • Organic production….. (annual production)
  33. 33. Renovation for Short day / Plasticulture / Fresh plugs / with few weeds • Stop fertilizing close to end of harvest. (Let runners run down mother plant) • Mow once harvest is done just above crown hearts. • Remove runners just before fruits bud initiation at the end of August • Start fertilize with 3-4 kg / ha N per week for 4-5 X until about 20 total N once days get 13 hrs. and less of photoperiod. • Straw / No floating cover
  34. 34. Renovation for Short day / Plasticulture / Fresh plugs / with lots of weeds • Stop fertilizing close to end of harvest. (Let runners run down mother plant) • Address weed problems before August 10. • While weeding, trim old foliage with pruning shears to leave about 5 trifoliate leaves. This technique requires about 1000 hrs / ha (Extra 5 tonnes / ha compared to just mowing..)??? • Remove runners at the end of August • Start fertilize at 3 – 4 kg / ha per week from mid- August on for 4 – 5 X until about 20 total N • Straw / No floating cover
  35. 35. Short day cultivars / Plasticulture / Fresh plugs • Next Spring: Remove straw • Frost protection • 2nd year harvest: Not as early & not as late harvest as 1st harvest. • 10 – 12 tonnes / ha (acceptable fruit size – somewhat smaller fruit)
  36. 36. • Clery – Favourite ; good calibre, good taste, orangy dark (protected cultivar) • Tried Veestar: Size goes down quick? • Chambly – interior color? Short day cultivars / Plasticulture / Fresh plugs
  37. 37. Short day cultivar possibilities Matted row Plasticulture
  38. 38. Day Length a) Short day strawberries b) Day neutral strawberries « everbearing »
  39. 39. Day Neutral Strawberries • Capacity to produce flowers continously (indifferent to day length) • Form fruit buds at any day length as long as temperatures are favourable. • Don’t produce as many runners • More suitable for high density plantings
  40. 40. http://www.novafruit.ca/fraises/plants.php
  41. 41. Fall Harvest using Plasticulture / Day Neutral / Bare roots / Spring planted • Plant as early as possible using bare root plants (usually early May) ( a few use dormant plants) • Few (if any) organic growers in Québec use this system mainly because of pest issues in the fall (tarnished plant bug, Spotted wing drosophila, gray mold, powdery mildew…) • Weekly fertilization program for conventional system…
  42. 42. Fall Harvest using Plasticulture / Day neutral /Dormant bare roots / Spring planted • Plantation done mainly by hand . (3000 plants/ day/ person) a few use machine with plug plants • Remove blossoms until plants reach 5 to 6 trifoliate leaves + cut runners a few times. • Prefered cultivar: Albion; Seascape (Powdery Mildew susceptible) • Spacing: 11 X 12 inch + 52 inches between rows (center to center). • Plant density : 45,000 plants / ha • Plastic 1.25 mil thickness
  43. 43. Fall Harvest using Plasticulture / Day Neutral /Dormant Bare roots / Spring planted • Will produce harvest during fall of spring planting year; Usually from about mid-July to mid-October. • In Québec, very seldom keep plants a second year. • Irrigation needs - tensiometers. • Overhead irrigation used for frost control.
  44. 44. Plasticulture / Day Neutral/ Dormant Bare root spring planting / Fall harvest • 60% of harvest is done between August 10th and September 10th. Peak : August 20th. • Harvest: 20 to 30 tonnes/ ha is possible. – (1 lb/ plant!?) • Never leave contaminated berries in field. • Not meant for U¨Pick • Average yield in other provinces might be lower…
  45. 45. Fall Harvest using Plasticulture / Day Neutral /Dormant Bare roots / Spring planted • Conventional system: fertigation 1X per week. • Windbreaks are useful. • Supplemental bees are recommended • Straw between rows for better fruit quality…
  46. 46. Plasticulture - Day Neutral Strawberries • Annual cost is more $$$$$ • Some pest pressure (less weeds & insect pressure) • Tarnished plant bugs, Spotted wing drosophila, Powdery Mildew and grey mold can affect yields. • Winter protection is not necessary.
  47. 47. Plasticulture - Day Neutral Strawberries • A lot of attention to details is necessary; therefore limiting who can produce.
  48. 48. Plasticulture • Last season extension system example: Plasticulture - Day Neutral – Fall planted / Fresh plugs - Fall crop
  49. 49. Plasticulture - Day Neutral – Fall planted / Fresh plugs - Fall crop• Fresh plugs planted in August / September • Weekly fertigation feedings • Floating cover for frost protection & extend fruit bud initiation. + straw?? • Very early harvest in June (up to 15 tonnes / ha) excellent quality!! • Dormant period / 2nd harvest – Late July till mid-October (up to 15 tonnes/ ha of medium quality fruit!!)
  50. 50. Matted row - Traditional • Better adapted to U-Pick. • Smaller investment. • Longer time before ROI. • More pest pressure. • Land tied longer. • Less technical Plasticulture • Easier picking reducing labour by as much as 50% (retail market) • Better price off-season • Higher yields/ fruit size • Lower pest incidence • Quicker ROI • Higher investments required • Better land use. • More technical. Comparisons
  51. 51. Plasticulture Comparisons Early Harvest/ Short Day plugs/ Fall planting • Less pest pressure - Possibility to do an organic production and one early harvest. • Conventional: Possibility to harvest 2 seasons for a total yield of 20 – 30 tonnes/ ha Fall Harvest/ Day neutral/ bare roots/ Spring planting • More pest pressure – Organic production difficult • Big harvest in one longer harvest with 20 – 30 tonne / ha (organic fertility)
  52. 52. Plasticulture Short day vs Day neutral Comparisons Early Harvest/ Short Day plugs/ Fall planting • Less pest pressure - Possibility to do an organic production and one very early harvest. • Conventional: Possibility to harvest 2 seasons for a total yield of 20 – 30 tonnes/ ha Fall Harvest/ Day neutral bare roots/ Spring planting • More pest pressure – Organic production difficult • Big harvest in one longer harvest with 20-30 t / ha (organic fertility)
  53. 53. Take Home Messages Many tools are available to growers … So, many production systems exist
  54. 54. Take home message for organic growers: • Plasticulture helps deter weeds. However, organic fertilization must be front loaded • Row covers for season extension help deter insect pest such as Tarnished Plant Bug and Clipper Weevils. However, they must be removed at bloom time • Early harvest systems (short day cultivars) / Annual production systems offer more opportunities, less pressure from diseases such as powdery mildew and gray mold. • Day neutral varieties not very compatible with organic production. No (few) effective tools to control insects and diseases which build up over time.
  55. 55. Plasticulture – Labor distribution Short Day Fall planting Fall Harvest of Day Neutral
  56. 56. Unheated Greenhouse – Short Day Berries
  57. 57. Unheated Greenhouses
  58. 58. Heated structures
  59. 59. http://www.novafruit.ca/fraises/systemes/view.php?id=9
  60. 60. Season Extension Technologies Strawberries • New marketing is necessary / Not for U- Pick!!! • Increase fruit size & quality /Small fruits can be sold for processing markets. • Marketing of different « product »: 2x better retail price than conventionnal.?? • Typical markets : roadside stands, restaurants, Farmers’ markets and wholesalers. Sell in pint containers, quarts and 8 lbs clam shells.
  61. 61. “Off-season” Strawberries – Marketing Summary • Most successful growers are the ones that market their produce near big centers; who specializes.
  62. 62. Marketing
  63. 63. Marketing
  64. 64. "20 years ago, we had 20 different varieties in only one production system, today we have 20 ways to grow the same variety“ (Peter Vinson, England)
  65. 65. Acknowledgements • Jacques Painchaud; Luc Urbain – MAPAQ • John Lewis – Perennia • Ferme Talfort; Ferme J-Y Gamelin; Ferme des Ormes; Ferme de la Berceuse; Potager André Samson; Ferme René Fontaine; * Paul & Sandy Arnols (NY State) • Nova-Fruits ; • ACORN – Theresa Richards & Tara Scott • NBDAAF – Claude Berthélémé, Roger Tremblay
  66. 66. Thank you / Merci!! • Questions??????
  • vahedmahmoodi

    Nov. 30, 2016

Gerard Thebeau (P.Ag) of the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture & Fisheries presents at the 2014 ACORN Conference.

Views

Total views

1,107

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

9

Actions

Downloads

37

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

1

×